Best Visual Artists of All Time – Chronological

To create this list, I took every visual artist (with the exception of feature filmmakers) from best visual arts, architecture, and photography lists and best visual artists, contemporary artists, architects and photographers lists, and arranged them in chronological order by the artist’s date of birth (estimated in some cases).  I then listed the paintings, sculptures, buildings, photographs or other works of art associated with that artist on the various lists.  I have also provided the locations for items housed or located in the real world (i.e., outside museum collections).

Thutmose (Ancient Egypt, c. 1380-c. 1320 BCE) sculptor
Bust of Queen Nefertiti (attrib.) (c. 1345 BCE)

Bust of Queen Nefertiti.

Bust of Queen Nefertiti.

Euxitheos (Ancient Greece, c. 550-c.490 BCE) potter
Euphronios Krater (Sarpedon Krater) (c. 515 BCE)

Euphronios Krater.

Euphronios Krater.

Euphronios (Ancient Greece, c. 535-after 470 BCE) painter
Euphronios Krater (Sarpedon Krater) (c. 515 BCE)

The Euphronios krater.

The Euphronios krater.

Kritios (Ancient Greece, c. 520-c. 460 BCE) sculptor
Kritios Boy (attrib.) (c. 480 BCE)

The Kritos Boy.

The Kritos Boy.

Myron (Ancient Greece, c. 510-c. 440 BCE) sculptor
Discobolus (The Discus Thrower) (c. 460-450 BCE) (original is lost)

A Roman marble copy of Myron's lost Discobolus.

A Roman marble copy of Myron’s lost Discobolus.

Phidias (Ancient Greece, c. 480-430 BCE) sculptor
Athena Parthenos (c. 447-440 BCE) (original is lost)
Parthenon Frieze (c. 443-438 BCE)

The Varvakeion Athena is a miniature copy of the 38-foot original, made in the 3rd Century CE and now at the National Archaeological Museum in Athens.

The Varvakeion Athena is a much-reduced marble copy of Phidias’s 38-foot original. It was made in Rome the 2rd Century CE.  It is now at the National Archaeological Museum in Athens.

Ictinus (Ancient Greece, c. 480-c. 420 BCE) architect
Parthenon. Athens (477-432 BCE)

The Parthenon on the Acropolis in Athens.

The Parthenon on the Acropolis in Athens.

Callicrates (Ancient Greece, c. 480-c. 420 BCE) architect
Parthenon. Athens (477-432 BCE)

The interior of the Parthenon.

The interior of the Parthenon.

Mnesikles (Ancient Greece, c. 460-c. 400 BCE) architect
Erechtheion (Temple of Erechtheum). Athens (c. 421-405 BCE)

The Erechtheion on the Acropolis in Athens.

The Erechtheion on the Acropolis in Athens.

Timotheus (Ancient Greece, c. 400-c. 340 BCE) sculptor
Amazon Frieze, Mausoleum of Halicarnassus (c. 357-350 BCE)

A portion of the Amazon Frieze from the Mausoleum at Helicarnassus.

A portion of the Amazon Frieze from the Mausoleum at Helicarnassus, which shows the legendary battle between the Greeks and the female Amazon warriors.

Praxiteles (Ancient Greece, c. 390-c. 320 BCE) sculptor
Hermes and the Infant Dionysus (attrib.) (c. 350-330 BCE)
Aphrodite of Knidos (Venus Pudica) (c. 350-330 BCE) (original is lost)

The Venus Colonna, in the Vatican Museums, is considered the most faithful Roman copy of the lost Greek original.

The Venus Colonna, in the Vatican Museums, is considered the most faithful Roman copy of the lost Greek original.

Lysippos (Ancient Greece, c. 390-310 BCE) sculptor
Farnese Herakles (Farnese Hercules) (c. 370-310 BCE) (original is lost)

The Farnese Hercules.

The Farnese Hercules.

Leochares (Ancient Greece, c.370-c.310 BCE) sculptor
Amazon Frieze, Mausoleum of Halicarnassus (c. 357-350 BCE)
Apollo Belvedere (Pythian Apollo) (c. 350-320 BCE) (original is lost)

The Apollo Belvedere is a 2nd Century CE Roman marble copy of Leochares' lost bronze original.

The Apollo Belvedere is a 2nd Century CE Roman marble copy of Leochares’ lost bronze original.

Bryaxis (Ancient Greece, c. 370-c. 310 BCE) sculptor
Amazon Frieze, Mausoleum of Halicarnassus (c. 357-350 BCE)

A portion of the Amazon Frieze.

A portion of the Amazon Frieze, or Amazonomachy, carved on the tomb of a Persian satrap in Asia Minor.

Scopas of Paros (Ancient Greece, c. 370-c. 310 BCE) sculptor
Amazon Frieze, Mausoleum of Halicarnassus (c. 357-350 BCE)

A portion of the Amazon Frieze.

A portion of the Amazon Frieze, carved in high relief by Scopas of Paros and other Greek artists.

Alexandros of Antioch (Ancient Greece, c. 150-c. 70 BCE) sculptor
Venus de Milo (Aphrodite of Milos) (c. 130-100 BCE)

Venus de Milo is an original Greek marble statue from the Hellenist period.

Venus de Milo is an original Greek marble statue from the Hellenist period.

Agesander of Rhodes (Ancient Greece, c. 60 BCE-c. 10 CE) sculptor
Laocoön and His Sons (Laocoön) (c. 42-19 BCE)

According to Pliny the Elder, he saw Laocoön and His Sons at the palace of Roman Emperor Titus in the 1st Century CE.

According to Pliny the Elder, he saw Laocoön and His Sons at the palace of Roman Emperor Titus in the 1st Century CE.

Polydorus (Ancient Greece, c. 50 BCE-c. 20 CE) sculptor
Laocoön and His Sons (Laocoön) (c. 42-19 BCE)

Detail of Laocoön and His Sons, showing one of the sons. Some scholars believe the statue is a copy of a lost Greek bronze original.

Detail of Laocoön and His Sons, showing one of the sons. Some scholars believe the statue is a copy of a lost Greek bronze original.

Athenodoros (Ancient Greece, c. 40 BCE-c. 30 CE) sculptor
Laocoön and His Sons (Laocoön) (c. 42-19 BCE)

An oblique-angle view of Laocoön_and_His_Sons, which was rediscovered in Rome in 1506 and is now on display in the Vatican Museums.

An oblique-angle view of Laocoön and His Sons, which was rediscovered in Rome in 1506 and is now on display in the Vatican Museums.

Vitruvius (Marcus Vitruvius Pollio) (Ancient Rome, 80-70 BCE – after 15 BCE) architect
Basilica di Fano. Fano, Italy (19 BCE) (destroyed)

A hypothetical reconstruction of the Basilica di Fano, based on Vitruvius's description.

A hypothetical reconstruction of the Basilica di Fano, based on Vitruvius’s description.

Apollodorus of Damascus (Ancient Rome, c. 150-c. 90 BCE) sculptor
Trajan’s Column. Rome (attrib.) (113 CE)

Detail of some of the sculpted reliefs on Trajan's Column.

Detail of some of the sculpted reliefs on Trajan’s Column.

Glykon (Greece, c. 250-c. 210 CE) sculptor
Farnese Hercules (c. 216-218 CE) (Roman marble copy of original Greek bronze by Lysippos)

A rear view of the Farnese Hercules shows the Hesperidean apples that Hercules stole in his 11th Labor.

A rear view of the Farnese Hercules shows the Hesperidean apples that Hercules stole in his 11th Labor.

Isidore of Miletus (Byzantine Greece, c. 480-c. 550 CE) scientist, architect
Hagia Sophia. Istanbul (532-537 CE)

An interior view of Hagia Sophia, which began as a Christian church, became a Muslim holy place and is now a Turkish national monument.

An interior view of Hagia Sophia, which began as a Christian church, became a Muslim holy place and is now a Turkish national monument.

Anthemius of Tralles (Byzantine Greece, c. 474-before 558 CE) mathematician, architect
Hagia Sophia. Istanbul (532-537 CE)

The exterior of Hagia Sophia. The minarets were added after the Muslims conquered Constantinople in 1452.

The exterior of Hagia Sophia. The minarets were added after the Muslims conquered Constantinople in 1452.

Yan Liben (China, c. 600-673 CE) painter, sculptor
The Thirteen Emperors Scroll (Portraits of Thirteen Emperors) (c. 640-673 CE)
Portraits of Emperor Taizong’s Six Favorite War Steeds (relief sculptures) (c. 640-673 CE)
Portraits at Lingyan Pavilion (Portraits of the 24 Greatest Contributors to Emperor Taizong’s Reign) (c. 640-673 CE)
Portraits of the 18 Scholars who served Emperor Taizong when he was the Prince of Qin (c. 640-673 CE)

Yan Liben was primarily known as a painter, but he was also a sculptor. He carved the relief sculpture Six Steeds of the Emperor.

Primarily known for his painting, Yan Liben carved the relief sculpture Portraits of Emperor Taizong’s Six Favorite War Steeds.

Eadfrith of Lindisfarne (UK: England, c. 650-721 CE) illustrator
Lindisfarne Gospels (c. 700-715 CE)

Two pages from the Lindisfarne Gospels.

Two pages from the Lindisfarne Gospels.

Gunadharma (Indonesia, c. 720-780 CE) architect
Borobudur Temple. Java, Indonesia (attrib.) (c. 750-825 CE)

A view of Borobudur Temple showing detail of the exterior, including relief sculptures.

A view of Borobudur Temple showing detail of the exterior, including relief sculptures.

Trdat (Armenia, c. 945-c. 1020 CE) architect
Hagia Sophia (restoration of dome). Istanbul (989-994 CE)

Trdat repaired the dome of Hagia Sophia after it collapsed following an earthquake in 989 CE.

Armenian architect Trdat repaired Hagia Sophia’s dome after it collapsed following an earthquake in 989 CE.

Fan Kuan (China, c. 960-1020 CE) painter
Travellers Among Mountains and Streams (c. 990-1020 CE)
Cold Woods in Snow (attribution in question) (c. 990-1020 CE)

A magnificent landscape dwarfs the tiny figures of a man and his animals in Fan Kuan's Travelers Among Mountains and Streams.

A magnificent landscape dwarfs the tiny figures of a man and his animals in Fan Kuan’s Travelers Among Mountains and Streams.

Ibn al-Bawwab (Persia, c. 960-1022 CE) illustrator, calligrapher
Illustrated Qur’an (c. 1000-1001)

A page from Ibn al-Bawwab's only surviving illustrated Qur'an.

A page from Ibn al-Bawwab’s only surviving illustrated Qur’an.

William of Volpiano (Italy, 962-1031 CE) architect
Romanesque Church, Mont St. Michel Abbey. Le Mont St. Michel, France (1024-1084)

An interior view of the Mont St. Michel Abbey Church.

An interior view of the Mont St. Michel Abbey Church.

Guo Xi (China, c. 1020-1090) painter
Early Spring (1072)
Snow Mountain (1060-1090)
Autumn in the River Valley (Clearing Autumn Skies over Mountains and Valleys) (c. 1060-1060)

Clearing Autumn Skies over Mountains and Valleys is traditionally attributed to Northern Song painter Guo Xi.

Clearing Autumn Skies over Mountains and Valleys is traditionally attributed to Northern Song painter Guo Xi.

Diotisalvi (Italy, c. 1095-c. 1175) architect
Leaning Tower of Pisa (Campanile, Pisa Cathedral) (attrib.). Pisa (1173)

The Leaning Tower of Pisa is the bell tower, or campanile, of the Pisa Cathedral, seen at left.

The Leaning Tower of Pisa is the bell tower, or campanile, of the Pisa Cathedral, seen at left.

Fujiwara no Takayoshi (Japan, c. 1090-c. 1188) painter
The Tale of Genji Scroll (Genji Monogatari Emaki) (attribution in question) (1120-1140)

A scene from the Tale of Genji scroll.

A scene from the Tale of Genji scroll.

Master Hugo (UK: England, c. 1100-1170) illustrator
The Bury Bible (c. 1135)

An illustration from the Bury Bible, showing Crusaders successfully taking Jerusalem.

An illustration from the Bury Bible, showing Crusaders successfully taking Jerusalem.

Maurice de Sully (France, c. 1120-1196) architect
Cathedral of Notre-Dame. Paris (attrib.) (1163-1185)

A view of the east side of Notre Dame Cathedral, showing the flying buttresses.

A view of the east side of Notre Dame Cathedral, showing the flying buttresses.

Nicholas of Verdun (France, 1130-1205) goldsmith, enamellist
Verdun Altar (Klosterneuberg Altarpiece) (1181)

Detail of the Verdun Altar, showing some of the over 50 enameled Biblical scenes.

Detail of the Verdun Altar, showing some of the over 50 enameled Biblical scenes.

Kosho (Japan, c. 1155-1237) sculptor
Kuya Preaching (The Sage Kuya; Saint Kuya). Rokuhara Mitsu-ji, Kyoto (c. 1185-1206)

Kosho's Kuya Preaching shows the religious figure uttering the six syllables of the Amida prayer, represented by six tiny buddhas.

Kosho’s Kuya Preaching shows the religious figure uttering the six syllables of the Amida prayer, represented by six tiny buddhas.

Ma Yuan (China, c. 1160-1225) painter
Walking on a Mountain Path in Spring (c. 1190-1224)
Landscape with Willows (Bare Willows and Distant Hills) (c. 1190-1224)
Banquet by Lantern Light (c. 1190-1224)
Dancing and Singing (Peasants Returning from Work) (c. 1190-1224)
Viewing Plum Blossoms by Moonlight (c. 1190-1224)
Angler on a Wintry Lake (Solitary Fisherman on the River in Cold Weather) (c. 1190-1224)
The Four Sages of Shangshan  (c. 1190-1224)

Ma Yuan painted Viewing Plum Blossoms by Moonlight on a silk fan, which was then mounted as an album leaf.

Ma Yuan painted Viewing Plum Blossoms by Moonlight on a silk fan, which was then mounted as an album leaf.

Jokei (Japan, c. 1160-c. 1210) sculptor
Bugaku mask (Sanju). Kasuga Shrine, Nara (c. 1184)
Nio Guardians (Kongo Rikishi). Kofuku-ji Temple, Nara (1190s)
Statue of Yuima. Kofuku-ji Temple, Nara (c. 1196)
Seated Monju Bosatsu. Kofuku-ji Temple, Nara (c. 1196)
Bonten (Brahma). Kofuku-ji Temple, Nara (c. 1202)

Jokei's statue of Yuima is located in the Kofuku-ji Temple in Nara, Japan.

Jokei’s statue of Yuima is located in the Kofuku-ji Temple in Nara, Japan.

Pierre de Montreuil (France, c. 1200-1266) architect
Sainte-Chapelle. Paris (1238-1248)

A view of the interior of Sainte-Chapelle, a Gothic church in Paris.

A view of the interior of Sainte-Chapelle, a Gothic church in Paris.

Nicola Pisano (Italy, 1220/1225-c. 1284) sculptor
Pulpit, Pisa Baptistery. Pisa (1255-1260)

Detail of Nicola Pisano's pulpit in the Pisa Baptistery, showing the Crucifixion panel.

Detail of Nicola Pisano’s pulpit in the Pisa Baptistery, showing the Crucifixion panel.

Cimabue (Italy, c. 1240-1302) painter, mosaicist
Crucifix. San Domenico, Arezzo, Italy (1268-1271)
Madonna Enthroned with the Child, St. Francis and Four Angels. Lower church, San Francesco, Assisi (1278-1280)
The Four Evangelists. Upper church, San Francesco, Assisi (1280-1283)
Crucifix. Santa Croce, Florence (1287-1288)
Santa Trinita Maestà (Madonna Enthroned with Angels and Prophets) (1280-1290)
Christ in Glory between the Virgin and St. John the Evangelist (mosaic). Pisa Cathedral, Pisa (1301-1302)

Although Cimabue is known primarily for his painting, he was also a skilled mosaicist, as shown by his mosaic of Christ in the apse of the Pisa Cathedral.

Although Cimabue is known primarily for his painting, he was also a skilled mosaicist, as shown by his mosaic of Christ in Glory in the apse of the Pisa Cathedral.

Arnolfo di Cambio (Italy, c. 1240-1310) architect, sculptor
Florence Cathedral (Cathedral of St. Mary of the Flower). Florence (c. 1290-1310)

The façade of the Florence Cathedral. Construction of the massive church began in the late 13th Century and continued until the 16th Century.

The façade of the Florence Cathedral. Construction of the massive church began in the late 13th Century and continued until the 16th Century.

Duccio (Duccio di Buoninsegna) (Italy, c.1255-60–1318-19) painter, stained glass artist
Madonna with Child and two Angels (Crevole Madonna) (1283-1284)
Rucellai Madonna (1285)
Assumption, Burial and Crowning of the Virgin (stained glass window). Siena Cathedral, Siena (1287-1288)
Madonna of the Franciscans (c. 1300)
Stroganoff Madonna (Stoclet Madonna) (1300)
Madonna with Child and Six Angels (Perugia Madonna) (1300-1305)
Maestà (Madonna with Twenty Angels and Nineteen Saints; Siena Duomo Altarpiece) (1308-1311)
The Virgin and Child with Saints Dominic and Agnes (London Triptych) (c. 1312-1315)

Duccio originally painted the Rucellai Madonna for a chapel in the Church of Santa Maria Novella in Florence. It is now in the Uffizi Gallery.

Duccio originally painted the Rucellai Madonna for a chapel in the Church of Santa Maria Novella in Florence. It is now in the Uffizi Gallery.

Giotto (Giotto di Bondone) (Italy, c. 1267-1337) painter
Frescoes, Scovegni Chapel (Arena Chapel). Padua (c. 1305)
Madonna Enthroned and Saints (Ognissanti Madonna) (1310-1311)
Frescoes, Peruzzi Chapel, Church of Santa Croce. Florence (1315-1320)
Stefaneschi Triptych (1320)
Frescoes, Bardi Chapel, Church of Santa Croce. Florence (1320-1325)
Campanile, Florence Cathedral. Florence (1334-1337)

The Ascension of St. John the Baptist was one of the frescoes Giotto painted in the Peruzzi Chapel of Florence's Church of Santa Croce.

The Ascension of St. John the Baptist was one of the frescoes Giotto painted in the Peruzzi Chapel of Florence’s Church of Santa Croce.

Huang Gongwang (China, 1269-1354) painter
Stone Cliff at Heavenly Pond (1341)
Nine Pearl Peaks in Green (1340s)
Nine Peaks Clearing After Snow (1340s)
Great Mountains at Fuchun (Fuchun Range) (1340s)
Dwelling in the Fuchun Mountains (c. 1350)

Huang Gongwang's painting Stone Cliff at Heavenly Pond.

Huang Gongwang’s painting Stone Cliff at Heavenly Pond.

Simone Martini (Italy, 1284-1344) painter
Maestà. Palazzo Pubblico, Siena (1315)
St. Louis of Toulouse Crowning Robert of Anjou (Altar of St. Louis of Toulouse) (c. 1317)
Frescoes, St. Martin Chapel. Lower church, San Francesco, Assisi (1313-1319)
Blessed Agostino Novello Altarpiece (1324)
Equestrian Portrait of Guidoriccio da Fogliano. Palazzo Pubblico, Siena (1328)
The Annunciation with St. Margaret and St. Ansanus (Annunciation Altarpiece). With Lippo Memmi (1333)
Frontispiece, Petrarch’s Virgil (c. 1336)

In addition to his religious and secular frescoes and panels, Simone Martini illustrated the cover of Petrarch's translation of Virgil.

In addition to his religious and secular frescoes and panels, Simone Martini illustrated the cover of Petrarch’s translation of Virgil.

Ambrogio Lorenzetti (Italy, 1290-1348) painter
Madonna and Child. San Casciano in Val di Pesa, Italy (1319)
The Oath of St. Louis of Toulouse. Church of San Francesco, Siena (1324-1327)
Suckling Madonna. Palazzo Arcivescovile, Siena (c. 1330)
Four Stories from the Life of St. Nicholas of Bari (1332)
Maestà (Madonna with Angels and Saints). St. Cerbonius Cathedral, Massa Marittima, Italy (c. 1335)
Maestà. Piccolomini Chapel, Church of Sant’Agostino, Siena (c. 1330, 1338)
The Allegory of Good and Bad Government. Sala dei Nove, Palazzo Pubblico, Siena (1338-1339)
Presentation of Christ in the Temple (1342)
The Annunciation (1344)

The Uffizi Gallery in Florence owns four scenes of the life of St. Nicolas di Bari, painted by Ambrogio Lorenzetti, which may have been part of a larger polyptych. In this scene, St. Nicolas performs a miracle by filling the ships' holds with grain.

The Uffizi Gallery in Florence owns four scenes of the life of St. Nicolas di Bari, painted by Ambrogio Lorenzetti, which may have been part of a larger polyptych. In this scene, St. Nicolas performs a miracle by filling the ships’ holds with grain.

Andrea Pisano (Italy, 1290-1348) sculptor, architect
Florence Cathedral (Cathedral of St. Mary of the Flower). Florence (1340-1348)

While performing the duties of Chief Architect for Florence Cathedral, Andrea Pisano also created relief sculptures for one set of doors for the Baptistery as well as for one side of Giotto's Campanile (see photo).

While performing the duties of Chief Architect for Florence Cathedral, Andrea Pisano also created relief sculptures for one set of doors for the Baptistery as well as for one side of Giotto’s Campanile (see photo).

Francesco Talenti (Italy, c. 1300-after 1369) sculptor, architect
Florence Cathedral (Cathedral of St. Mary of the Flower). Florence (1349-1359)

Among Francesco Talenti's contributions to the Florence Cathedral was the Porta del Campanile, shown here.

Among Francesco Talenti’s contributions to the Florence Cathedral was the Porta del Campanile, shown here.

Ni Zan (China, 1301-1371) painter, draughtsman
The Rongxi Studio (1372)

Ni Zan's painting, The Rongxi Studio.

Ni Zan’s painting, The Rongxi Studio.

Giovanni di Lapo Ghini (Italy, c. 1320-c. 1380) architect
Florence Cathedral (Cathedral of St. Mary of the Flower). Florence (1360-1369)

divided the center nave in four square bays.

A major decision of Giovanni di Labo Ghini as head architect of the Florence Cathedral in the 1360s was to divide the center nave into four square bays.

Alberto Arnoldi (Italy, c. 1320-c. 1380) sculptor, architect
Florence Cathedral (Cathedral of St. Mary of the Flower). Florence (c. 1358)

Alberto Arnoldi's work on the Florence Cathedral involved the bell tower, known as Giotto's Campanile for the architect who began the work.

Alberto Arnoldi’s work on the Florence Cathedral involved the bell tower, known as Giotto’s Campanile for the architect who began the work (see detail above).

Henry Yevele (UK: England, c. 1320-1400) architect, mason
Westminster Abbey (Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster). London (1362-1399)

An interior view of Westminster Abbey, showing the nave built by Henry Yvele.

An interior view of Westminster Abbey, showing the nave built by Henry Yevele.

Nicolas Bataille (France, 1330/1340-1405) tapestry weaver
Apocalypse Tapestry (1377-1382)

A scene from the Apocalypse Tapestry, showing Babylon being invaded by demons.

A scene from the Apocalypse Tapestry, showing Babylon being invaded by demons.

Jean Bondol (Hennequin of Bruges) (Flanders, c. 1340-c. 1400) painter, draughtsman
Apocalypse Tapestry (1377-1382)

A scene from the Apocalypse Tapestry.

A scene from the Apocalypse Tapestry showing the harlot riding the Beast.

Robert Poinçon (France, c. 1340-c. 1410) tapestry weaver
Apocalypse Tapestry (1377-1382)

A scene from the Apocalypse Tapestry showing the heavenly Jerusalem.

A scene from the Apocalypse Tapestry showing the heavenly Jerusalem.

Claus Sluter (The Netherlands/France, c. 1345-1405/1406) sculptor
The Well of Moses. Chartreuse de Champmol, Dijon, France (1395-1405)
Mourners, Tomb of Philip the Bold. With Claus de Werve (1395-1410)

Around the base of the Well of Moses, Claus Sluter carved the Old Testament prophets who are said to have predicted the coming of Jesus. Here are David and Jeremiah.

Around the base of the Well of Moses, Claus Sluter carved the Old Testament prophets who are said to have predicted the coming of Jesus. Here are David and Jeremiah.

Andrei Rublev (Russia, c. 1360-1369 – c. 1327-1430) painter
Holy Trinity Icon (1408-1425)

Andrei Rublev's famous Holy Trinity Icon.

Andrei Rublev’s famous Holy Trinity Icon.

Gentile da Fabriano (Italy, c. 1370-1427) painter
The Life of St. Stephen, Niccoline Chapel. With Fra Angelico and Benozzo Gozzoli. Apostolic Palace, Vatican City (1447-1449)
The Life of St. Lawrence, Niccoline Chapel. With Fra Angelico and Benozzo Gozzoli. Apostolic Palace, Vatican City (1447-1449)

St. Lawrence Receiving the Treasures of the Church, one of the frescoes painted by Fra Angelico and his assistants in the Niccoline Chapel of the Apostolic Palace in the Vatican.

St. Lawrence Receiving the Treasures of the Church, one of the frescoes painted by Fra Angelico and his assistants Gentile da Fabiano and Bennozzo Gozzoli in the Niccoline Chapel of the Apostolic Palace in the Vatican.

Jacopo della Quercia (Italy, c. 1374-1438) sculptor
Fonte Gaia. Piazza del Campo, Siena (1414-1419)
Porta Magna, San Petronio Church. Bologna (1425-1434)

The Creation of Man, shown here, is one of many relief sculptures created by Jacopo della Quercia for the Porta Magna of San Petronio Church in Bologna, Italy.

The Creation of Man, shown here, is one of many relief sculptures created by Jacopo della Quercia for the Porta Magna of San Petronio Church in Bologna.

Robert Campin (Flanders, c. 1375-1444) painter
Mérode Altarpiece (attribution in question) (c. 1425-1428)
Werl Altarpiece (Werl Triptych) (attribution in question) (1438)

Detail from the left wing of the Werl Altarpiece, showing the donor's patron saint, John the Baptist with his attribute, the Lamb of God. The mirror is believed to be a tribute to or imitation of van Eyck's Arnolfini Wedding Portrait.

Detail from the left wing of the Werl Altarpiece, showing John the Baptist, the donor’s patron saint, with his attribute, the Lamb of God. The mirror is believed to be a tribute to or imitation of Jan van Eyck’s Arnolfini Wedding Portrait. Scholars are not sure that Campin painted the piece, which is missing the center panel.

Filippo Brunelleschi (Italy, 1377-1446) sculptor, architect
Church of San Lorenzo. Florence (1434-1437)
Ospedale degli Innocenti (Hospital of the Innocents). Florence (1424-1445)
Florence Cathedral (Cathedral of St. Mary of the Flower). Florence (1296-1436)
Church of Santo Spirito. Florence (1434-1482)

Filippo Brunelleschi solved the complex architectural problem of capping the Florence Cathedral with a dome. It is his greatest achievement.

Filippo Brunelleschi solved the complex architectural problem of capping the Florence Cathedral with a dome. It is his greatest achievement.

Lorenzo Ghiberti (Italy, 1378-1455) sculptor, goldsmith
North Doors, Florence Baptistery. Florence (1403-1424)
The Gates of Paradise (East Doors, Florence Baptistery). Florence (1425-1452)

The Story of Jacob and Esau, a panel from Lorenzo Ghiberti's magnificent set of doors for the Florence Baptistery known as The Gates of Paradise.

The Story of Jacob and Esau, a panel from Lorenzo Ghiberti’s magnificent set of doors for the Florence Baptistery known as The Gates of Paradise.

Claus de Werve (The Netherlands/France, c. 1380-1439) sculptor
Mourners, Tomb of Philip the Bold. With Claus Suter (1395-1410)

A portion of the arcade beneath the tomb of Philip the Bold showing some of the mourners carved by Claus Sluter and Claus de Werve.

A portion of the arcade beneath the tomb of Philip the Bold showing some of the mourners carved by Claus Sluter and Claus de Werve.

Herman, Paul & Johan Limbourg (The Netherlands/France, c. 1388-1416) painters, illustrators
Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry (1411-1416)

The illustration for the month of October in Les Tres Riches Heures du Duc de Berry.

The illustration for the month of October in Les Tres Riches Heures du Duc de Berry.

Donatello (Donato di Niccolò di Betto Bardi) (Italy, 1386-1466) sculptor
St. Mark. Church of Orsanmichele, Florence (1411-1413)
St. George (1415-1417)
The Feast of Herod. Baptistery of San Giovanni, Siena (1423-1427)
Funeral Monument of (Anti-)Pope John XXIII. With Michelozzo. Baptistery of San Giovanni, Siena (c. 1425-1430)
The Annunciation. Church of Santa Croce, Florence (c. 1435)
David (c. 1430-1440)
Equestrian Monument of Gattamelata (Gattamelata). Piazza del Santo, Padua (c. 1443-1453)
Mary Magdalene (The Penitent Magdalene) (c. 1453-1457)
Judith and Holofernes. Palazzo Vecchio, Florence (1460)

Donatello's sculptural portrait of the Penitent Mary Magdalene.

Donatello’s highly realistic portrait of the Penitent Mary Magdalene is carved from poplar wood.

Fra Angelico (Guido di Pietro) (Italy, 1387-1455) painter
The Annunciation of Cortona (c. 1433-1434)
The Last Judgment (1432-1435)
Deposition of Christ (1433-1440)
San Marco Altarpiece (Madonna and Saints) (1438-1443)
The Annunciation (top of dormitory stairs, San Marco Museum) (1437-1447)
The Life of St Stephen, Niccoline Chapel. With Benozzo Gozzoli and Gentile da Fabriano. Apostolic Palace, Vatican City (1447-1449)
The Life of St Lawrence, Niccoline Chapel. With Benozzo Gozzoli and Gentile da Fabriano. Apostolic Palace, Vatican City (1447-1449)

The San Marco Altarpiece, by Fra Angelico.

The San Marco Altarpiece, by Fra Angelico.

Jan van Eyck (Flanders, 1390-1441) painter
The Ghent Altarpiece. With Hubert van Eyck (?) (1432)
Portrait of a Man in a Red Turban (1433)
Portrait of Giovanni Arnolfini and his Wife (The Arnolfini Portrait; The Arnolfini Wedding) (1434)
Madonna of Chancellor Rolin (1434-1435)
Virgin and Child with Canon van der Paele (1434-1436)
The Annunciation (1434-1436)
Madonna and Child at the Fountain (1439)

The Annunciation, by Jan van Eyck, is located in the National Gallery of Art, in Washington, D.C.

The Annunciation, by Jan van Eyck, is located in the National Gallery of Art, in Washington, D.C.

Paolo Uccello (Italy, 1397-1475) painter
Creation and Fall. Green Cloister, Church of Santa Maria Novella, Florence (1432-1436)
Monument to Sir John Hawkwood. Florence Cathedral, Florence (c. 1436)
Clock Face with Four Prophets. Florence Cathedral, Florence (1443)
The Deluge (The Flood). Green Cloister, Church of Santa Maria Novella, Florence (c. 1447-1448)
Portrait of a Lady (attribution in question) (1450)
The Battle of San Romano I: Niccolò Mauruzi da Tolentino (c. 1438–1440)
The Battle of San Romano II: Niccolò Mauruzi da Tolentino unseats Bernardino della Ciarda (c. 1435–1455)
The Battle of San Romano III: The Counterattack of Michelotto da Cotignola (c. 1455)
Corpus Domini Predella (Miracle of the Profaned Host) (1465–1469)
The Hunt in the Forest (The Hunt) (c. 1470)
Saint George and the Dragon (c. 1470)

Paolo Uccello painted the fresco The Flood on the walls of the Green Cloister in Florence's Church of Santa Maria Novella.

Paolo Uccello painted the fresco The Flood on the walls of the Green Cloister in Florence’s Church of Santa Maria Novella.

Rogier van der Weyden (Flanders, 1399-1464) painter
Saint Luke Drawing the Virgin (1435-1440)
Descent from the Cross (Deposition of Christ) (1435-1440)
The Annunciation Triptych (1435-1440)
The Entombment of Christ (1450)
The Last Judgment Altarpiece (Beaune Altarpiece) (1450)
St. Columba Altarpiece (The Adoration of the Magi Triptych) (c. 1460)
Portrait of Francesco d’Este (c. 1460)

The Last Judgment, a polyptych and altarpiece painted by Rogier van der Weyden.

The Last Judgment, a polyptych and altarpiece painted by Rogier van der Weyden.

Konrad Witz (Germany/Switzerland, 1400 or 1410-1445 or 1446) painter
The Miraculous Draught of Fishes (1444)

The Miraculous Draught of Fishes by Konrad Witz tells a Biblical story, but is also famous in art history for its realistic landscape.

The Miraculous Draught of Fishes by Konrad Witz tells a Biblical story, but is also famous in art history for its realistic landscape.

Masaccio (Tommaso di Ser Giovanni di Simone) (Italy, 1401-1428) painter
San Giovenale Triptych. Church of Cascia di Reggello, San Pietro di Cascia, Italy (1422)
Virgin and Child with St. Anne (1424)
Portrait of a Young Man (1423-1425)
Madonna and Child with Angels (1426)
Crucifixion
(1426)
Saint Paul (1426)
The Expulsion from the Garden of Eden. Brancacci Chapel, Church of Santa Maria del Carmine, Florence (1425-1428)
The Tribute Money. Brancacci Chapel, Church of Santa Maria del Carmine, Florence (1425-1428)
Baptism of the Neophytes. Brancacci Chapel, Church of Santa Maria del Carmine, Florence (1425-1428)
Raising of the Son of Theophilus and St Peter Enthroned. Brancacci Chapel, Church of Santa Maria del Carmine, Florence (1425-1428)
The Distribution of Alms and Death of Ananias. Brancacci Chapel, Church of Santa Maria del Carmine, Florence (1425-1428)
St Peter Healing the Sick with His Shadow. Brancacci Chapel, Church of Santa Maria del Carmine, Florence (1425-1428)
The Holy Trinity. Church of Santa Maria Novella, Florence (1427-1428)

Masaccio's Portrait of a Young Man.

Masaccio’s Portrait of a Young Man.

Leon Battista Alberti (Italy, 1404-1472) architect
Façade, Palazzo Rucellai. Florence (1445–1451)
Church of San Francesco (Tempio Malatestiano). Rimini, Italy (1450-1468)
Upper Façade, Church of Santa Maria Novella. Florence (1448–1470)
Church of San Sebastiano. Mantua (1458-1470)
Basilica of Sant’Andrea. Mantua (1472-1490)

An interior view of the Church of Sant'Andrea in Mantua, which was designed by Leonardo Alberti.

An interior view of the Church of Sant’Andrea in Mantua, which was designed by Leon Alberti.

Dieric Bouts (The Netherlands, c. 1445-1475) painter
The Last Supper (1464-1467)

Detail from the center panel of Dieric Bouts' Last Supper altarpiece.

Detail from the center panel of Dieric Bouts’ Last Supper altarpiece.

Aristotele Fioravanti (Italy, c. 1415-after 1486) architect
The Kremlin (Dormition Cathedral). Moscow (1475-1479)

The Dormition Cathedral (Cathedral of the Assumption) in the Kremlin in Moscow.

The Dormition Cathedral (Cathedral of the Assumption) in the Kremlin in Moscow.

Piero della Francesca (Italy, 1416-1492) painter
The Baptism of Christ (c. 1448–1450)
Portrait of Sigismondo Pandolfo Malatesta (c. 1451)
The Flagellation of Christ (c. 1460)
Madonna della Misericordia (Polyptych of the Misericordia). Museo Civico, Sansepolcro, Italy (1445–1462)
The Resurrection. Museo Civico, Sansepolcro, Italy (c. 1463)
The Legend of the True Cross (The History of the True Cross). Church of San Francesco, Arezzo, Italy (c. 1455–1466)
Portraits of Federico da Montefeltro and Battista Sforza, the Duke and Duchess of Urbino (c. 1472)
Madonna and Child with Saints (Brera Madonna; Montefeltro Altarpiece) (1472–1474)

The Portrait of Sigismondo Malatesta by Piero della Francesca.

The Portrait of Sigismondo Malatesta by Piero della Francesca.

Jean Fouquet (France, 1420-1481) painter
The Melun Diptych (c. 1450-1452)

The left wing of the Melun Diptych, by Jean Fouquet, shows the donor, Étienne Chevalier, with his patron saint St. Stephen, who is bleeding from a head wound.

The left wing of the Melun Diptych, by Jean Fouquet, shows the donor, Étienne Chevalier, with his patron saint St. Stephen, who is bleeding from a head wound.

Benozzo Gozzoli (Italy, c. 1421-1497) painter
The Life of St. Stephen, Niccoline Chapel. With Fra Angelico and Gentile da Fabriano. Apostolic Palace, Vatican City (1447-1449)
The Life of St. Lawrence, Niccoline Chapel. With Fra Angelico and Gentile da Fabriano. Apostolic Palace, Vatican City (1447-1449)
The Procession of the Magi. Palazzo Medici-Riccardi, Florence (c. 1459-1462)

Detail from Benozzo Gozzoli's Procession of the Magi, which he painted on the walls of the chapel in the Medici palace in Florence.

Detail from Benozzo Gozzoli’s Procession of the Magi, which he painted on the walls of the chapel in the Medici palace in Florence.

Antonello da Messina (Italy, c. 1430-1479) painter
Portrait of a Man (1475-1476)
Virgin Annunciate (c. 1476)

In Virgin Annunciate, Antonello da Messina tells the story of the Annunciation without depicting the Angel Gabriel.

In Virgin Annunciate, Antonello da Messina tells the story of the Annunciation without depicting the Angel Gabriel.

Hugo van der Goes (Flanders, c. 1430/1440-1482) painter
The Portinari Altarpiece (c. 1475)

Detail from the central panel of the Portinari Altarpiece, showing the Procession of the Magi in the background.

Detail from the central panel of the Portinari Altarpiece, showing the Procession of the Magi in the background.

Hans Memling (Germany/Flanders, c. 1430-1494) painter
The Last Judgment (1467-1471)
St. John’s Altarpiece. Old St. John’s Hospital, Bruges (1474-1479)

The center panel of the St. John's Altarpiece, showing the Madonna and Child, St. John, St. Catherine.

The center panel of the St. John’s Altarpiece, showing the Madonna and Child, St. John the Baptist, St. John the Evangelist, St. Margaret and St. Catherine (depicting the Mystic Marriage of St. Catherine).

Giovanni Bellini (Italy, c. 1430-1516) painter
Dead Christ Supported by Two Angels (c. 1460)
The Agony in the Garden (1465)
St. Francis in Ecstasy (St. Francis in the Desert) (1480-1485)
San Giobbe Altarpiece (1487)
Sacred Allegory (c. 1490-1500)
Portrait of Doge Leonardo Loredan (1501-1504)
San Zaccaria Altarpiece (Madonna and Child Enthroned with Sts. Peter, Catherine, Lucia and Jerome). Church of San Zaccaria, Venice (1505)
Madonna of the Meadow (1505)
The Feast of the Gods (1514)
Young Woman Holding a Mirror (Naked Young Woman in Front of the Mirror) (1515)

Scholars have not reached a consensus on how to interpret Giovanni Bellini's Sacred Allegory, now at the Uffizi Gallery in Florence.

Scholars have not reached a consensus on how to interpret Giovanni Bellini’s Sacred Allegory, now at the Uffizi Gallery in Florence.

Andrea Mantegna (Italy, 1431-1506) painter
St. James Led to his Execution (1453-1455) (destroyed)
St. Sebastian (Vienna) (c. 1457–1459)
San Zeno Altarpiece (1457–1460)
The Crucifixion (from predella of San Zeno Altarpiece) (1457–1460)
Death of the Virgin
(Dormition of the Virgin) (1460-1464)
Frescoes, Camera degli Sposi. Ducal Palace, Mantua (1465-1474)
St. Sebastian (Paris) (1480)
Triumph of Caesar (series of nine paintings) (c. 1486)
The Lamentation over the Dead Christ (c. 1490)
Madonna della Vittoria (Madonna of Victory) (1495)
Minerva Chases the Vices from the Garden of Virtue (Triumph of Virtue) (c. 1502)

Andrea Mantegna's Triumph of the Virtues is a late work with a mythological theme, unlike most of his paintings, which treat religious subjects.

Andrea Mantegna’s Triumph of the Virtues is a late work with a mythological theme, unlike most of his paintings, which treat religious subjects.

Niccolò dell’Arca (Italy, c. 1435/1440-1494) sculptor
Lamentation over the Dead Christ. Church of Santa Maria della vita, Bologna (c. 1460-1463 or 1485-1490)

The multi-piece sculpture of the Lamentation over the Dead Christ by Niccolò_dell'Arca contains some highly expressive figures.

A multi-piece sculpture, Niccolò dell’Arca’s Lamentation over the Dead Christ (a portion of which is shown here) contains several highly expressive mourning figures.

Michael Pacher (Austria, c. 1435-1498) sculptor, painter
St. Wolfgang Altarpiece. Church of St. Wolfgang im Salzkammergut, Austria (1471-1481)
Altarpiece of the Church Fathers (1484)

Detail from Michael Pacher's St. Wolfgang Altarpiece, showing the carved Coronation of the Virgin in the interior center panel.

Detail from Michael Pacher’s St. Wolfgang Altarpiece, showing the carved Coronation of the Virgin in the interior center panel.

Donato Bramante (Italy, 1444-1514) architect
Santa Maria presso San Satiro. Milan (1476–1482)
Cloister and Apse, Santa Maria delle Grazie. Milan (1492–1497)
Tempietto, San Pietro in Montorio. Rome (c. 1502)
Cloister, Santa Maria della Pace. Rome (1500-1504)
Palazzo Caprini (House of Raphael). Rome (1504-1510) (demolished)
Cortile del Belvedere (Belvedere Court). Vatican City (1505-1514) (significantly altered)
St. Peter’s Basilica. Vatican City (1506-1626)

An interior view of the Church of Santa Maria della Grazie in Milan, showing Bramante's apse.

An interior view of the Church of Santa Maria della Grazie in Milan, showing Bramante’s apse.

Pietro Antonio Solari (Switzerland/Italy, c. 1445-1493) architect
The Kremlin (walls and towers). Moscow (1487-1491)
The Kremlin (Palace of Facets). Moscow (1487-1492)

A view of the Faceted Chamber, inside the Palace of Facets, part of the Kremlin. The building was begun by Marco Ruffo and completed by Piero Antoni Solari.

A view of the Faceted Chamber, inside the Palace of Facets, part of the Kremlin. The building was begun by Marco Ruffo and completed by Pietro Antonio Solari.

Sandro Botticelli (Italy, 1445-1510) painter
The Adoration of the Magi (1475-1476)
Virgin and Child with Eight Angels (Madonna and Child with Eight Angels; Raczynski Tondo) (1477-1478)
Saint Augustine in his Study. Church of Ognissanti, Florence (1480)
La Primavera (Allegory of Spring) (1477-1482)
Punishment of the Rebels. Sistine Chapel, Apostolic Palace, Vatican City (1481-1482)
Madonna of the Magnificat (1481-1485)
Venus and Mars (1483-1485)
The Birth of Venus (1482-1486)
Madonna of the Pomegranate (1487)

Venus and Mars, by Sandro Botticelli.

Venus and Mars, by Sandro Botticelli.

Pietro Perugino (Italy, c. 1446/1450-1523) painter
The Delivery of the Keys (Christ Handing the Keys to St. Peter). Sistine Chapel, Apostolic Palace, Vatican City (1481-1482)

Detail from the upper left corner of Perugino's Delivery of the Keys, showing the story of the Money Collector against the background of a Roman triumphal arch.

Detail from the upper left corner of Perugino’s Delivery of the Keys, showing the story of the Tribute Money against the background of a Roman triumphal arch.

Veit Stoss (Germany, c. 1447-33) sculptor
St Mary’s Altarpiece (Altarpiece of Veit Stoss). St. Mary’s Basilica, Kraków (1477-1489)

A sculpted scene of the Coronation of Mary tops the St. Mary Altarpiece, by Veit Stoss.

A sculpted scene of the Coronation of Mary tops the St. Mary Altarpiece, by Veit Stoss.

Domenico Ghirlandaio (Italy, 1449-1494) painter
An Old Man and His Grandson (1490)

Detail of Ghirlandaio's An Old Man and His Grandson showing the landscape.

Detail of Ghirlandaio’s An Old Man and His Grandson showing the landscape outside the window.

Hieronymus Bosch (The Netherlands, 1450-1516) painter
Ecce Homo (after 1475)
St. Jerome at Prayer (c. 1482)
Cutting the Stone (The Cure of Folly) (c. 1494)
Ship of Fools (1490-1500)
The Conjurer (1502)
The Garden of Earthly Delights (c. 1490-1510, poss. 1503-1504)
The Last Judgment (c. 1482-1516, probably 1504-1508)
The Temptation of St. Anthony (triptych) (1500-1516)
The Haywain Triptych (c. 1516)

Ship of Fools, by Hieronymus Bosch.

Ship of Fools, by Hieronymus Bosch.

Kamal ud-Din Behzad (Persia, c. 1450-c. 1535) painter, illustrator
Illuminated Bustan of Saadi (1487-1488)

Part of the poet Saadi's story of Yusef and Zuleykha, as illustrated by Kamal al-Din Bihzad.

Part of the poet Saadi’s story of Yusef and Zuleykha, as illustrated by Kamal al-Din Bihzad.

Leonardo da Vinci (Italy, 1452-1519) painter, sculptor, architect, scientist
The Adoration of the Magi (1481-1482)
Virgin of the Rocks (I) (1483-1486) 
Lady with an Ermine
(c. 1490)
The Last Supper. Santa Maria della Gracie, Milan (1495-1498)
Mona Lisa (1503-1505)
Virgin of the Rocks (II) (1495-1508)
The Virgin and Child with St. Anne (c. 1508-1510)

After the Louvre cleaned Leonardo da Vinci's The Virgin and Child with St. Anne in 2011, some felt it was now brighter than da Vinci intended.

After the Louvre cleaned Leonardo da Vinci’s The Virgin and Child with St. Anne in 2011, some felt it was now brighter than da Vinci intended.

Marco Ruffo (Italy, c. 1455-c. 1505) architect
The Kremlin (towers). Moscow (1485-1495)
The Kremlin (Palace of Facets). Moscow (1487-1492)

Marco Ruffo designed the towers that punctuate the Kremlin wall, including Beklemishevskaya Tower, at the corner of the southeastern side of the Kremlin on the Moscow River.

Marco Ruffo designed the towers that punctuate the Kremlin wall, including Beklemishevskaya Tower (shown above), at the corner of the southeastern side of the Kremlin on the Moscow River.

Tilman Riemenschneider (Germany, c. 1460-1531) sculptor, woodcarver
Altar of the Holy Blood (Holy Blood Altarpiece). St. James Church, Rothenburg ob der Tauber, Germany (1499-1505)
Hergottskirche Altarpiece (St. Mary Altar; Creglingen Altarpiece). Herrgottskirche, Creglingen, Germany (1505-1508)

Detail from the central panel of Tilman Riemenschneider's Holy Blood Altarpiece.

Detail from the central panel of Tilman Riemenschneider’s Holy Blood Altarpiece shows two apostles conversing at the Last Supper.

Geertgen tot Sint Jans (The Netherlands, c. 1465-c. 1495) painter
John the Baptist in the Wilderness (c. 1485-1490)

Detail of St. John the Baptist in the Wilderness, by Geertgen tot Sint Jans.

Detail of  John the Baptist in the Wilderness, by Geertgen tot Sint Jans.

Domenico da Cortona (Italy, c. 1465-c. 1549) architect
Château de Chambord. Chambord, France (1519-1547)

A view inside one of the courtyards of Château de Chambord, showing an elaborate staircase.

A view inside one of the courtyards of Château de Chambord, showing an elaborate staircase.

Matthias Grünewald (Germany, 1470-1528) painter
The Mocking of Christ (c. 1503)
The Small Crucifixion (1511 or 1520)
The Isenheim Altarpiece (1515)
The Stuppach Madonna (Madonna in the Garden). Parish Church of the Coronation of the Virgin, Bad Mergentheim, Germany (1517-1519)
The Meeting of Sts. Erasmus and Maurice (The Disputation of Sts. Erasmus and Maurice) (c. 1523)
The Large Crucifixion (from the Tauberbischofsheim Altarpiece) (1523-1525)

The Stuppach Madonna, by Matthias Grünewald.

The Stuppach Madonna, by Matthias Grunewald.

Albrecht Dürer (Germany, 1471-1528) painter, printmaker
Apocalypse (woodcut series) (1498)
Self-Portrait (1498)
Self-Portrait at Age Twenty-Eight (Self-Portrait with Fur-Trimmed Robe) (1500)
Paumgartner Altarpiece (c. 1500)
Adam and Eve (engraving) (1504)
Adoration of the Magi (1504)
Adam and Eve (paintings) (1507)
Martyrdom of the Ten Thousand (1508)
The Large Passion (woodcut series) (c. 1497-1510)
Adoration of the Trinity (1511)
Knight, Death and the Devil (engraving) (1513)
Saint Jerome in His Study (engraving) (1514)
Melencolia I (engraving) (1514)
The Four Apostles (1526)

Christ in Limbo, one of a series of woodcuts by Albrecht Dürer known as The Large Passion.

Christ in Limbo, one of a series of woodcut engravings by Albrecht Dürer known as The Large Passion.

Sebastiano Serlio (Italy/France, 1475- c. 1554) architect
Château de Fontainebleau. Fontainebleau, France (c. 1530-c. 1550)

An aerial view of the Château de Fontainebleau.

An aerial view of the Château de Fontainebleau.

Michelangelo (Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni) (Italy, 1475-1564) painter, sculptor, architect
Battle of the Centaurs. Casa Buonarroti, Florence (1491-1492)
Madonna of the Stairs. Casa Buonarroti, Florence (1491-1492)
Bacchus (1496-1497)
Pieta. St. Peter’s Basilica, Vatican City (1498-1499)
David (1501-1504)
Frescoes, Sistine Chapel Ceiling. Apostolic Palace, Vatican City (1508-1512)
Moses (Tomb of Pope Julius II). San Pietro in Vincoli, Rome (1513-1515)
The Rebellious Slave (1513-1516)
Medici Chapel (Sagrestia Nuova). Basilica of San Lorenzo, Florence (1520-1534)
Frescoes, Sistine Chapel Altar Wall (The Last Judgment). Apostolic Palace, Vatican City (1534-1541)
Piazza del Campidoglio. Rome (1536-1546)
Laurentian Library. Florence (1525-1571)
St. Peter’s Basilica. Vatican City (1506-1626)

Michelangelo created his statue of Bacchus in 1497.

Michelangelo completed his statue of Bacchus in 1497, at the age of 22.

Giorgione (Giorgio Barbarelli da Castelfranco) (Italy, 1478-1510) painter
The Trial of Moses (The Test of Fire of Moses) (1500–1501)
The Judgment of Salomon (1500–1501)
Judith (c. 1504)
Adoration of the Shepherds (attribution in question) (c. 1505 or 1510)
The Castelfranco Madonna (Madonna and Child Enthroned between St. Francis and St. Nicasius). Duomo, Castelfranco Veneto, Italy (c. 1505)
Boy with an Arrow (1506)
Laura (Portrait of a Young Bride) (c. 1506)
The Tempest (c. 1505-1508)
The Three Philosophers (possibly completed by Sebastiano del Piombo) (1506-1509)
Sleeping Venus (completed by Titian) (c. 1510)

Boy with an Arrow, by Giorgione.

Boy with an Arrow, by Giorgione.

Albrecht Altdorfer (Germany, c. 1480-1538) painter, engraver, architect
The Battle of Alexander at Issus (Alexander’s Victory) (1529)

Detail from Albrecht Altdorfer's The Battle of Issus.

Detail from Albrecht Altdorfer’s The Battle of Alexander at Issus.

Gilles le Breton (France, c. 1480-1553) architect
Château de Fontainebleau. Fontainebleau, France (1528-1553)

The Chapel of the Trinity at Fontainebleau was one of many features designed by Gilles le Breton. Photo by Vivienne Gucwa.

The Chapel of the Trinity at Fontainebleau was one of many features designed by Gilles le Breton. Photo by Vivienne Gucwa.

Baldassare Peruzzi (Italy, 1481-1536) painter, architect
St. Peter’s Basilica. Vatican City (1520-1536)

Few of Baldassarre Peruzzi's plans for St. Peter's Basilica - shown here in his drawing - came to fruition.

Few of Baldassarre Peruzzi’s plans for St. Peter’s Basilica – shown here in his drawing – came to fruition.

Raphael (Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino) (Italy, 1483-1520) painter, architect
Madonna of the Meadow (Madonna del Prato) (1505-1506)
The School of Athens. Stanza della Segnatura, Apostolic Palace, Vatican City (1510-1511)
The Sistine Madonna (1512-1514)
Portrait of Baldassare Castiglione (1514-1515)
St. Peter’s Basilica. Vatican City (1514-1520)
The Transfiguration (1516-1520)

Madonna of the Meadow, by Raphael.

Madonna of the Meadow, by Raphael, shows the Virgin Mary with Jesus and St. John the Baptist.

Hans Baldung Grien (Germany, c. 1484-1545) painter, printmaker
The Three Ages of Man and Death (The Three Ages of Man) (1539-1544)

The Three Ages of Man and Death, by Hans Baldung Grien.

The Three Ages of Man and Death, by Hans Baldung Grien.

Antonio da Sangallo the Younger (Italy, 1485-1546) architect
St. Peter’s Basilica. Vatican City (1521-1546)

Sangallo's plans for St. Peter's Basilica (shown above) were never realized.

Sangallo’s plans for St. Peter’s Basilica (shown above) were never realized.

Andrea del Sarto (Italy, 1486-1530) painter
Madonna of the Harpies (1515-1517)

Detail from Andrea del Sarto's Madonna of the Harpies, showing the Madonna and child.

Detail from Andrea del Sarto’s Madonna of the Harpies, showing the Madonna and child.

Titian (Tiziano Vecelli) (Italy, 1488-1576) painter
The Pastoral Concert (c. 1508-1510)
Bacchus and Ariadne (1520-1523)
Pesaro Madonna (Madonna di Ca’ Pesaro). Church of Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari, Venice (1519-1526)
Venus of Urbino (1538)
Danaë with Eros (Danaë) (Naples) (1544)
Danaë Receiving the Golden Rain (Danaë with Nursemaid) (Madrid) (1553-1554)
Danaë (St. Petersburg) (1553-1554)
The Rape of Europa (1559-1562)
Danaë. With his workshop (Vienna) (1564)

Detail of Titian's Rape of Europa showing Europa being abducted by Zeus, in the form of a bull.

Detail of Titian’s Rape of Europa showing Europa being abducted by Zeus, in the form of a bull.

Correggio (Antonio Allegri da Correggio) (Italy, 1489-1534) painter
Jupiter and Io (c. 1530-1532)

Detail of Corregio's Jupiter and Io, in which Jupiter appears to Io in the form of a cloud.

Detail of Corregio’s Jupiter and Io, in which Jupiter appears to Io in the form of a cloud.

Jacopo Pontormo (Italy, 1494-1557) painter
The Deposition of Christ (Deposition from the Cross). Capponi Chapel, Church of Santa Felicita, Florence (1525-1528)

Detail of Jacopo Pontormo's Deposition of Christ, showing Christ's body supported by two young men, who may be angels.

Detail of Jacopo Pontormo’s Deposition of Christ, showing Christ’s body supported by two young men, who may be angels.

Hans Holbein the Younger (Germany, 1497-1543) painter, printmaker
The Body of the Dead Christ in the Tomb (1521-1522)
Portrait of Erasmus (1523)
Portrait of Sir Thomas More (1527)
Madonna of the Burgomaster Meyer (Darmstadt Madonna) (1526-1528)
Lady with a Squirrel and a Starling (1526-1528)
The Artist’s Family (1528)
The Ambassadors (1533)
King Henry VIII (1536-1537)
Portrait of Jane Seymour (1537)
Portrait of Anne of Cleves (c. 1539)

English court painter Hans Holbein the Younger painted this portrait of Jane Seymour, third wife of King Henry VIII. Unlike most of Henry's wives, she died of natural causes 12 days after giving birth to the future King Edward VI.

English court painter Hans Holbein the Younger painted this portrait of Jane Seymour, third wife of King Henry VIII. Unlike most of Henry’s wives, she died of natural causes 12 days after giving birth to the future King Edward VI.

Benvenuto Cellini (Italy, 1500-1571) sculptor, goldsmith, draftsman, author
Perseus with the Head of Medusa (Perseus). Loggia dei Lanzi, Piazza della Signoria, Florence (1545-1554)

Detail of Benvenuto Cellini's Perseus, showing the severed head of Medusa.

Detail of Benvenuto Cellini’s Perseus, showing the severed head of Medusa.

Parmigianino (Girolamo Francesco Maria Mazzola) (Italy, 1503-1540) painter
Self-Portrait in a Convex Mirror (1524)
The Conversion of St. Paul (1527-1528)
Madonna of the Long Neck (1535)

Detail of Parmigianino's Madonna of the Long Neck, showing the Madonna.

Detail of Parmigianino’s Madonna of the Long Neck, showing the Madonna.

Bronzino (Agnolo di Cosimo) (Italy, 1503-1572) painter
Venus, Cupid, Folly and Time (c. 1545)

Detail from Bronzino's Venus, Cupid, Folly and Time, showing an allegorical figure whose exact identity is disputed reacting violently to the incestuous behavior of Venus and her son Cupid.

Detail from Bronzino’s Venus, Cupid, Folly and Time, showing an allegorical figure whose exact identity is disputed reacting violently to the incestuous behavior of Venus and her son Cupid.

Pieter Aertsen (The Netherlands, 1508-1575) painter
Butcher’s Stall (Butcher’s Stall with the Flight into Egypt) (1551)

Detail from the right side of Aertsen's Butcher's Stall.

Detail from the right side of Pieter Aertsen’s Butcher’s Stall.

Andrea Palladio (Italy, 1508-1580) architect
Villa Barbaro. Maser, Italy (c. 1555–1559)
Villa Capra “La Rotonda.” Vicenza, Italy (1566–1571)
Teatro Olimpico (Olympic Theater). Vicenza, Italy (1579–1580)
Il Redentore (Church of the Most Holy Redeemer). Venice (1577-1592)
Church of San Giorgio Maggiore. Venice (1566-1610)

A view of the interior of Andrea Palladio's Villa Capra "La Rotonda."

A view of the interior of Andrea Palladio’s Villa Capra “La Rotonda.”

Pierre Lescot (France, c. 1510-1578) architect
Palais du Louvre. Paris (1546-1551)

Pierre Lescot designed what is now called the Lescot Wing of the Palais du Louvre.

Pierre Lescot designed what is now called the Lescot Wing of the Palais du Louvre (shown above).

Philibert Delorme (France, c. 1514-1570) architect
Château de Fontainebleau. Fontainebleau, France (1548-1559)

Philippe Delorme designed the original horseshoe staircase at Fontainebleau, although it was later rebuilt by another architect.

Philippe Delorme designed the original horseshoe staircase at Fontainebleau, although it was later rebuilt by another architect.

Juan Bautista de Toledo (Spain, c. 1515-1567) architect
El Escorial. San Lorenzo de El Escorial, Spain (1559-1567)

Juan Baptista de Toledo conceived the original plans for the El Escorial complex, including a monastery and a royal palace, but did not live to see the project completed. His design for the dome of the Basilica, shown here from inside the church, was based on that of St. Peter's.

Juan Baptista de Toledo conceived the original plans for the El Escorial complex, including a monastery and a royal palace, but did not live to see the project completed. His design for the dome of the Basilica, shown here from inside the church, was based on that of St. Peter’s.

Jean Bullant (France, 1515-1578) sculptor, architect
Château de Fontainebleau. Fontainebleau, France (1548-1570)

Jean Bullant, working with Philibert de l'Orme, designed the Grand Ballroom at the Palace of Fontainebleau for Henry II and Catherine de 'Medici.

Jean Bullant, working with Philibert de l’Orme, designed the Grand Ballroom at the Palace of Fontainebleau for Henry II and Catherine de ‘Medici.

Tintoretto (Jacopo Comin) (Italy, 1518-1594) painter
Miracle of the Slave (St. Mark Freeing the Slave) (1547-1548)
Christ Washing the Disciples’ Feet (c. 1548)
Venus, Mars and Vulcan (1550-1555)
The Rescue of Arsinoe (The Deliverance of Arsenoe) (1555-1556)
St. George and the Dragon (1555-1558)
The Crucifixion. Scuola Grande di San Rocco, Venice (1565)
Finding of the Body of St. Mark (1562-1566)
Removal of St. Mark’s Body (St. Mark’s Body Brought to Venice) (1562-1566)
Bacchus, Venus and Ariadne. Doge’s Palace, Venice (1576-1577)
The Origin of the Milky Way (c. 1575-1580)
Christ at the Sea of Galilee (1575-1580)
Self Portrait (1588)
The Last Supper. Church of San Giorgio Maggiore, Venice (1590-1594)

Tintoretto's Rescue of Arsinoe.

Tintoretto’s Rescue of Arsinoe depicts a story from the time of Julius Caesar, in which Arsinoe, half-sister of Cleopatra, is rescued from imprisonment by Ganymedes.

Giuseppe Arcimboldo (Italy, 1526/1527-1593) painter
The Four Seasons: Winter (Vienna) (1563)
The Four Seasons: Winter (Houston) (1572)
The Four Seasons: Winter (Paris) (1573)
The Four Seasons: Winter (Munich) (c. 1550-1593)

Giuseppe Arcimboldo painted four versions of The Four Seasons using characters made of natural materials. Here is Winter from the version at The Menil Collection.

Giuseppe Arcimboldo painted four versions of The Four Seasons using characters made of natural materials. Pictured above is Winter from The Menil Collection in Houston.

Pieter Bruegel the Elder (Flanders, 1528-1569) painter
Landscape with the Fall of Icarus (c. 1555-1558) (probably a copy)
Netherlandish Proverbs (The Blue Cloak) (1559)
The Triumph of Death (1562)
The Tower of Babel (1563)
The Hunters in the Snow (1565)
The Census at Bethlehem (1566)
The Massacre of the Innocents (1565-1567)
The Peasant Wedding (1567)
The Parable of the Blind (The Blind Leading the Blind) (1568)

Detail from Pieter Bruegel the Elder's The Triumph of Death.

Detail from Pieter Bruegel the Elder’s The Triumph of Death.

Paolo Veronese (Paolo Caliari) (Italy, 1528-1588) painter
The Temptation of St. Anthony (St. Anthony Tempted by the Devil) (1552-1553)
Jupiter Striking down the Vices. Sala del Collegio, Doge’s Palace, Venice (c. 1553-1556)
Scenes from the Book of Esther. Church of San Sebastiano, Venice (1556-1557)
Supper at Emmaus (1559-1560)
Frescoes, Villa Barbaro (Villa di Maser). Maser, Italy (1560-1561)
The Wedding at Cana (The Marriage at Cana) (1562-1563)
The Family of Darius before Alexander (1565-1570)
Madonna of the Cuccina Family (The Adoration of the Virgin by the Cuccina Family) (1571)
Feast in the House of Simon (Version 1: 1560; Version 2: 1570; Version 3: 1572)
The Feast in the House of Levi (1573)
The Mystic Marriage of St. Catherine of Alexandria (1575)
The Rape of Europa (1578)
Mars and Venus United by Love (1570s)
Allegory of Wisdom and Strength (c. 1580)
The Triumph of Venice (The Apotheosis of Venice). Sala del Maggior Consiglio, Doge’s Palace, Venice (1585)

The Mystic Marriage of St. Catherine, by Paolo Veronese.

The Mystic Marriage of St. Catherine, by Paolo Veronese.

Giambologna (Jean Boulogne) (Flanders/Italy, 1529-1608) sculptor
The Rape of the Sabine Women. Loggia dei Lanzi, Piazza della Signoria, Florence (1574-1583)

Giambologna's Rape of the Sabine Women, seen from below.

Giambologna’s Rape of the Sabine Women, seen from below.

Juan de Herrera (Spain, 1530-1597) architect
El Escorial. San Lorenzo de El Escorial, Spain (1567-1584)

Juan de Herrera designed numerous aspects of the El Escorial complex, including the library, shown above.

Spanish architect Juan de Herrera designed numerous aspects of the El Escorial complex, including the library, shown above.

Giacomo della Porta (Italy, c. 1533-1602) sculptor, architect
St. Peter’s Basilica. Vatican City (1585-1590)

After Pope Sixtus put Giacomo della Porta in charge of finishing St. Peter's Basilica in 1585, della Porta made some adjustments to Michelangelo's design of the dome and completed this major portion of the project in 1590. © 2004 -- Ron Reznick http://www.digital-images.net [#Beginning of Shooting Data Section] Nikon D2H Focal Length: 85mm Optimize Image: Color Mode: Mode II (Adobe RGB) Noise Reduction: OFF 2004/11/03 03:30:04.3 Exposure Mode: Aperture Priority White Balance: Color Temp. (5900 K) Tone Comp: Less Contrast RAW (12-bit) Metering Mode: Multi-Pattern AF Mode: AF-C Hue Adjustment: 0° Image Size: Large (2464 x 1632) 1/400 sec - F/8 Flash Sync Mode: Not Attached Saturation: Exposure Comp.: +0.3 EV Sharpening: Normal Lens: 85mm F/1.4 D Sensitivity: ISO 200 Image Comment: [#End of Shooting Data Section]

After Pope Sixtus put Giacomo della Porta in charge of finishing St. Peter’s Basilica in 1585, della Porta made some adjustments to Michelangelo’s design of the dome and completed this major portion of the project in 1590. Photograph by Ron Reznick © 2004
http://www.digital-images.net


Tuhir Das (India, c. 1540-c. 1610) architect
Fatehpur Sikri (multiple buildings). Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India (1571-1585)

Among the remarkable buildings in the planned city of Fatepur Sikri is the Panch Mahal palace, shown here.

Among the remarkable buildings in the planned city of Fatepur Sikri is the Panch Mahal palace, shown here. Fatepur Sikri was designed to be the capital city of the Mughal Emperor Akbar and was founded in 1569.

El Greco (Doménikos Theotokópoulos) (Greece/Spain, 1541-1614) painter
The Disrobing of Christ. Sacristy, Cathedral of Toledo, Toledo, Spain (1577-1579)
The Holy Trinity (1577-1579)
The Burial of the Count of Orgaz. Church of Santo Tomé, Toledo, Spain (1586-1588)
The Agony in the Garden (1590-1595)
View of Toledo (1596-1600)
Christ Driving the Moneychangers from the Temple (multiple versions) (c. 1600-1614)
The Opening of the Fifth Seal (The Vision of St. John) (1608-1614)
Laocoön (1610-1614)
The Adoration of the Shepherds (1612-1614)

El Greco's Christ Driving the Moneychangers from the Temple, from about 1600 and now in the National Gallery in London, is one of six different paintings on the same theme that El Greco painted over his career.

El Greco’s Christ Driving the Moneychangers from the Temple, from about 1600 and now in the National Gallery in London, is one of six different paintings on the same theme that El Greco painted over his career.

Sedefkâr Mehmed Ağa (Albania/Turkey, c. 1540-1617) architect
Sultan Ahmed Mosque (Blue Mosque). Istanbul (1609-1616)

Ottoman architect Sedefkâr Mehmed Ağa designed the Sultan Ahmed Mosque for Ottoman Sultan Ahmed in the early 17th Century. The interior is dominated by the multiple domes above, colored light from the stained glass windows and many thousands of mosaic tiles adorning the walls. The predominance of blue tiles has given the Istanbul shrine its popular name, "the Blue Mosque."

Ottoman architect Sedefkâr Mehmed Ağa designed the Sultan Ahmed Mosque for Ottoman Sultan Ahmed in the early 17th Century. The interior is dominated by multiple domes overhead, colored light from the stained glass windows and many thousands of mosaic tiles. The predominance of blue tiles has given the Istanbul shrine its popular name, “the Blue Mosque.”

Nicholas Hilliard (UK: England, c. 1547-1619) painter
Young Man Among Roses (c. 1585-1590)

Some experts believe that the subject of Nicholas Hilliard's miniature, Young Man Among Roses, is Robert Devereaux, 2nd Earl of Essex, a favorite of Elizabeth I, even though he was 30 years her junior.

Some experts believe that the subject of Nicholas Hilliard’s miniature, Young Man Among Roses, is Robert Devereaux, 2nd Earl of Essex, a favorite of Elizabeth I, even though he was 30 years her junior.

Bahāʾ al‐Dīn Muḥammad ibn Ḥusayn al‐ʿĀmilī (Shaykh-i Baha I) (Lebanon/Iran, 1547-1621) architect
Imam Mosque (Shah Mosque). Isfahan, Iran (1611-1629)

1611-1638 --- Aerial View of the Masjid-i Shah in Isfahan, Iran --- Image by © Roger Wood/CORBIS

Aerial View of the Masjid-i Shah in Isfahan, Iran. Photograph by Roger Wood. © Roger Wood/CORBIS

Jacques II Androuet du Cerceau (France, 1556-1614) architect
Palais du Louvre. Paris (1595-1608)

Jacques II Androuet du Cerceau was one of two architects chosen to design the Galerie du Bord de l’Eau (Waterside Gallery), also known as the Grande Galerie., which connected the royal apartments in the Louvre with the Tuileries palace.

Jacques II Androuet du Cerceau was one of two architects chosen to design the Galerie du Bord de l’Eau (Waterside Gallery), also known as the Grande Galerie., which connected the royal apartments in the Louvre with the Tuileries palace.

Carlo Maderno (Italy, 1556-1629) architect
St. Peter’s Basilica. Vatican City (1602-1615)

After being appointed chief architect of St. Peter's Basilica in 1602, Carlo Moderno designed and completed a number of projects, including the façade, the narthex and the nave, which is shown above.

After being appointed chief architect of St. Peter’s Basilica in 1602, Carlo Moderno designed and completed a number of projects, including the façade, the narthex and the nave, which is shown above.

Louis Métezeau (France, 1560-1615) architect
Palais du Louvre. Paris (1589-1610)

Louis Métezeau was one of two architects chosen to design the Grand Gallery connecting the Louvre with the Tuileries.

Louis Métezeau was one of two architects chosen to design the Grand Gallery connecting the Louvre with the Tuileries.

Caravaggio (Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio) (Italy, 1573-1610) painter
Bacchus (c. 1595-1597)
Conversion of St. Paul on the Way to Damascus. Cerasi Chapel, Church of Santa Maria del Popolo, Rome (1600-1601)
Supper at Emmaus (1601)
The Calling of St. Matthew. Contarelli Chapel, Church of San Luigi dei Francesi, Rome  (1599-1600)
The Martyrdom of St. Matthew.
Contarelli Chapel, Church of San Luigi dei Francesi, Rome (1599-1600) 
The Inspiration of St. Matthew.
Contarelli Chapel, Church of San Luigi dei Francesi, Rome (1602)
The Entombment of Christ
(1602-1604)
The Burial of St. Lucy. Church of Santa Lucia alla Badia, Syracuse, Sicily (1608)

Detail of Caravaggio's The Conversion of Paul on the Way to Damascus, showing Paul, blinded and fallen from his horse.

Detail of Caravaggio’s Conversion of St. Paul on the Way to Damascus, showing Paul, blinded and fallen from his horse, in the spotlight.

Inigo Jones (UK: England, 1573-1652) architect
The Banqueting House. Whitehall, London (1619–1622)
The Queen’s Chapel. London (1623–1627)
The Queen’s House. Greenwich, UK (1616–1635)

A view of the interior of the Banqueting House, designed by Inigo Jones. Photo courtesy of gregallenphoto.com

A view of the interior of the Banqueting House, designed by Inigo Jones. Photo courtesy of gregallenphoto.com

Peter Paul Rubens (Flanders, 1577-1640) painter
The Honeysuckle Bower (1609)
Samson and Delilah (1609-1610)
Raising of the Cross (The Elevation of the Cross). Cathedral of Our Lady, Antwerp, Belgium (1610-1611)
Massacre of the Innocents (1611-1612)
The Descent from the Cross. Cathedral of Our Lady, Antwerp, Belgium (1611-1614)
The Battle of the Amazons (1615-1618)
Rape of the Daughters of Leucippus (1617-1618)
Assumption of the Virgin. Cathedral of Our Lady, Antwerp, Belgium (1626)
The Garden of Love (c. 1633)
Landscape with a Rainbow (c. 1636)
The Judgment of Paris (1636-1639)
Consequences of War (Horrors of War). Palazzo Pitti (Pitti Palace), Florence (1638-1639)
The Three Graces (c. 1638-1640)

The Battle of the Amazons, a painting by Peter Paul Rubens.

The Battle of the Amazons, a painting by Peter Paul Rubens.

Adam Elsheimer (Germany/Italy, 1578-1610) painter
The Flight into Egypt (1609)

Adam Elsheimer's The Flight into Egypt is set at night, and includes one of the first accurate depictions of the Milky Way and several constellations, as seen in the detail above.

Adam Elsheimer’s The Flight into Egypt is set at night, and includes one of the first accurate depictions of the Milky Way and several constellations, as seen in the detail above.

Frans Hals (Flanders/The Netherlands, c.1580-1666) painter
Portrait of Jacobus Zaffius (1611)
Banquet of the Officers of the St. George Civic Guard (1616)
Shrovetide Revellers (Merrymakers at Shrovetide)
 (c. 1615-1617)
The Laughing Cavalier (1624)
Gypsy Girl (1628-1630)
The Merry Drinker (The Merry Toper) (1628-1630)
Malle Babbe (1633-1635)
Portrait of Pieter van den Broecke (1633)
The Regents of St. Elizabeth Hospital of Haarlem (1641)
Portrait of René Descartes (1649) (possibly a copy)
Regents of the Old Men’s Almshouse (1664)
Regentesses of the Old Men’s Almshouse (1664)

Malle Babbe (translated as Crazy or Loony Babs) was a real person who lived in Haarlem, The Netherlands in the early 17th Century. It is not clear if she was addled by alcoholism or some other mental illness.

Malle Babbe (Crazy or Loony Babs) was a real person who lived in Haarlem, The Netherlands in the early 17th Century. It is not clear if she was addled by alcoholism or some other mental illness.

Jean Androuet du Cerceau (France, c. 1585-1650) architect
Château de Fontainebleau. Fontainebleau, France (1632-1634)

In the mid-17th Century architect Jean Androuet du Cerceau rebuilt the horseshoe staircase at Fontainebleau.

In the mid-17th Century architect Jean Androuet du Cerceau rebuilt the horseshoe staircase at Fontainebleau.

Jacques Lemercier (France, c. 1585-1654) architect
Palais du Louvre. Paris (1624-1654)

A view of the east (Cour Carrée) facade of the Pavillon de l'Horloge at the Palais du Louvre, which was designed by Jacques Lecamier.

A view of the east (Cour Carrée) facade of the Pavillon de l’Horloge at the Palais du Louvre, which was designed by Jacques Lemercier.

Jusepe de Ribera (Spain, 1591-1652) painter, printmaker
The Club-Footed Boy (1642)

Detail of The Club-Footed Boy, by Jusepe de Ribera, showing the boy's ailment.

Detail of The Club-Footed Boy, by Jusepe de Ribera, showing the boy’s ailment.

Georges de la Tour (France, 1593-1652) painter
The Musicians’ Brawl (1625-1630)
The Cheat with the Ace of Diamonds (1635)
The Fortune Teller (1633-1639)
The Penitent Magdalen (New York) (c. 1640)
The Repentent Magdalen (Washington, D.C.) (1635-1640)
St. Joseph the Carpenter (The Young Christ with St. Joseph) (1642)
The Newborn Christ (c. 1645-1648)
St. Sebastian Tended by St. Irene (Paris) (1649)

The Musicians' Brawl, an early work by Georges de la Tour.

The Musicians’ Brawl, an early work by Georges de la Tour.

Nicolas Poussin (France, 1594-1665) painter
The Death of Germanicus (1627)
The Martyrdom of St. Erasmus (1629)
The Shepherds of Arcadia (Et in Arcadia Ego) (first version) (1627-1628)
Rinaldo and Armida (1629-1633)
The Rape of the Sabine Women (1637-1638)
The Arcadian Shepherds (Et in Arcadia Ego) (second version) (1637-1638)
Dance to the Music of Time (c. 1638)
The Seven Sacraments (first series) (1637-1640)
The Seven Sacraments (second series) (1644-1648)
The Funeral of Phocion (Landscape with the Body of Phocion) (1648)
Landscape with the Ashes of Phocion (The Widow of Phocion Collects His Ashes) (1648)
The Holy Family on the Steps (1648-1650)
Self-Portrait (1650)
The Four Seasons: I. Spring, or Terrestrial Paradise; II. Summer, or Ruth and Boaz; III. Autumn, or The Bunch of Grapes of the Promised Land; IV. Winter, or The Deluge (1660-1664)

Nicolas Poussin's painting Rinaldo and Armida is based characters from Torquato Tasso's 1582 epic poem, Jerusalem Delivered.

Nicolas Poussin’s painting Rinaldo and Armida is based characters from Torquato Tasso’s 1582 epic poem, Jerusalem Delivered.

Pietro da Cortona (Italy, 1596/1597-1669) painter, architect
Allegory of Divine Providence and Barberini Power (The Triumph of Divine Providence). Palazzo Barberini, Rome (1633-1639)

Detail from the immense fresco painted by Cortona on the ceiling of the Barberini palace. This section shows the goddess Minerva battling the Giants.

Detail from the immense allegorical fresco painted by Pietro da Cortona on the ceiling of the Barberini palace in Rome. This section shows the goddess Minerva battling the Giants.

François Duquesnoy (Flanders/Italy, 1597-1643) sculptor
Statue of St. Andrew. St. Peter’s Basilica, Vatican City (1629-1633)

Detail of the statue of St. Andrew in St. Peter's Basilica, which was created by Francois Duquesnoy.

Detail of the statue of St. Andrew in St. Peter’s Basilica, which was created by Francois Duquesnoy.

Artemisia Gentileschi (Italy, 1597-1654) painter
Susanna and the Elders (1610)
Judith Slaying Holofernes (Naples) (1612-1613)
Judith and Her Maidservant. Palazzo Pitti (Pitti Palace), Florence (1613-1614)
Allegory of Inclination (The Angel). Casa Buonarroti, Florence (1615-1616)
Judith Slaying Holofernes (Florence) (1618-1620)
Lucretia. Palazzo Cattaneo-Adorno, Genoa (1621)
Judith and Her Maidservant with the Head of Holofernes (c. 1625)
Sleeping Venus (1625-1630)
Self-Portrait as the Allegory of Painting (1638-1639)

Artemisia Gentileschi's 1621 painting of Lucretia, the Roman woman who was raped by the King and attempted suicide to avoid dishonor.

Artemisia Gentileschi’s 1621 painting of Lucretia, the Roman woman who was raped by the King and attempted suicide to avoid dishonor.

Pieter Jansz. Saenredam (The Netherlands, 1597-1665)
Interior of Grote Kerk in Haarlem (1636-1637)

Detail from Pieter Saenredam's Interior of Grote Kerk, Haarlem.

Detail from Pieter Saenredam’s Interior of Grote Kerk in Haarlem, one of many paintings Saenredam made of Dutch churches.

Alessandro Algardi (Italy, 1598-1654) sculptor
Pope Leo Driving Attila from Rome (The Meeting of Leo I and Attila). St. Peter’s Basilica, Vatican City (1646-1653)

Allesandro Algardi's marble rendering of the legendary meeting between Pope Leo I and Attila the Hun at the gates of Rome brought relief sculpture back into fashion in Italy.

Detail of Allesandro Algardi’s marble rendering of the legendary meeting between Pope Leo I and Attila the Hun at the gates of Rome.  The enormous panel – nearly 25 feet tall – brought relief sculpture back into fashion in Italy.

Francisco de Zurbarán (Spain, 1598-1664) painter
Immaculate Conception (1616)
Christ on the Cross (1627)
The Death of St. Bonaventure (St. Bonaventure’s Body Lying in State) (1629)
The Apotheosis of St. Thomas Aquinas (1631)
Still Life with Lemons, Oranges and a Rose (1633)
The Labors of Hercules (series of 10 paintings) (1633)
The Defense of Cadiz against the English (1634)
St. Francis in Meditation (London, erect posture) (1635-1639)
St. Francis in Meditation (London, leaning forward) (1639)
St. Francis in Meditation (Munich) (1658-1660)
St. Luke as a Painter before Christ on the Cross (1660)

The Defense of Cadiz against the English was an uncharacteristic subject for Spanish painter Francisco de Zurbarán, who specialized in religious portraits and still lifes.

The Defense of Cadiz Against the English, a scene from recent Spanish history, was an uncharacteristic subject for Zurbarán, who specialized in religious portraits and still lives.  The work was one of several commissioned by the king from Spanish painters to decorate the Hall of Kingdoms at the Buen Retiro Palace in Madrid.

Gian Lorenzo Bernini (Italy, 1598-1680) sculptor, painter, architect
The Goat Amalthea with the Infant Jupiter and a Faun (1609-1615)
The Martyrdom of St. Lawrence (1617)
Aeneas, Anchises and Ascanius Fleeing Rome (1618-1619)
The Rape of Persephone (Pluto and Persephone) (1621-1622)
David (1622-1623)
Apollo and Daphne (1622-1625)
Baldacchino, St. Peter’s Basilica. Vatican City (1624-1625)
St. Peter’s Basilica. Vatican City (1506-1626)
Fountain of the Tritons (Fontana dei Tritone). Piazza Barberini, Rome (1624-1643)
Fontana dei Quattro Fiumi (Fountain of the Four Rivers). Piazza Navone, Rome (1648-1651)
The Ecstasy of St. Teresa. Cornaro Chapel, Church of Santa Maria della Vittoria, Rome (1651)
Cathedra Petri (Throne of St. Peter). St. Peter’s Basilica, Vatican City (1657-1666)
St. Peter’s Square (Piazza San Pietro). Vatican City (1656-1667)
Church of Sant’Andrea al Quirinale. Rome (1658-1670)
Tomb of Pope Alexander VII. St. Peter’s Basilica, Vatican City (1671-1675)

Aeneas, Anchises and Ascanius Fleeing Rome is an early sculpture by Gian Lorenzo Bernini.

Aeneas, Anchises and Ascanius Fleeing Rome is an early sculpture by Gian Lorenzo Bernini.

Anthony van Dyck (Flanders/Italy/UK: England, 1599-1641)
Charles I at the Hunt (Le Roi à la chasse) (1635)

Detail of Anthony van Dyck's Charles I at the Hunt, one of his many portraits of the English king later beheaded by Cromwell's Puritans.

Detail of Anthony van Dyck’s Charles I at the Hunt, one of his many portraits of the English king later beheaded by Cromwell’s Puritans.

Diego Velázquez (Spanish, 1599-1660) painter
The Waterseller of Seville (1620)
Portrait of Don Luis de Góngora (1622)
Portrait of Philip IV (full-length, Madrid) (1624–1627)
The Triumph of Bacchus (Los Borrachos) (1628–1629)
Joseph’s Bloody Coat brought to Jacob (Joseph’s Tunic). El Escorial, San Lorenzo de El Escorial, Spain (1630)
Equestrian Portrait of the Count-Duke of Olivares (1634)
The Surrender of Breda (1634–1635)
Portrait of Juan de Pareja (1649–1650)
Portrait of Innocent X (1650)
Las Meninas (1656)

The Equestrian Portrait of Count Duke Olivares, by Diego Velázquez.

The Equestrian Portrait of the Count-Duke of Olivares, by Diego Velázquez.

Ustad Ahmad Lahauri (Persia/India, c. 1600-c. 1670) architect
Taj Mahal. Agra, India (1632-1648)

A view of the Taj Mahal's dome from inside.

A view of the Taj Mahal’s dome from inside.

Claude Lorrain (France, 1600-1682) painter
Port Scene with the Embarkation of St. Ursula (London) (1641)
The Disembarkation of Cleopatra at Tarsus (Paris) (1642)
Marine with the Trojans Burning their Boats (The Trojan Women Setting Fire to their Fleet) (NY) (1642)
Seaport with the Embarkation of the Queen of Sheba (London) (1648)
Landscape with Dancing Figures (The Mill) (Rome) (1648)
A Seaport at Sunrise (Munich) (1674)
Ascanius Shooting the Stag of Sylvia (Oxford) (1682)

Claude Lorrain's Landscape with Dancing Figures, also known as The Mill.

Claude Lorrain’s Landscape with Dancing Figures, also known as The Mill.

Adriaen Brouwer (Flanders/The Netherlands, 1605-1638)
The Bitter Draught (The Bitter Tonic) (c. 1635-1638)

Detail of Adrien Brouwer's The Bitter Tonic.

Detail of Adrien Brouwer’s The Bitter Tonic.

Rembrandt (Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn) (The Netherlands, 1606-1669) painter, printmaker
The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp (1632)
The Night Watch (1642)
Aristotle with a Bust of Homer (1653-1654)
Jacob Blessing the Children of Joseph (1656)
The Betrayal of Peter (The Denial of St. Peter) (1660)
The Syndics of the Cloth-Makers Guild (The Staalmeesters) (1662)
The Jewish Bride (c. 1662-1667)
The Return of the Prodigal Son (1668-1669)

Detail of Rembrandt's The Night Watch.

Detail of Rembrandt’s The Night Watch.

Louis Le Vau (France, 1612-1670) architect
Palace of Versailles. Versailles (1661-1670)
Palais du Louvre.
Paris (1667-1670)

The main façade of the envelope at the Palace of Versailles, which was designed by Louis le Vau.

The main façade of the envelope at the Palace of Versailles, which was designed by Louis le Vau.

Claude Perrault (France, 1613-1688) architect
Palais du Louvre. Paris (1667-1670)

Claude Perrault designed the easternmost façade of the Palais du Louvre, which is known as Perrault's Colonnade.

Claude Perrault designed the easternmost façade of the Palais du Louvre, which is known as Perrault’s Colonnade.

Pierre Puget (France, 1620-1694) painter, sculptor, architect
Milo of Croton Attacked by a Lion (1671-1682)

Detail of Pierre Puget's Milo of Croton Attacked by a Lion.

Detail of Pierre Puget’s Milo of Croton Attacked by a Lion.

Jacob van Ruisdael (The Netherlands, c. 1629-1682) painter
The Jewish Cemetery (Detroit) (1654-1655)
The Jewish Cemetery (Dresden) (1655-1660)

Detail of Jacob van Ruisdael's The Jewish Cemetery (Detroit version).

Detail of Jacob van Ruisdael’s The Jewish Cemetery (Detroit version).

Pieter de Hooch (The Netherlands, 1629-1684) painter
A Dutch Courtyard (1658-1660)

Detail of Pieter de Hooch's A Dutch Courtyard, in which two soldiers appear to have included their server in a drinking game.

Detail of Pieter de Hooch’s A Dutch Courtyard, in which two soldiers appear to have included their server in a drinking game.

Johannes (Jan) Vermeer (The Netherlands, 1632-1675) painter
Christ in the House of Martha and Mary (1654-1655)
Diana and her Companions (1654-1656)
The Procuress (1656)
The Little Street  (1657-1658)
The Milkmaid (1657-1658)
View of Delft (1660-1661)
Young Woman with a Water Pitcher (Woman with a Water Jug) (1660-1662)
Woman Holding a Balance (1662-1663)
Woman in Blue Reading a Letter (1663-1664)
Girl with a Pearl Earring (1665)
The Allegory of Painting (The Artist in his Studio) (1666)
Girl with a Red Hat (attribution in question) (1665-1667)
The Geographer (1668-1669)

The inclusion of a painting of The Last Judgment in the background of Vermeer's Woman Holding A Balance has led many to conclude that it is a religious allegory or parable.

The inclusion of a painting of The Last Judgment in the background of Vermeer’s Woman Holding A Balance has led many to conclude that it is a religious allegory or parable, although there is no consensus on the exact meaning intended.

Sir Christopher Wren (UK: England, 1632-1723) architect
Sheldonian Theatre. Oxford (1664-1668)
Royal Observatory. Greenwich, UK (1675-1676)
Monument to the Great Fire of London. With Robert Hooke. London (1671-1677)
Trinity College Library. Cambridge (1676-1684)
Royal Hospital. Chelsea, London (1682-1692)
Façade, Hampton Court Palace. Richmond-upon-Thames, Greater London (1689-1700)
St. Paul’s Cathedral (Cathedral Church of St. Paul the Apostle). London (1673-1711)
Royal Naval Hospital. Greenwich, UK (1696-1715)

A portion of the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, UK, which was designed by Christopher Wren.

A portion of the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, UK, which was designed by Christopher Wren.

Jules Hardouin-Mansart (France, 1646-1708) architect
Palace of Versailles. Versailles (1675-1708)
Château de Fontainebleau. Fontainebleau, France (1676-1708)

Jules Hardouin-Mansart designed many aspects of the Palace of Versailles, including the Orangerie, shown here. Photo by Rachel Kaplan.

Jules Hardouin-Mansart designed many aspects of the Palace of Versailles, including the Orangerie, shown here. Photo by Rachel Kaplan.

Robert de Cotte (France, 1656-1735) architect
Palace of Versailles. Versailles (1685-1710)

Architect Robert de Cotte designed several parts of the Palace of Versailles, including the Salon d'Hercules.

Architect Robert de Cotte designed several parts of the Palace of Versailles, including the Salon d’Hercules, with its marvelous ceiling fresco.

Hyacinthe Rigaud (France, 1659-1743) painter
Portrait of Louis XIV (1701)

Detail of Rigaud's Portrait of Louis XIV, showing the king's feet.

Detail of Rigaud’s Portrait of Louis XIV, showing the king’s feet.

Nicholas Hawksmoor (UK: England, c. 1661-1736) architect
West Towers, Westminster Abbey. London (1722-1745)

Nicholas Hawksmoor designed the prominent towers on the western facade of Westminster Abbey.

Nicholas Hawksmoor designed the prominent towers on the western facade of Westminster Abbey.

Guillaume Coustou the Elder (France, 1677-1746) sculptor
Horses Restrained by Grooms (The Marly Horses) (1739-1745)

A view of one of the pair of sculptures by Coustou known as The Marly Horses.

A view of one of the pair of sculptures by Guillaume Coustou the Elder known as The Marly Horses.

Jean-Antoine Watteau (France, 1684-1721) painter
Embarkation for Cythera (1717)
Pierrot, formerly known as Gilles (1719)
The Italian Comedians (1720)
Mezzetin (1720)
L’Enseigne de Geraint (1720-1721)
Pilgrimage to Cythera (1721)

L’Enseigne de Geraint, a painting by Jean-Antoine Watteau.

L’Enseigne de Geraint, by Jean-Antoine Watteau, was intended to be a shop sign for his friend Edme Francois Geraint, an art dealer.

Balthasar Neumann (Germany, 1687-1753) architect
Würzburg Residenz. Würzburg, Germany (1720-1744)
Schloss Bruchsal (Bruchsal Palace). Bruchsal, Germany (1728–1750)
Interior, St. Paulinus’ Church. Trier, Germany (1734-1757)
Basilika Vierzehnheiligen (Basilica of the Fourteen Holy Helpers). Bad Staffelstein, Germany (1743-1772)
Neresheim Abbey (Abbey of Sts. Ulrich and Afra). Neresheim, Germany (1747–1792)

A view of the interior of Balthazar Neumann's Schloss Bruchsal.

A view of the interior of Balthasar Neumann’s Schloss Bruchsal, showing the double staircases.

Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh II (India, 1688-1743) political leader, scientist
Jantar Mantar (five locations including Jaipur & Delhi, India) (1726-1735)

The Samrat Yantra, shown here at Jaipur, at 90 feet tall, is the largest instrument of the Jantar Mantar. It functions as a giant sundial.

The Samrat Yantra, shown here at Jaipur, at 90 feet tall, is the largest instrument of the Jantar Mantar. It functions as a giant sundial.

Giovanni Battista Tiepolo (Italy, 1696-1770) painter, printmaker
Frescoes, Würzburg Residence. Würzburg, Germany (1750-1753)
Abraham and the Three Angels (c. 1770)

Detail of the immense ceiling fresco known as Apollo and the Continents by Giovanni Batista Tiepolo, showing a host of angels carrying the portrait of the Prince-Bishop of Würzburg. heavenward.

Detail of the immense ceiling fresco known as Apollo and the Continents by Giovanni Battista Tiepolo, showing a host of angels carrying the portrait of the Prince-Bishop of Würzburg. heavenward.

William Hogarth (UK: England, 1697-1764) painter, printmaker
Emblematical Print on the South Sea Scheme (c. 1721)
The Bad Taste of the Town (Masquerades and Operas) (1724)
A Harlot’s Progress (series of six) (1731)
A Rake’s Progress (series of eight) (1732-1733)
Four Times of the Day (set of four) (1738)
Portrait of Captain Thomas Coram (1740)
Marriage à-la-mode (series of six) (1743-1745)
Industry and Idleness (series of twelve) (1747)
The Gate of Calais (The Roast Beef of Old England) (1749)
Beer Street and Gin Lane (two prints) (1751)
The Four Stages of Cruelty (set of four) (1751)

In ___, William Hogarth produced two prints warning of the evils of alcohol abuse, Beer Street (shown above) and Gin Lane.

In 1751, William Hogarth produced two prints in support of legislation restricting the availability of hard liquor.  Gin Lane shows the horrors of drinking gin, while Beer Street (shown above) celebrates the conviviality induced by drinking beer.

Canaletto (Giovanni Antonio Canal) (Italy, 1697-1768) painter, printmaker
The Stonemason’s Yard (Venice: Campo Santa Vidal and Santa Maria Della Carita) (1725-1730)
The Bucintoro Returning to the Molo on Ascension Day (1730)

Detail of Canaletto's painting The Stonemason's Yard.

Detail of Canaletto’s painting The Stonemason’s Yard.

Ange-Jacques Gabriel (France, 1698-1782) architect
Château de Fontainebleau. Fontainebleau, France (1750-1754)

Ange-Jacques Gabriel designed the Gros Pavilion at the end of the Louis XV wing of the Château de Fontainebleau.

Ange-Jacques Gabriel designed the Gros Pavilion at the end of the Louis XV wing of the Château de Fontainebleau.

Jean-Baptiste-Siméon Chardin (France, 1699-1779) painter
The Ray (The Skate) (1728)
The Buffet (1728)
Woman Sealing a Letter (c. 1733)
Boy with a Top (Child with Top) (c. 1735)
The Young Schoolmistress (c. 1735-1736)
The Young Draughtsman (1737)
Return from the Market (1739)
The Governess (1739)
The Soap Bubble (Blowing Bubbles) (1739)
The Kitchen Maid (Woman Cleaning Turnips) (1738-1740)
Saying Grace (The Prayer Before Meal; Le Bénédicité) (1740)
Still Life with Jar of Olives (1760)
The Silver Goblet (1769)
Self-Portrait with an Eyeshade (1775)

Saying Grace, by Jean-Baptiste-Siméon Chardin, is one of many paintings depicting the life and habits of the growing French middle class.

Saying Grace, by Jean-Baptiste-Siméon Chardin, is one of many paintings depicting the life and habits of the growing French middle class.

François Boucher (France, 1703-1770) painter
Venus Demanding Arms from Vulcan for Aeneas (1732)
The Rape of Europa (1732-1734)
Rinaldo and Armida (1734)
Diana Leaving Her Bath (1742)
The Interrupted Sleep (1750)
The Toilet of Venus (1751)
Resting Girl (Louise O’Murphy) (Cologne) (1751)
Nude Lying on a Sofa (Girl Reclining; Louise O’Murphy) (Munich) (1752)
Portrait of Madame Pompadour (Munich) (1756)
Vulcan Presenting Venus with Arms for Aeneas (1757)

A painter of the French Court, Boucher often applied his Rococo style to mythological subjects, as here in Diana Leaving Her Bath.

A painter of the French Court, Boucher often applied his Rococo style to mythological subjects, as here in Diana Leaving Her Bath.

Pompeo Batoni (Italy, 1708-1787) painter
Portrait of Thomas William Coke. Holkham Hall, Holkham, UK (1773-1774)

Detail of Pompeo Batoni's Portrait of Thomas William Coke. Batoni's specialty was painting souvenir portraits for Britons visiting Italy on the Grand Tour.

Detail of Pompeo Batoni’s Portrait of Thomas William Coke, showing the subject’s clothing. Batoni’s specialty was painting souvenir portraits for Britons visiting Italy on the Grand Tour.

Francesco Guardi (Italy, 1712-1793) painter
The Gray Lagoon (Gondolas on the Lagoon) (1765)

Like Canaletto, Francesco Guardi specialized in Venetian veduta, highly detailed paintings of the city's sights. The Gray Lagoon is atypical in its sparseness.

Like Canaletto, Francesco Guardi specialized in Venetian vedute, highly detailed paintings of the city’s sights. The Gray Lagoon is atypical in its sparseness.

Jean-Baptiste Pigalle (France, 1714-1785) sculptor
Mercury Attaching His Wings (Mercury Tying His Sandals). Two versions: (1) The Louvre, Paris, France; (2) Sans Souci Castle, Berlin, Germany (1739-1745)
Voltaire (1776)

Detail of Pigalle's statue of Voltaire, showing the hand. The sculpture was attacked at the time for its 'warts and all' realism.

Detail of Pigalle’s statue of Voltaire, showing the hand. The sculpture was attacked at the time for its ‘warts and all’ realism.

Étienne-Maurice Falconet (France, 1716-1791) sculptor
Monument to Peter the Great (The Bronze Horseman). Senate Square, St. Petersburg (1770-1782)

A view of Falconet's Monument to Peter the Great, in St. Petersburg.

A view of Falconet’s Monument to Peter the Great, in St. Petersburg.

Thomas Gainsborough (UK: England, 1727-1788) painter
Conversation in a Park (1745)
Mr. and Mrs. Andrews (1748-1750)
The Painter’s Daughters Chasing a Butterfly (1756)
Portrait of Ann Ford (later Mrs. Thicknesse) (1760)
Portrait of Mary, Countess Howe (1760-1764)
River Landscape (1768-1770)
Jonathan Buttall (The Blue Boy) (1770)
Portrait of Mrs. Graham (1775-1777)
The Watering Place (1777)
The Cottage Door (Cincinnati) (1778)
The Cottage Door (Huntington Library) (1780)
Portrait of a Lady in Blue (1780)
The Mall in St. James Park (1784)
Mr. and Mrs. William Hallett (The Morning Walk) (1785)
Portrait of Mrs. Sarah Siddons (1785)
Portrait of Mrs. Richard Brinsley Sheridan (1785-1787)
Her Grace Georgiana Cavendish, Duchess of Devonshire (1785-1787)

Thomas Gainsbourough's portrait of Mr. and Mrs. Hallett is also known as The Morning Walk.

Thomas Gainsbourough’s portrait of Mr. and Mrs. William Hallett is also known as The Morning Walk.

Jean-Honoré Fragonard (France, 1732-1806) painter, printmaker
The Swing (1767)

Detail of Fragonard's Rococo painting The Swing, showing the lady swinger's cuckold husband and two Cupids.

Detail of Fragonard’s Rococo painting The Swing, showing the lady swinger’s cuckolded husband and two Cupids.

Joseph Wright of Derby (UK: England, 1734-1797) painter
An Experiment on a Bird in the Air Pump (1767-1768)

Detail from Joseph Wright of Derby's An Experiment on a Bird in the Air Pump, showing the scientist and his victim.

Detail from Joseph Wright of Derby’s An Experiment on a Bird in the Air Pump, showing the scientist and his victim.

Matvey Kazakov (Russia, 1738-1812) architect
The Kremlin (Kremlin Senate). Moscow (1776-1787)

Matsay Kruschev designed the Kremlin Senate in Moscow, shown here.

Matvay Kazakov designed the Kremlin Senate in Moscow, shown here.

John Singleton Copley (US/UK: England, 1738-1815) painter
Watson and the Shark (three versions) (1778-1782)

Detail of John Singleton Copley's Watson and the Shark.

Detail of John Singleton Copley’s Watson and the Shark.

Benjamin West (US/UK, 1738-1820) painter
The Death of General Wolfe (1770)

Detail from Benjamin West's Death of General Wolfe.

Detail from Benjamin West’s Death of General Wolfe.

Henry Fuseli (Switzerland/UK: England, 1741-1825) painter, draughtsman
The Nightmare (1781)

Detail of Fuseli's Nightmare, showing the incubus sitting on the sleeping woman's chest.

Detail of Fuseli’s Nightmare, showing the incubus sitting on the sleeping woman’s chest.

Jean-Antoine Houdon (France, 1741-1828) sculptor
Portrait of Voltaire, Seated (1781)

A side view of Houdon's Voltaire, Seated.

A side view of Houdon’s Voltaire, Seated.

Thomas Jefferson (US, 1743-1826) architect
Virginia State Capitol. With Charles-Louis Clérisseau. Richmond, Virginia (1788)
Addition, George Divers House (now ‘Jefferson Room’, Farmington Country Club). Charlottesville, Virginia (1802-1803)
Monticello. Near Charlottesville, Virginia (1768–1809)
Barboursville (House of James Barbour). Barboursville, Virginia (1822) (burned 1884, leaving ruins)
Charlotte County Courthouse. Charlotte Courthouse, Virginia (1822-1823)
Poplar Forest. Near Lynchburg, Virginia (1806–1826)
Academical Village, University of Virginia (including The Lawn and the Rotunda). Charlottesville, Virginia (1817-1826) (rotunda burned 1895, rebuilt 1898-1899)

The foyer of Monticello, the home that Thomas Jefferson for himself and his family in Virginia.

The foyer of Monticello, the home that Thomas Jefferson for himself and his family in Virginia.

Francisco Goya (Spain, 1746-1828) painter, printmaker
The Naked Maja (1797-1800)
Charles IV of Spain and His Family (1800-1801)
The Clothed Maja (1800-1805)
The Colossus (1808-1812) (attribution in question)
The Third of May, 1808 (1814)
Disasters of War (series of 82 prints) (1810-1820)
Saturn Devouring His Son (1819-1823)
Witches’ Sabbath (The Great He-Goat) (1819-1823)
Fantastic Vision (Asmodea) (1819-1823)
A Pilgrimage to San Isidro (1819-1823)
The Dog (1819-1823)

Detail from Goya's Third of May, 1808.

Detail from Goya’s Third of May, 1808.

Jacques-Louis David (France, 1748-1825) painter, draughtsman
Belisarius Begging for Alms (1781)
Andromache Mourning Hector (1783)
The Oath of the Horatii (1785)
The Death of Socrates (1787)
The Lictors Bring to Brutus the Bodies of His Sons (1789)
Death of Marat (1793)
The Tennis Court Oath (1790-1794)
The Intervention of the Sabine Women (1799)
Napoleon Crossing the Alps (Napoleon at the Saint-Bernard Pass) (1800-1801)
Portrait of Madame Récamier 
(1800)
The Consecration of the Emperor Napoleon and the Coronation of Empress Joséphine on December 2, 1804 (The Coronation of Napoleon) (1807)
The Emperor Napoleon in His Study at the Tuileries (1812)
Mars Being Disarmed by Venus and the Three Graces (1824)

Jacques-Louis David's The Intervention of the Sabine Women.

Jacques-Louis David’s The Intervention of the Sabine Women.

Kitagawa Utamaro (Japan, c. 1753-1806) painter, printmaker
Poem of the Pillow (1788)
Ten Types in the Physiognomic Study of Women (series of prints) (1792–1793)
Three Beauties of the Present Day (c. 1793)
Portrait of the Waitress Okita from the Naniwaya Teahouse (1793)
Great Themes in Classical Love Poetry (Women in Love)
 (series of prints) (1793–1794)
Array of Supreme Beauties of the Present Day (series of prints) (1794)
The Chushingura Drama Parodied by Famous Beauties (series of 12 prints) (1794-1795)
Twelve Hours in the Pleasure Quarters of Yoshiwara (Twelve Hours of the Green Houses) (series of prints) (1794–1795)
Woman Wiping Sweat (1798)

Woman Wiping Away Sweat, a ukiyo-e print by Kitigawa Utamaro.

Woman Wiping Sweat, a ukiyo-e woodblock print by Kitigawa Utamaro.

Henry Raeburn (UK: Scotland, 1756-1823) painter
The Reverend Robert Walker Skating on Duddingston Loch (The Skating Minister) (attribution in question) (c. 1795-1799)

Detail of The Skating Minister, which many believe is not the work of Henry Raeburn but of French painter Henri-Pierre Danloux.

Detail of The Skating Minister, which many believe is not the work of Henry Raeburn but of French painter Henri-Pierre Danloux.

Antonio Canova (Italy, 1757-1822) sculptor
Psyche Revived by Cupid’s Kiss (Psyche Awakened by Eros; Psyche and Cupid) (1787-1793)

Detail of Canova's Psyche Awakened by Cupid's Kiss.

Detail of Canova’s Psyche Awakened by Cupid’s Kiss.

William Blake (UK England, 1757-1827) painter, printmaker
Oberon, Titania and Puck with Fairies Dancing (1786)
Songs of Innocence (1789)
The Ancient of Days (illustration for Europe: A Prophecy) (1794)
The Body of Abel found by Adam and Eve (c. 1825-1826)
The Circle of the Lustful: Francesca da Rimini (The Lovers’ Whirlwind) (illustration for The Divine Comedy: Inferno) (1826-1827)
Jerusalem The Emanation of the Giant Albion (1804-1820)
The Book of Job (1826)

William Blake's The Body of Abel found by Adam and Eve.

William Blake’s The Body of Abel found by Adam and Eve.

James Hoban (Ireland/US, c. 1758-1831) architect
The White House. Washington D.C. (1792-1801)

After designing the original White House, James Hoban rebuilt the South Portico (shown here) in 1824 following the burning of the building in the War of 1812. The second floor porch was added during the Truman Administration.

After designing the original White House, James Hoban rebuilt the South Portico (shown here) in 1824 following the burning of the building in the War of 1812. The second floor porch was added during the Truman Administration.

William Thornton (UK: England/US, 1759-1828) painter, architect
U.S. Capitol. Washington, D.C. (1793-1802)

A model of William Thornton's original design for the U.S. Capitol.

A model of William Thornton’s original design for the U.S. Capitol.

Katsushika Hokusai (Japan, 1760-1849) painter, printmaker
Hokusai Manga (15 volumes) (1814)
The Great Wave off Kanagawa (from Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji) (1826-1833)
South Wind, Clear Sky (Red Fuji) (from Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji) (1826-1833)
A Storm Below the Summit (from Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji) (1826-1833)
The Coast of Seven Leagues in Kamakura (from Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji) (1826-1833)
Nihonbashi Bridge in Edo (from Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji) (1826-1833)
One Hundred Views of Mt. Fuji (series) (1834)
Peonies and Butterfly (1834)
The Dragon of Smoke Escaping from Mt. Fuji (1849)

Two facing pages showing prints from Katshushika Hokusai's woodblock series One Hundred Views of Mt. Fuji.

Two facing pages showing a print from Katshushika Hokusai’s woodblock series One Hundred Views of Mt. Fuji.

Charles Bulfinch (US, 1763-1844) architect
U.S. Capitol. Washington, D.C. (1818-1829)

Charles Bulfinch designed the central, domed building of the Capitol, shown here in 1846. The dome was replaced in the 1860s after the extension of the east and west wings.

Charles Bulfinch designed the central, domed building of the Capitol, shown here in 1846. The Pantheon-style dome was replaced by a much larger white dome in the 1860s after the extension of the north and south wings.

Benjamin Henry Latrobe (UK: England/US, 1764-1820) architect
The White House. Washington, D.C. (1801)
U.S. Capitol. Washington, D.C. (1803-1817)

Benjamin Latrobe designed much of the original interior space of the U.S. Capitol, including the original Supreme Court chamber, shown here.

Benjamin Latrobe designed much of the original interior space of the U.S. Capitol, including the original Supreme Court chamber, shown here.

Joseph Nicéphore Niépce (France; 1765-1833) photographer
View from the Window at Le Gras (1826)

The first photograph, from 1826, "View from the Window at Le Gras."

The first permanent photograph, from 1826, “View from the Window at Le Gras.”

Caspar David Friedrich (Germany, 1774-1840) painter
The Cross in the Mountains (Tetschen Altar) (1807-1808)
Winter Landscape with Church (Winter) (1808)
The Abbey in the Oakwood (1808-1810)
Morning in the Riesengebirge (1810-1811)
Winter Landscape (Schwerin) (1811)
Winter Landscape (London) (1811)
Winter Landscape with Church (Dortmund) (1811)
The Cross in the Mountains (Dusseldorf) (1812)
The Cross beside the Baltic (1815)
Chalk Cliffs on Ruegen (1818)
Wanderer above the Sea of Fog (1818)
Two Men Contemplating the Moon (1819)
Moonrise over the Sea (1822)
The Sea of Ice (The Wreck of Hope) (1823-1824)
Graveyard under the Snow (1826)
Man and Woman Contemplating the Moon (1830-1835)
The Giant Mountains (1830-1835)
The Riesengebirge (1830-1835)
Seashore by Moonlight (1835-1836)

Caspar David Friedrich's Two Men Contemplating the Moon.

Caspar David Friedrich’s Two Men Contemplating the Moon.

J.M.W. Turner (UK: England, 1775-1851) painter
Ulysses Deriding Polyphemus (1829)
The Burning of the Houses of Parliament (two versions) (1834–1835)
The Fighting Temeraire (1839)
The Slave Ship (1840)
Snow Storm: Steamboat off a Harbour’s Mouth (1842)
Rain, Steam and Speed – The Great Western Railway (1844)

Detail of Turner's The Slave Ship, showing men and women in chains who have been thrown overboard.

Detail of Turner’s The Slave Ship, showing men and women in chains who have been thrown overboard.

John Constable (UK: England, 1776-1837) painter
Boatbuilding near Flatford Mill (1815)
Weymouth Bay: Bowleaze Cove and Jordon Hill (1816-1817)
The White Horse (1819)
The Hay Wain (1821)
Salisbury Cathedral from the Bishop’s Grounds (1823)
The Leaping Horse (1825)
The Cornfield (1826)
Hadleigh Castle (1829)
Salisbury Cathedral from the Meadows (1831)

John Constable's landscape painting, The Cornfield.

John Constable’s landscape painting, The Cornfield.

Philipp Otto Runge (Germany, 1777-1810) painter, draughtsman
The Hülsenbeck Children (1805-1806)

Detail of Philipp Otto Runge's The Hülsenbeck Children.

Detail of Philipp Otto Runge’s The Hülsenbeck Children.

Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres (France, 1780-1867) painter
Napoleon I on his Imperial Throne (1806)
Portrait of Madame Rivière (1806)
Oedipus and the Sphinx (1808)
The Valpinçon Bather (1808)
La Grand Odalisque (1814)
The Apotheosis of Homer (1827)
Portrait of Louis-François Bertin (1832)
The Turkish Bath (1862)

La Grand Odalisque, by Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres, was controversial, in part because the painter added several vertebrae to create his model's sinuous curves.

La Grand Odalisque, by Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres, was controversial, in part because the painter added several vertebrae to create his model’s sinuous curves.

Robert Smirke (UK: England, 1780-1867) architect
British Museum. London (1823-1857)

The King's Library (shown here), designed by Robert Smirke, was the first room of the British Museum to be completed.

The King’s Library (shown here), designed by Robert Smirke, was the first room of the British Museum to be completed.

Robert Mills (US, 1781-1855) architect
Washington Monument. Washington, D.C. (1848-1854)

The original design for the Washington Monument by Robert Mills (shown here) was altered drastically over time.

The original design for the Washington Monument by Robert Mills (shown here) was altered drastically over time.

John Sell Cotman (UK: England, 1782-1842) painter, illustrator
Crambe Beck Bridge (formerly Chirk Aqueduct) (c. 1804-1807)

John Sell Cotman's painting of Crambe Beck Bridge.

John Sell Cotman’s painting of Crambe Beck Bridge.

Joseph Bové (Osip Bove) (Russia, 1784-1834) architect
The Kremlin (restoration). Moscow (1816-1819)

After Napoleon's troops set fire to the Kremlin upon retreat in 1815, Osip Bove was put in charge of restoring damaged buildings, including the Nikolskaya Tower, shown here.

After Napoleon destroyed much of the Kremlin upon retreat in 1815, Tsar Alexander placed Osip Bove in charge of restoring damaged buildings, including the Nikolskaya Tower, shown here.

Louis Daguerre (France; 1787-1851) photographer
Still Life: The Artist’s Studio (1837)
Boulevard du Temple, Paris (1838)

Detail from Daguerre's Boulevard du Temple, showing the first human figure captured on film.

Detail from Daguerre’s Boulevard du Temple, showing the first human figure captured on film.

Théodore Géricault (France, 1791-1824) painter
The Charging Chasseur (1812)
Wounded Cuirassier Leaving the Field of Battle (1814)
Riderless Races at Rome (1817)
The Raft of the Medusa (1818-1819)
The Derby of Epsom (1821)
The Kleptomaniac (1822)
The Insane Woman (1822)

Théodore Géricault's painting of The Derby at Epsom shows the horses with all four legs off the ground. Photography would later show that, while horses' legs did leave the ground at once, the pose shown here is inaccurate.

Théodore Géricault’s painting of The Derby at Epsom shows the horses with all four legs off the ground. Photography would later show that, while horses’ legs did leave the ground at once, the pose shown here is inaccurate.

Louis Visconti (Italy/France, 1791-1853) architect
Palais du Louvre. Paris (1848-1853)

Among the projects that Louis Visconti undertook at the Palais du Louvre were the Napoléon III apartments, shown here.

Among the projects that Louis Visconti undertook at the Palais du Louvre were the Napoléon III apartments, shown here.

Konstantin Thon (Russia, 1794-1881) architect
The Kremlin (Grand Kremlin Palace). Moscow (1837-1849)
The Kremlin (Kremlin Armory). Moscow (1844-1851)

Konstantin Thon designed the Grand Kremlin Palace, shown here.

Konstantin Thon designed the Grand Kremlin Palace, shown here.

Charles Barry (UK: England, 1795-1860) architect
Houses of Parliament (Palace of Westminster). With Augustus Pugin. London (1836-1860)

The Houses of Parliament are located in the neo-Gothic Palace of Westminster (shown here), which was designed by XX and XX.

The Houses of Parliament are located in the neo-Gothic Palace of Westminster (shown here), which was designed by Charles Barry and Augustus Pugin.

Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot (France, 1796-1875) painter, printmaker
The Bridge at Narni (1826)
View at Narni (1827)
View of the Forest of Fontainebleau (1830-1831)
Venise, La Piazetta (1835)
Hagar in the Wilderness (1835)
Morning, the Dance of the Nymphs (c. 1850)
Le concert champêtre (1857)
Orpheus Leading Eurydice from the Underworld (1861)
Souvenir de Mortefontaine (1864)
Ville d’Avray (1867)
Woman with a Pearl (1868-1870)

A view of the Forest of Fontainebleau, a painting by Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot.

View of the Forest of Fontainebleau, a painting by Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot.

Ando Hiroshige (Japan, 1797-1858) painter, printmaker
The Fifty-three Stations of the Tōkaido (series of prints) (1833-1834)
Famous Places in Kyōto (series of prints) (1834)
Eight Views of Lake Biwa (series of prints) (1835)
The Sixty-nine Stations of the Kiso Kaidō (series of prints) (c. 1837)
One Hundred Famous Views of Edo (series of prints) (1856-1858)
Plum Estate, Kameido (from One Hundred Famous Views of Edo) (1856-1858)
Sudden Shower at Ohashi Bridge (from One Hundred Famous Views of Edo) (1856-1858)
Thirty-Six Views of Mt. Fuji (series of prints) (1852; 1858)
View from Satta Point in the Suruga Bay (from Thirty-Six Views of Mt. Fuji) (1858)

Man on Horseback Crossing a Bridge, one of the woodblock prints from Hiroshige's The Sixty-nine Stations of the Kiso Kaidō.

Man on Horseback Crossing a Bridge, one of the woodblock prints from Hiroshige’s The Sixty-nine Stations of the Kiso Kaidō.

Antoine Claudet (France; 1797-1867) photographer
Portrait of William Henry Fox Talbot (c. 1844)

A daguerrotype of William Henry Fox Talbot by Antoine Claudet.

A daguerrotype of William Henry Fox Talbot by Antoine Claudet.

Eugène Delacroix (France, 1798-1863) painter
Orphan Girl at the Cemetery (1823-1824)
The Massacre at Chios
 (1824)
The Death of Sardanapalus (1827)
Liberty Leading the People (1830)
Women of Algiers in their Apartment (1834)
The Entry of the Crusaders into Constantinople (1840)

Delacroix's Entry of the Crusaders into Constantinople.

Delacroix’s Entry of the Crusaders into Constantinople.

Félix Duban (France, 1798-1870) architect
Sainte-Chapelle (restoration). Paris (1855)

Félix Duban began an extensive renovation project on Sainte-Chapelle in the mid-19th Century.

Félix Duban began an extensive renovation project on Sainte-Chapelle in the mid-19th Century.

Anthony Salvin (UK: England, 1799-1881) architect
Durham Cathedral (renovation). Durham, UK (1858)

Anthony Salvin restored the cloisters of Durham Cathedral (shown here) in 1858.

Anthony Salvin restored the cloisters of Durham Cathedral (shown here) in 1858.

William Henry Fox Talbot (UK: England; 1800-1877) photographer
Latticed Window at Lacock Abbey (negative) (1835)
Latticed Window at Lacock Abbey (positive print) (1839)
The Open Door (c. 1843)

Talbot's The Open Door.

Talbot’s The Open Door.

Hippolyte Bayard (France; 1801-1887) photographer
Self-Portrait as a Drowned Man (1840)

Hippolyte Bayard's Self-Portrait as a Drowned Man is a comment on the way the Paris establishment ignored his photography innovations.

Hippolyte Bayard’s Self-Portrait as a Drowned Man is a comment on the way the Paris establishment ignored his photography innovations.

Jean Baptiste Sabatier-Blot (France; 1801-1881) photographer
Portrait of Louis Daguerre (1844)

An 1844 daguerrotype of Louis Daguerre by Jean-Baptiste Sabatier-Blot.

An 1844 daguerrotype of Louis Daguerre by Jean-Baptiste Sabatier-Blot.

David Octavius Hill (UK: Scotland; 1802-1870) photographer
A Newhaven Fisherman and Three Boys. With Robert Adamson (1845)
The Misses Binny and Miss Monroe With Robert Adamson (1845)

A Fisherman.

A Newhaven Fisherman and Three Boys, by Hill & Adamson.

Hermann Biow (Germany; 1804-1850) photographer
Alexander von Humboldt (1847)

Hermann Biot's photographic portrait of German scientist Alexander von Humboldt.

Hermann Biow’s photographic portrait of German scientist Alexander von Humboldt.

Thomas Ustick Walter (US, 1804-1887) architect
U.S. Capitol. Washington, D.C. (1851-1865)

Thomas Ustick Walter led the team that designed and built the cast iron dome on the U.S. Capitol.

Thomas Ustick Walter led the team that designed and built the cast iron dome on the U.S. Capitol.

Carl Ferdinand Stelzner (Germany; 1805-1894) photographer
Mother Albers, The Family Vegetable Woman (c. 1845)

Stelzner - Mother Albers.

Carl Stelzner’s portrait of Mother Albers, the Family Vegetable Woman.

John Augustus Roebling (Germany/US, 1806-1869) architect/civil engineer
Brooklyn Bridge. New York, US (1869-1883)

John Augustus Roebling didn't live to see the completion of the Brooklyn Bridge he designed in 1883. He died in 1869 from a tetanus infection after his toes were amputed due to an accident on the bridge construction site.

John Augustus Roebling didn’t live to see the completion of the Brooklyn Bridge he designed in 1883. He died in 1869 from a tetanus infection after his toes were amputated due to an accident on the bridge construction site.

Emilio De Fabris (Italy, 1808-1883) architect
Florence Cathedral. Florence (1876-1887)

In the late 19th Century, Emilio de Fabris completed the exterior decoration of Florence Cathedral using polychrome marble colored white, green and red.

In the late 19th Century, Emilio de Fabris completed the exterior decoration of Florence Cathedral using polychrome marble colored white, green and red.

Robert Cornelius (US; 1809-1893) photographer
Self-Portrait (1839)

Self-portrait of Robert Cornelius.

Self-portrait of Robert Cornelius.

Hector Lefuel (France, 1810-1880) architect
Palais du Louvre. Paris (1853-1868)

Hector-Martin Lefuel rebuilt the Cour Napoléon, northern Richelieu wing (shown here), in the Second Empire style.

Hector-Martin Lefuel rebuilt much of the Louvre, including the north portion of the Richelieu wing, near the Cour Napoléon (shown here), in the Second Empire style.

Sir George Gilbert Scott (UK: England, 1811-1878) architect
Durham Cathedral (renovation). Durham, UK (1854-1859)

In the 1870s, Sir George Gilbert Scott conducted the renovation of the central tower of Durham Cathedral (shown above).

In the 1870s, Sir George Gilbert Scott conducted the renovation of the central tower of Durham Cathedral (shown above).

George Caleb Bingham (US, 1811-1879) painter
Fur Traders Descending the Missouri (1845)

Detail of George Caleb Bingham's Fur Traders Descending the Missouri.

Detail of George Caleb Bingham’s Fur Traders Descending the Missouri.

Augustus Pugin (UK: England, 1812-1852) architect
Houses of Parliament (Palace of Westminster). With Charles Barry. London (1836-1852)

Among the many astonishing rooms in the Palace of Westminster is the Chamber of the House of Lords (see above).

Among the many astonishing rooms in the Palace of Westminster is the Chamber of the House of Lords (see above).

Oscar Gustave Rejlander (Sweden/UK: England; 1813-1875) photographer
Two Ways of Life (1857)

Two Ways of Life is a composite of many separate negatives.

Two Ways of Life is a composite of many separate negatives.

Eduard Riedel (Germany, 1813-1885) architect
Neuschwanstein Castle. Hohenschwangau, Germany (1869-1882)

A view of Throne Hall inside Neuschwanstein Castle.

A view of Throne Hall inside Neuschwanstein Castle.

Jean-François Millet (France, 1814-1875) painter
The Gleaners (1857)

Detail of Jean-Francois Millet's The Gleaners.

Detail of Jean-Francois Millet’s The Gleaners.

Louis-Auguste Bisson (France; 1814-1876) photographer
Ascension of Mont-Blanc (series). With Auguste-Rosalie Bisson (1861)

Ascension of Mont Blanc.

One of the photographs in the series Ascension of Mont Blanc.

Julia Margaret Cameron (India/UK: England; 1815-1879) photographer
Annie (1864)
Paul and Virginia (c. 1864)
Whisper of the Muse (Portrait of George Frederic Watts) (1865)
The Mountain Nymph, Sweet Liberty (1866)
Julia Jackson (1867)
Sir John Herschel (1867)

The Mountain Nymph, Sweet Liberty, a photograph by Julia Margaret Cameron.

The Mountain Nymph, Sweet Liberty, a photograph by Julia Margaret Cameron.

Adolph Menzel (Germany, 1815-1905) painter, draughtsman, printmaker
Living Room with the Artist’s Sister (1847)

Detail of Adolf Menzel's Living Room with the Artist's Sister.

Detail of Adolph Menzel’s Living Room with the Artist’s Sister.

Roger Fenton (UK: England; 1819-1869) photographer
Rievaulx Abbey (1854)
Queen Victoria and Prince Albert (1854)
Roger Fenton’s Photographic Van (1854-1855)
Lieutenant Colonel Hallewell, his day’s work over (1855)
British soldiers pose for a photograph during a break (1855)
Calvary Camp, looking towards Kadikoi (1855)
Wounded Zouave (1855)
L’Entente Cordiale (1855)
The Valley of the Shadow of Death (two versions) (1855)

Roger Fenton's photograph Wounded Zouave was taken during the Crimean War.

Roger Fenton’s photograph Wounded Zouave was taken during the Crimean War.

Gustave Courbet (France, 1819-1877) painter
The Stone-Breakers (1849-1850) (lost)
A Burial at Ornans (1849-1851)
The Wounded Man (1844-1854)
The Meeting, or Bonjour, Monsieur Courbet! (1854)
The Painter’s Studio: A Real Allegory (1855)
Jo, La Belle Irlandaise (1865-1866)
The Origin of the World (1866)

Jo, La Belle Irlandaise, a portrait by Gustave Courbet.

Jo, La Belle Irlandaise, a portrait by Gustave Courbet.

Horace Jones (UK: England, 1819-1887) architect
Tower Bridge. London (1886-1894)

The Tower Bridge (shown above) was designed by Horace Jones.

The Tower Bridge (shown above) was designed by Horace Jones.

André-Adolphe-Eugène Disdéri (France; 1819-1889) photographer
Communards in their Coffins (1871)

Communards in their Coffins, a photograph by Andre-Adolphe Eugene Disderi, was taken after the collapse of the Paris Commune of 1871.

Communards in their Coffins, a photograph by Andre-Adolphe Eugene Disderi, was taken after the collapse of the Paris Commune of 1871.

George N. Barnard (US; 1819-1902) photographer
Fire at Ames Mill, Oswego, NY (1853)

Fire at Ames Mills, a photograph by Charles Barnes.

Fire at Ames Mills, a tinted photograph by George Barnard.

Charles Nègre (France; 1820-1880) photographer
Le Stryge (The Vampire) (1853)

Le Stryge is a photograph by Charles Nègre showing fellow photographer Henri Le Secq on the balcony of Notre Dame Cathedral with a gargoyle.

Le Stryge is a photograph by Charles Nègre showing fellow photographer Henri Le Secq on the balcony of Notre Dame Cathedral with a gargoyle.

Nadar (Gaspard-Félix Tournachon) (France; 1820-1910) photographer
Pierrot the Photographer (1854-1855)
Self-Portrait (1855)
Gustave Doré (1855)
Charles Baudelaire (1855-1858)
Young Woman in Profile (c. 1859)
The Catacombs of Paris (series) (1861-1862)
Georges Sand (1864)
Sarah Bernhardt (1865)
The Art of Living a Hundred Years (series) (1886)
The Photographer’s Wife (1890)

One of the photographs Nadar took in the Paris catacombs, using mannequins due to the long exposure times in the dim light.

One of the photographs Nadar took in the Paris catacombs, using mannequins due to the long exposure times in the dim light.

Robert Adamson (UK: Scotland; 1821-1848) photographer
A Newhaven Fisherman and Three Boys. With David Octavius Hill (1845)
The Misses Binny and Miss Monroe. With David Octavius Hill (1845)

Misses Binny and Miss Monroe, a portrait by Hill and Adamson.

Misses Binny and Miss Monroe, a portrait by Hill and Adamson.

Alexander Gardner (UK: Scotland/US; 1821-1882), photographer
Civil War Battlefield, Antietam (1861)
President Lincoln on the Battlefield at Antietam (1862)

Alexander Gardner's iconic photo of dead soldiers on the Antietam battlefield.

Alexander Gardner’s iconic photo of dead soldiers on the Antietam battlefield.

Ford Madox Brown (UK: England, 1821-1893) painter
The Last of England (1852-1855)
Work (1852-1865)

Detail of Ford Madox Brown's Work, showing a shady character.

Detail of Ford Madox Brown’s Work, showing a shady character.

Ren Xiong (China, 1823-1857) painter
Self-Portrait (1850-1857)

Detail of Ren Xiong's Self-Portrait.

Detail of Ren Xiong’s Self-Portrait.

Charles Garnier (France, 1825-1898) architect
Paris Opera House (Palais Garnier) (1861-1875)

The ballroom of Charles Garnier's Paris Opera House.

The ballroom of Charles Garnier’s Paris Opera House.

Gustave Moreau (France, 1826-1898) painter
Orpheus (Thracian Girl Carrying the Head of Orpheus) (1865)
The Apparition (two versions) (1874-1876)

Detail of Gustave Moreau's Orpheus, showing the precariously perched musical shepherds.

Detail of Gustave Moreau’s Orpheus, showing the precariously perched musical shepherds.

Frederic Edwin Church (US, 1826-1900) painter
Cotopaxi (1862)

Church's portrait of the erupting volcano Cotopaxi.

Church’s portrait of the erupting volcano Cotopaxi.

Auguste-Rosalie Bisson (France: 1826-1900) photographer
Ascension of Mont-Blanc (series). With Louis-Auguste Bisson (1861)

One of a series of photographs by the Bisson brothers of the Ascent of Mont Blanc, the highest peak in the Alps.

One of a series of photographs by the Bisson brothers of the Ascent of Mont Blanc, the highest peak in the Alps.

Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux (France, 1827-1875) painter, sculptor
The Dance (1865-1869)

Carpeaux's The Dance was designed to adorn the XXX in Paris.

Carpeaux’s The Dance was designed to adorn Garnier’s Paris Opera House.

Arnold Böcklin (Switzerland, 1827-1901) painter
The Isle of the Dead (Basel) (1880)
The Isle of the Dead (New York) (1880)
The Isle of the Dead (Berlin) (1883)
The Isle of the Dead (Berlin) (1884) (destroyed)
The Isle of the Dead (Leipzig) (1886)

Detail of Böcklin's Isle of the Dead (1883, Berlin), showing the boat and its passengers.

Detail of Böcklin’s Isle of the Dead (1883, Berlin), showing the boat and its passengers.

August Schoenborn (Germany/US, 1827-1902) architect
U.S. Capitol. Washington, D.C. (1851-1865)

August Schoenborn, a member of the team building the U.S. Capitol dome (shown here from the inside), is credited with several crucial design innovations.

August Schoenborn, a member of the team building the U.S. Capitol dome (shown here from the inside), is credited with several crucial design innovations.

John Everett Millais (UK: England, 1829-1896) painter
Lorenzo and Isabella (1849)
Christ in the House of his Parents (1850)
The Return of the Dove to the Ark (1851)
A Huguenot on St. Bartholomew’s Day (1852)
Ophelia (1851-1853)
Autumn Leaves (1855-1856)
The Blind Girl (1856)
Chill October (1870)
The Boyhood of Raleigh (1871)
The Two Princes Edward and Richard in the Tower (1878)
Cherry Ripe (1879)
Bubbles (1886)

A Huguenot on St. Bartholemew's Day, by John Millias.

A Huguenot on St. Bartholemew’s Day, by John Millias.

Carleton E. Watkins (US; 1829-1916) photographer
Yosemite Valley from the Best General View (1866)
Cape Horn, Columbia River, Oregon (1867)

Cape Horn, Columbia River, Oregon, a photograph by Carleton Wilkins.

Cape Horn, Columbia River, Oregon, a photograph by Carleton Wilkins.

Henry Peach Robinson (UK: England; 1830-1901) photographer
Fading Away (1858)

Henry Peach Robinson created the photograph Fading Away by combining five separate negatives.

Henry Peach Robinson created the photograph Fading Away by combining five separate negatives.

Camille Pissarro (Denmark/France, 1830-1903) painter
Entry to the Village of Voisins (1872)
Self-Portrait (1873)
Hoar Frost (The Old Road to Ennery) (1873)
Red Roofs, Pontoise (1877)
Young Peasant Having her Coffee (Young Peasant Woman Drinking Her Café au Lait) (1881)
The Shepherdess (1886)
La Place du Theatre Francais (1898)
Boulevard Montmarte at Night (1898)

Camille Pissarro painted Red Roofs, Pointoise in 1877.

Camille Pissarro painted Red Roofs, Pointoise in 1877.

Eadweard Muybridge (UK: England; 1830-1904) photographer
Sallie Gardner at a Gallop (series) (1878)

Eadweard Muybridge's series of photographs of a horse in motion, Sallie Gardner at a Gallop.

Eadweard Muybridge’s series of photographs of a horse in motion, Sallie Gardner at a Gallop.

Étienne-Jules Marey (France; 1830-1904) photographer
Chronophotographic Study of Man Pole Vaulting (1890-1891)

Chronophotographic Study of Man Pole Vaulting, a photograph by Etienne-Jules Marey.

Chronophotographic Study of Man Pole Vaulting, a photograph by Etienne-Jules Marey.

James Clerk Maxwell (UK: Scotland; 1831-1879) scientist, photographer
Tartan Ribbon (color). With Thomas Sutton (1861)

Tartan Ribbon, the first color photograph, is the result of taking three photographs of the same Scottish symbol using differently-colored filters, then combining them.

Tartan Ribbon, the first color photograph, is the result of taking three photographs of the same Scottish symbol using differently-colored filters, then combining them.

Édouard Manet (France, 1832-1883) painter
The Spanish Singer (1860)
Music in the Tuileries Gardens (1862)
Le Dejeuner sur l’Herbe (Luncheon on the Grass) (1863)
Olympia (1863)
The Dead Toreador (1864)
The Balcony (1868)
Luncheon in the Studio (1868)
Boating (1874)
A Bar at the Folies-Bergere (1881-1882)

While Edouard Manet was not an Impressionists, some of his paintings, such as Boating, show his connection to that movement.

While Edouard Manet was not an Impressionist, some of his paintings, such as Boating, show his connection to that movement.

Edward Burne-Jones (UK: England, 1833-1898) painter, designer, stained glass artist
The Golden Stairs (1876-1880)

Detail of The Golden Stairs, by Edward Burne-Jones.

Detail of The Golden Stairs, by Edward Burne-Jones.

Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi (France, 1834-1904) sculptor
Statue of Liberty (1886)

The supporting structures and staircases inside the Statue of Liberty were designed by Gustave Eiffel.

The supporting structures and staircases inside the Statue of Liberty were designed by Gustave Eiffel.

Edgar Degas (France, 1834-1917) painter, sculptor
The Bellilli Family (1859-1860)
Foyer de la Danse (Dance Class at the Opera House) (1872)
Portrait in a New Orleans Cotton Exchange (1873)
The Dance Class (two versions) (1874)
Place de la Concorde (1875)
L’Absinthe (In a Cafe) (1875-1876)
Dancers Practicing at the Barre (1877)
Miss La La at the Cirque Fernando (1879)
Little Dancer of Fourteen Years (1881)
The Tub (Paris) (1886)
Woman in the Bath (Farmington) (1886)

Edgar Degas' Place de la Concorde is also known as Viscount Lepic and his Daughters Crossing the Place de la Concorde.

Edgar Degas’ Place de la Concorde is also known as Viscount Lepic and his Daughters Crossing the Place de la Concorde.

Winslow Homer (US, 1836-1910) painter
Prisoners from the Front (1866)
Snap the Whip (two versions) (1872)
Breezing Up (A Fair Wind) (1873-1876)
The Life Line (1884)
The Fog Warning (1885)
Eight Bells (1886)
The Fox Hunt (1893)
The Gulf Stream (1899)

The Life Line, a painting by Winslow Homer.

The Life Line, a painting by Winslow Homer.

Louis Ducos du Hauron (France; 1837-1920) photographer
Birds (color) (1879)

Ducos Hauron's Birds is an experiment with color photography.

Ducos du Hauron’s Birds is an experiment with color photography.

John Thomson (UK: Scotland; 1837-1921) photographer
The Crawlers (from Street Life in London) (1877)

The Crawlers is one of the photographs in the book Street Life in London.

The Crawlers is one of the photographs in the book Street Life in London.

Paul Cézanne (France, 1839-1906) painter
Louis-Auguste Cezanne, the Artist’s Father, Reading L’Evenement (1866)
A Modern Olympia (1869-1870)
The Boy in the Red Vest (18881890)
The Card Players (series) (1890-1895)
The Basket of Apples (1895)
Mont Sainte-Victoire Seen from the Bibemus Quarry (1897)
Pyramid of Skulls (1901)
The Large Bathers (1898–1906)
Mont Sainte-Victoire from Les Lauves (series) (1902-1906)

The Basket of Apples, a painting by Paul Cezanne.

The Basket of Apples, a painting by Paul Cezanne.

Timothy H. O’Sullivan (Ireland/US; 1840-1882) photographer
A Harvest of Death, Battlefield of Gettysburg (1863)
Ancient Ruins in the Canyon de Chelly (1873)

Ancient Ruins in the Canyon de Chelly, a photography by Timothy O'Sullivan.

Ancient Ruins in the Canyon de Chelly, a photography by Timothy O’Sullivan.

Odilon Redon (France, 1840-1916) painter, printmaker, draughtsman
The Cyclops (c. 1914)

Detail of Odilon Redon's painting Cyclops.

Detail of Odilon Redon’s painting Cyclops.

Auguste Rodin (France, 1840-1917) sculptor
The Age of Bronze (1877)
The Thinker (1880-1881)
The Kiss (1889)
The Burghers of Calais (1889)
The Gates of Hell (1917)

Another side of Rodin's Thinker.

Another side of Rodin’s Thinker.

Claude Monet (France, 1840-1926) painter
The Terrace at Sainte-Adresse (1867)
Women in the Garden (1866-1867)
Impression, Sunrise (1872-1873)
Boulevard des Capucines (1873)
Wild Poppies Near Argenteuil (Poppy Field Near Argenteuil) (1873)
Red Boats at Argenteuil (1875)
Woman with a Parasol (1875)
Self-Portrait with a Beret (1886)
The Water Lily Pond (1899)
Water Lilies (1905)
San Giorgio Maggiore at Dusk (Twilight in Venice) (1908-1912)
Reflection of Clouds on the Water Lily Pond (1920)
The Water Lilies: Morning (1918-1926)
The Water Lilies: Clouds (1918-1926)
The Water Lilies: Green Reflections (1918-1926)
The Water Lilies: Setting Sun (1918-1926)
The Water Lilies: Tree Reflections (1918-1926)
The Water Lilies: Clear Morning with Willows (1918-1926)
The Water Lilies: Morning with Willows (1918-1926)
The Water Lilies: The Two Willows (1918-1926)

Claude Monet was __ years old when he painted his Self-Portrait with Beret.

Claude Monet was 46 years old when he painted his Self-Portrait with Beret.

Berthe Morisot (France, 1841-1895) painter
The Harbor at Lorient (1869)
The Mother and Sister of the Artist (1869-1870)
The Cradle (1872)
Reading (1873)
Hide and Seek (1873)
Chasing Butterflies (The Butterfly Hunt) (1874)
In a Park (On the Grass; On the Lawn) (1874)
Hanging the Laundry out to Dry (1875)
Eugene Monet on the Isle of Wight (1875)
Psyche (1876)
Summer Day (1879)
Woman at her Toilette (1875-1880)
In the Dining Room (1875 or 1886)
Julie Manet and her Greyhound Laertes (1893)

In Hanging the Laundry out to Dry, Berthe Morisot shines a light on the rarely-painted lives and work of women house servants.

In Hanging the Laundry out to Dry, Berthe Morisot shines a light on the rarely-painted lives and work of women house servants.

Pierre-Auguste Renoir (France, 1841–1919) painter
Dance at Le Moulin de la Galette (1876)
Madame Charpentier and Her Children (1878-1879)
Luncheon of the Boating Party (1880-1881)
Dance in the Country (1883)
The Large Bathers (1884-1887)
Two Young Girls at the Piano (1892)

A late work, Renoir's Two Young Girls at the Piano contrasts in both subject matter and style with his earlier canvases showing dances and parties.

A late work, Renoir’s Two Young Girls at the Piano contrasts in both subject matter and style with his earlier canvases showing dances and parties.

William Henry Jackson (US; 1843-1942) photographer
Hot Springs on the Gardiner River, Upper Basin (stereograph) (1871)
Mount of the Holy Cross (1873)
Denver, Colorado (color panorama) (1898)

Jackson's 1898 panoramic view of the bustling western city of Denver, Colorado.

Jackson’s 1898 panoramic view of the bustling western city of Denver, Colorado.

Wilhelm Leibl (1844-1900) painter
Three Women in Church (1878-1882)

Three Women in Church, a painting by German realist Wilhelm Leibl.

Three Women in Church, a painting by German realist Wilhelm Leibl.

Henri Rousseau (France, 1844-1910) painter
Myself, Portrait-Landscape (1890)
Surprised! (Tiger in a Tropical Storm) (1891)
The Sleeping Gypsy (1897)
The Hungry Lion Throws itself on the Antelope (1905)
The Snake Charmer (1907)
In the Tropical Forest, Combat between a Tiger and a Buffalo (St. Petersburg) (1908-1909)
The Dream (1910)

Surprised! (Tiger in a Tropical Storm), a painting by Henri Rousseau.

Surprised! (Tiger in a Tropical Storm) is an 1891 painting by Henri Rousseau.

Thomas Eakins (US, 1844-1916) painter, sculptor, photographer
Max Schmitt in a Single Scull (The Champion Single Sculls) (1871)
The Gross Clinic (1875)

Detail of Eakins' The Gross Clinic.

Detail of Eakins’ The Gross Clinic.

Mary Cassatt (US/France, 1844-1926) painter
Spanish Dancer Wearing a Lace Mantilla (1873)
Self-Portrait (1878)
Reading Le Figaro (1878)
Little Girl in a Blue Armchair (1878)
Lilacs on the Window (1879)
Lydia Leaning on her Arms, Seated in Loge (1879)
Self-Portrait (1880)
The Tea (Five O’Clock Tea) (1880)
Young Woman Sewing in a Garden (1880-1882)
Children on the Beach (1884)
Portrait of Alexander Cassatt and his son, Robert Kelso Cassatt (1885)
Lady at the Tea Table (1885)
Child in a Straw Hat (1886)
Girl Arranging her Hair (1886)
In the Omnibus (1890-1891)
Woman Bathing (1891)
The Coiffure (1891)
The Lamp (1891)
The Child’s Bath (The Bath) (1893)
The Boating Party (1893-1894)
Margot in Blue (1902-1903)

Mary Cassatt's painting, Little Girl in a Blue Armchair, from 1878.

Mary Cassatt’s painting, Little Girl in a Blue Armchair, from 1878.

Ilya Repin (Ukraine/Russia, 1844-1930) painter
Barge Haulers on the Volga (1870-1873)

Detail of Ilya Repin's Barge Haulers on the Volga.

Detail of Ilya Repin’s Barge Haulers on the Volga.

Thomas John Barnardo (Ireland/UK: England; 1845-1905) philanthropist, photographer
No. 27, Once a little vagrant; No. 28, Now a little workman. With Thomas John Barnes (c. 1875)

Barnardo and XXX took photos of children when they arrived and then some time later to show the improvements.

Barnardo and Barnes took photos of homeless children when they arrived at the shelter and then some time later to show the improvements.

Ottomar Anschütz (Germany; 1846-1907), photographer
Storks (series) (1884)

One of the photographs in the series Storks, by Ottomar Anschütz.

One of the photographs in the series Storks, by Ottomar Anschütz.

Daniel Hudson Burnham (US, 1846-1912) architect
Montauk Building. With John Wellborn Root. Chicago (1882-1883) (demolished 1902)
Rookery Building. With John Wellborn Root. Chicago (1886)
Monadnock Building. With John Wellborn Root. Chicago (1889-1891)
Masonic Temple. With John Wellborn Root. Chicago (1892) (demolished 1939)
Reliance Building. Chicago (1890-1895)
Flatiron Building. New York City (1902)
Union Station. Washington, D.C. (1907)

Daniel Hudson Burnham designed the Reliance Building in Chicago.

Daniel Hudson Burnham designed the Reliance Building in Chicago.

Gustave Caillebotte (France 1848-1894) painter
Paris Street, Rainy Day (1877)

Detail of Gustave Caillebotte's Paris Street, Rainy Day.

Detail of Gustave Caillebotte’s Paris Street, Rainy Day.

Paul Gauguin (France, 1848-1903) painter
The Vision after the Sermon (Jacob Wrestles with the Angel) (1888)
The Yellow Christ (1889)
La Orana Maria (We Hail Thee Mary) (1891)
Manao Tupapau (The Spirit of the Dead Keeps Watch) (1892)
Day of the God (Mahana No Atua) (1894)
Where do we come from? What are we? Where are we going? (1897)

The Yellow Christ, a painting by Paul Gauguin.

The Yellow Christ, a painting by Paul Gauguin.

Jacob A. Riis (Denmark/US; 1849-1914) photographer
An Ancient Lodger and the Plank on Which She Slept, at Eldridge Police Station (c. 1888-1890)

Jacob Riis's photograph of an Old Lodger.

Jacob Riis’s photograph of an Ancient Lodger, who lived at the Police Station.

Antoni Gaudí (Spain, 1852-1926) architect
Palau Güell (Güell Palace). Barcelona (1886-1888)
Casa Vicens. Barcelona (1883-1889)
Casa Calvet. Barcelona (1898-1900)
Casa Batlló. Barcelona (1904-1906)
Casa Milà (‘La Pedrera’). Barcelona (1906-1912)
Parc Güell. Barcelona (1900-1914)
La Sagrada Familia (Basílica i Temple Expiatori de la Sagrada Família). Barcelona (1882-Present) (under construction)

A view of the interior of Casa Batlló, which was designed by Antoni Gaudí.

A view of the interior of Casa Batlló, which was designed by Antoni Gaudí.

Gertrude Käsebier (US; 1852-1934) photographer
Blessed Art Thou Among Women (1899)
Portrait of Miss N. (1902)
The Red Man (1903)

Blessed Art Thou Among Women is a photograph by Pictorialist photographer Gertrude Käsebier.

Blessed Art Thou Among Women is a photograph by Pictorialist photographer Gertrude Käsebier.

Vincent van Gogh (The Netherlands/France, 1853-1890) painter
The Potato Eaters (1885)
The Night Café (1888)
Sunflowers (private collection) (1888)
Sunflowers (private collection, Japan) (1888) (destroyed)
Sunflowers (Munich) (1888)
Sunflowers (London) (1888)
Café Terrace at Night, Arles (1888)
Starry Night over the Rhone (1888)
Bedroom in Arles (October) (1888)
Bedroom in Arles (September) (two versions) (1889)
Irises (1889)
Self-Portrait (from left side) (1889)
The Starry Night (1889)
The Olive Trees (several versions) (1889)
Olive Trees with the Alpilles in the Background, Saint-Remy (The Olive Trees) (1889)
Sorrowing Old Man (after ‘At Eternity’s Gate’) (1890)
Portrait of Dr. Gachet (two versions) (1890)
Wheatfield with Crows (1890)
The Church at Auvers (1890)

Although less well known than The Starry Night, Vincent van Gogh's Starry Night over the Rhone is also a spectacular vision of light in the darkness.

Although less well known than The Starry Night, Vincent van Gogh’s Starry Night over the Rhone is also a spectacular vision of light in the darkness.

Ferdinand Hodler (Switzerland, 1853-1918) painter
The Night (1889-1890)

Detail of Hodler's The Night, showing the figures on the right.

Detail of Hodler’s The Night, showing the figures on the right.

Gaston Redon (France, 1853-1921)
Palais du Louvre. Paris (1887-1905)

Odilon Redon rebuilt and expanded the Pavilion de Marsan, which then became the site of the Museum of Decorative Arts.

Gaston Redon rebuilt and expanded the Louvre’s Pavilion de Marsan, which then became the site of the Museum of Decorative Arts.

George Davison (UK: England; 1854-1930) photographer
The Onion Field (1889)

Davison's photograph The Onion Field.

George Davison’s pictorialist photograph The Onion Field.

James McNeill Whistler (US/UK: England, 1856-1921) painter
At the Piano (1858-1859)
Symphony No. 1: The White Girl (1862)
Symphony in White, No. 2: The Little White Girl (1864)
Arrangement in Grey and Black: Portrait of the Painter’s Mother (1871)
Nocturne in Blue and Silver: Chelsea (1871-1872)
Arrangement in Grey and Black, No. 2: Portrait of Thomas Carlyle (1872-1873)
Nocturne in Black and Gold: The Falling Rocket (1875)
Nocturne in Blue and Gold: Old Battersea Bridge (1872-1877)

Nocturne in Blue and Gold: Old Battersea Bridge, a painting by James Abbot McNeill Whistler.

Nocturne in Blue and Gold: Old Battersea Bridge, a painting by James Abbot McNeill Whistler.

Louis Sullivan (US, 1856-1924) architect
Auditorium Building. With Denkmar Adler. Chicago (1886-1890)
Wainwright Building. With Denkmar Adler. St. Louis (1890-1891)
Chicago Stock Exchange. With Denkmar Adler. Chicago (1893-1894)
Guaranty Building (now Prudential Building). With Denkmar Adler. Buffalo, New York (1894-1895)
Carson, Pirie, Scott & Co. (now Sullivan Center). Chicago (1899)
National Farmers’ Bank. Owatonna, Minnesota (1907-1908)
Merchants’ National Bank. Grinnell, Iowa (1914)

Louis Sullivan designed the Merchants' National Bank in Grinnell, Iowa.

Louis Sullivan designed the Merchants’ National Bank in Grinnell, Iowa.

John Singer Sargent (US, 1856-1925) painter, draughtsman
The Daughters of Edward Darley Boit (1882)

Detail of John Singer Sargent's painting The Daughters of Edward Darley Boit.

Detail of John Singer Sargent’s painting The Daughters of Edward Darley Boit.

Eugène Atget (France; 1857-1927) photographer
Lampshade Peddler (1899-1900)
Versailles Parc (1901)
Avenue des Gobelins (1925)

Avenue des Gobelins, a photograph by Eugène Atget.

Avenue des Gobelins, a photograph by Eugène Atget.

John Merven Carrère (Brazil/US, 1858-1911) architect
U.S. Capitol. Washington, D.C. (1904)

Architects Carrère and Hastings redesigned the East Front of the Capitol building, directly below the dome, in 1904, but the work was not begun until 1956 and was only completed in 1961.

Architects Carrère and Hastings redesigned the east front of the Capitol, directly below the dome, in 1904, but the work did not begin until 1956, to be finished in 1961.

Charles A. Reed (US, 1858-1911) architect
Grand Central Terminal (Grand Central Station). With Alfred T. Fellheimer. New York City (1903-1913)

A wide angle view of the interior of Grand Central Terminal.

A wide angle view of the interior of Grand Central Terminal, which was designed by Reed and Fellheimer.

Georges Seurat (France, 1859-1891) painter
Bathers at Asnieres (1884)
A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grand Jatte (1884-1886)
The Models (1886-1888)
Circus Sideshow (Parade de Cirque) (1887-1888)
Jeune Femme se Poudrant (Young Woman Powdering Herself) (1888-1890)
The Circus (1890-1891)

Georges Seurat's pointillist painting, Jeune Femme se Poudrant.

Georges Seurat’s pointillist painting, Jeune Femme se Poudrant.

Thomas Hastings (US, 1860-1929) architect
U.S. Capitol. Washington, D.C. (1904)

The size of the dome overwhelmed the original east front of the U.S. Capitol, requiring a redesign. Architects Carrère and Hastings provided the plans in 1904, but they were not executed until 1956-1961.

The size of the dome overwhelmed the original east front of the U.S. Capitol, requiring a redesign. Architects Carrère and Hastings provided the plans in 1904, but they were not executed until 1956-1961.

Walter Sickert (Germany/UK: England, 1860-1942) painter, printmaker
Mornington Crescent Nudes (series) (1907)

One of Sickert's Mornington Crescent Nudes, which were painted in a rented apartment in a seedy part of London.

One of Sickert’s Mornington Crescent Nudes, which were painted in a rented apartment in a seedy part of London.

James Ensor (Belgium, 1860-1949) painter, printmaker
Christ’s Entry into Brussels in 1889 (The Entry of Christ into Brussels) (1888)

Detail of James Ensor's painting The Entry of Christ into Brussels, showing the cardinal at the head of the parade/procession.

Detail of James Ensor’s painting The Entry of Christ into Brussels, showing the cardinal at the head of the parade/procession.

Victor Horta (Belgium, 1861-1947) architect
Hôtel Tassel. Brussels (1893-1894)
Maison Autrique. Brussels (1893-1895)
Hôtel Solvay. Brussels (1895-1898)
Maison du Peuple. Brussels (1896-1898) (demolished in 1965)
Hôtel van Eetvelde. Brussels (1897-1901)
Maison & Atelier Horta (now Victor Horta Museum). Brussels (1898-1901)
Hôtel Winssinger (now Galerie Paris-Beijing). Brussels (1894-1903)
Waucquez Department Store (now Comic Strip Museum). Brussels (1903-1905)
Palais des Beaux-Arts (Center for Fine Arts). Brussels (1920-1928)
Central Railway Station. Brussels (1914-1952)

An interior view of Hôtel van Eetvelde, which was designed by Victor Horta.

An interior view of Hôtel van Eetvelde, which was designed by Victor Horta.

Gustav Klimt (Austria, 1862-1918) painter
Judith and the Head of Holofernes (Judith I) (1901)
Beethoven Frieze (1902)
Portrait of Fritza Riedler (1906)
Portrait of Adele Bloch-Bauer I (1907)
Danaë (1907)
The Kiss (1907-1908)

Danaë, a painting by Gustav Klimt.

Danaë, a painting by Gustav Klimt.

Edvard Munch (Norway, 1863-1944) painter, printmaker
The Sick Child (1885-1886)
The Scream (National Gallery, Oslo) (1893)
The Scream (Munch Museum, Oslo) (1893)
Summer Night’s Dream (The Voice) (two versions) (1893)
Ashes (1894)
Death in the Sickroom (1893-1895)
Madonna (1894-1895)
Puberty (1894-1895)
Vampire (Love and Pain) (1895)
The Scream (private collection) (1895)
The Dance of Life (1899-1900)
The Scream (Munch Museum, Oslo) (1910)

This is the first of two paintings by Edvard Munch entitled The Voice (Summer Night).

This is the first of two paintings by Edvard Munch entitled The Voice (Summer Night).

Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (France, 1864-1901) painter, poster-maker
At the Moulin Rouge: The Dance (1890)
Moulin Rouge: La Goulue (poster) (1891)
At the Moulin Rouge (1892)
La Goulue Arriving at the Moulin Rouge (1892)
At the Moulin Rouge: Two Women Waltzing (1892)
Ambassadeurs – Aristede Bruant (poster) (1892)
Jane Avril (poster) (1893)
In the Salon of the Rue des Moulins (1894)
Medical Inspection at the Rue des Moulins (1894)
La Toilette (1896)

Toulouse-Lautrec's painting In the Salon of the XXX, which depicts a famous Parisian brothel.

Toulouse-Lautrec’s painting In the Salon of the Rue des Moulins, which depicts a famous Parisian brothel.

Alfred Stieglitz (US; 1864-1946) photographer
Winter, Fifth Avenue (1892 or 1893)
The Terminal, New York (1892 or 1893)
Venetian Canal (1894)
The Hand of Man (1902)
The Flatiron Building (1903)
The Steerage (1907)
A Snapshot: Paris (1911)
From the Back Window “291” (1915)
Georgia O’Keeffe: A Portrait (1918)
Georgia O’Keeffe: Hands and Thimble (1919)
Equivalent (1929)

Georgia O'Keeffe: Hands and Thimble is a photograph by Alfred Stieglitz.

Georgia O’Keeffe: Hands and Thimble is a photograph by Alfred Stieglitz.

Wassily Kandinsky (Russia/Germany/France, 1866-1944) painter
The Blue Rider (1903)
Church in Murnau (1910)
Composition VI (1913)
Composition VII (1913)
On White II (1923)
Yellow, Red, Blue (1925)
Several Circles (1926)
Composition IX (1936)
Composition X (1939)

Yellow, Red, Blue is an abstract painting by Wassily Kandinsky.

Yellow, Red, Blue is an abstract painting by Wassily Kandinsky.

Pierre Bonnard (France, 1867-1947) painter, printmaker
The Bather (1935)
Nude in the Bathtub (1935)
Nude in the Bath (1936)
Nude in the Bath (1936)
The Large Bath (Nude) (1937-1939)
Nude in Bathtub (Nude in the Bath and Small Dog) (1941-1946)

One of Pierre Bonnard's series Nude in the Bathtub.

One of Pierre Bonnard’s series Nude in the Bath.

Emil Nolde (Denmark/Germany, 1867-1956) painter, printmaker
The Prophet (1912)

Detail of Emil Nolde's print The Prophet.

Detail of Emil Nolde’s print The Prophet.

Frank Lloyd Wright (US, 1867-1959) architect
Wright Home and Studio. Oak Park, Illinois (1888-1889)
William H. Winslow House. River Forest, Illinois (1893)
Unity Temple. Chicago (1904)
Robie House. Chicago (1908-1910)
Taliesin (3rd version). Spring Green, Wisconsin (1925)
Hollyhock House. Los Angeles (1921-1923)
Johnson Wax Headquarters. Racine, Wisconsin (1936)
Fallingwater (Kauffmann Residence). Mill Run, Pennsylvania (1936-1937)
Taliesin West. Scottsdale, Arizona (1937)
Beth Sholom Synagogue. Elkins Park, Pennsylvania (1954)
Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum. New York City (1959)

Hollyhock House, in Los Angeles, was designed by Frank Lloyd Wright.

Hollyhock House, in Los Angeles, was designed by Frank Lloyd Wright.

Peter Behrens (Germany, 1868-1940) architect, designer
AEG Turbine Factory. Berlin (1908-1910)

The interior of the AEG Turbine Factory, which was designed by Peter Behrens.

The interior of the AEG Turbine Factory, which was designed by Peter Behrens.

Arnold Genthe (Germany/US; 1869-1942) photographer
Looking down Sacramento Street, San Francisco (April 18, 1906)

San Francisco Fire by Arnold Genthe.

Arnold Genthe’s photograph of the San Francisco earthquake and fire.

Henri Matisse (France, 1869-1954) painter, sculptor
Woman with a Hat (1905)
The Open Window, Collioure (1905)
Portrait of Madame Matisse (The Green Stripe) (1905)
Luxe, Calme, et Volupte (1904-1905)
Joy of Life (Le Bonheur de Vivre) (1905-1906)
Blue Nude (Souvenir de Biskra) (1907)
The Dessert – Harmony in Red (The Red Room) (1908)
The Dance (1910)
Music (1910)
L’Atelier Rouge (The Red Studio) (1911)
The Piano Lesson (1916)
Large Seated Nude (1922-1929)
The Back IV (1930-1931)
Blue Nude II (1952)

Large seated nude, a bronze sculpture by Henri Matisse.

Large seated nude, a bronze sculpture by Henri Matisse.

Josef Hoffmann (Austria, 1870-1956) architect, designer
Palais Stoclet (Stoclet House). Brussels (1905-1911)

A view of the interior of Stoclet House, which was designed by Josef Hoffmann.

A view of the interior of Stoclet House, which was designed by Josef Hoffmann.

Georges Rouault (France, 1871-1958) painter, draughtsman, printmaker
The Old King (1916-1936)

Detail from Georges Rouault's painting The Old King.

Detail from Georges Rouault’s painting The Old King.

Piet Mondrian (The Netherlands/France/US, 1872 -1944) painter
Trees by the Gein at Moonrise (1907-1908)
View from the Dunes with Beach and Piers, Domburg (1909)
Evening: The Red Tree (1908-1910)
The Gray Tree (1911)
Apple Tree in Bloom (1912)
Still Life with Ginger Pot (1912)
Pier and Ocean (Composition No. 10 in Black and White) (1915)
Composition (1916)
Tableau I (1921)
Composition II in Red, Blue, and Yellow (1930)
Lozenge Composition with Four Yellow Lines (1933)
New York City I (1942)
Place de la Concorde (1938-1943)
Broadway Boogie-Woogie (1942-1943)
Victory Boogie-Woogie (1942–1944)

Tableau 1 is an abstract painting by Piet Mondrian.

Tableau 1 is an abstract painting by Piet Mondrian.

John T. Daniels, Jr. (US; 1873-1948) photographer
Wright Brothers’ First Flight (1903)

The Wright Brothers' first powered flight, December, 1903.

John T. Daniels took this photograph of the Wright Brothers’ first powered flight in December, 1903.

Lewis Hine (US; 1874-1940) photographer
Sadie Pfeifer. 48 inches tall (1908)
Jennie, spinner in Whitnel Cotton Mill (1908)
Child Laborer in Newberry, South Carolina Cotton Mill (1908)
Playground in Tenement Alley (1909)
One a.m. but Young Pin Boys Are Working, Brooklyn, NY (1909)
Newsies at Skeeters Branch, St. Louis, Missouri (c. 1910)
Breaker Boys in Coal Chute, South Pittston, Pennsylvania (1910, 1911)
Making Human Junk (poster) (1915)
Power House Mechanic Working on Steam Pump (1920)

The photograph Child Laborer in Newberry, South Carolina Cotton Mill was taken by Lewis Hine for the National Child Labor Committee.

The photograph Child Laborer in Newberry, South Carolina Cotton Mill was taken by Lewis Hine for the National Child Labor Committee.

Alfred T. Fellheimer (US, 1875-1959) architect
Grand Central Terminal (Grand Central Station). With Charles A. Reed. New York City (1903-1913)

The facade of Grand Central Terminal, which was designed by Reed and Fellsheimer.

The facade of Grand Central Terminal, which was designed by Reed and Fellheimer.

Constantin Brâncusi (Romania/France, 1876-1957) sculptor
The Kiss (1907-1908)
Sleeping Muse (1909-1910)
Portrait of Mademoiselle Pogany (1912)
Princess X (1916)
The Endless Column (1918)
Bird in Space (1923)
Sculptural Ensemble at Târgu Jiu (1935-1938)

According to Romanian sculptor Constantin Brâncuși, any resemblance of Princess X to a certain male body part was unintentional.

According to Romanian sculptor Constantin Brâncuși, Princess X represents Princess Marie Bonaparte in the act of gazing upon herself and any resemblance to a certain male body part is unintentional.

August Sander (Germany; 1876-1964) photographer
Man of the Soil (Farmer from the Westerwald) (1910)
Three Young Farmers in Sunday Dress, Westerwald, Germany (1914)
Country Girls (1925)
Fraternity Student (1925)
High School Student (1926)
Member of Parliament (Democrat) (1927)
Pastry Cook, Cologne (1928)
Bricklayer’s Mate, Cologne (Handyman) (1928)
Three Revolutionaries (Alois Lindner, Erich Mühsam, Guido Kopp) (1929)
Circus Workers (1926-1932)

Country Girls is a photograph by August Sander.

Country Girls is a photograph by August Sander.

Kazimir Malevich (Russia, 1878-1935) painter
Reaper on Red Background (1912-1913)
An Englishman in Moscow (1914)
A Soldier of the First Division (1914)
Black Square (Black Suprematic Square) (1915)
Black Circle (1915)
Red Square: Painterly Realism of a Peasant Woman in Two Dimensions (1915)
Suprematist Painting: Aeroplane Flying (1915)
Suprematist Composition: White on White (1918)
Self-Portrait (1933)

Kazimir Malevich's Cubist collage, A Solider of the First Division, pre-dates his Suprematist creations.

Kazimir Malevich’s Cubist collage, A Solider of the First Division, pre-dates his Suprematist creations.

Paul Klee (Switzerland/Germany, 1879-1940) painter
Flower Myth (1918)
The Twittering Machine (1922)
Senecio (1922)
Red Balloon (1922)
Fish Magic (1925)
The Golden Fish (1925)
Ad Parnassum (1932)
Revolution of the Viaducts (1937)
Death and Fire (1940)
Untitled (Last Still Life) (1940)

Death and Fire is a painting by Paul Klee.

Death and Fire is a painting by Paul Klee.

Edward Steichen (Luxembourg/US; 1879-1973) photographer
Rodin with the Thinker (1902)
J. Pierpont Morgan, Esq. (1903)
The Pond – Moonlight (1904)
The Flatiron Building, NYC (1905)
Brancusi’s Studio (c. 1920)
Constantin Brancusi (1922)
Gloria Swanson (1924)
Greta Garbo (1928)
Mary Heberden (from behind, black dress) (1935)

Edward Steichen's 1928 photographic portrait of Greta Garbo.

Edward Steichen’s 1928 photographic portrait of Greta Garbo.

Franz Marc (Germany, 1880-1916) painter, printmaker
Tiger (1912)

Tiger is a painting by Franz Marc.

Tiger is a painting by Franz Marc.

Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (Germany, 1880-1938) painter, printmaker
Self-Portrait with a Model (1910)
Five Women on the Street
(1913)
Self-Portrait as a Soldier (1915)

Detail of Ernst Ludwig Kirchner's painting Self-Portrait as a Soldier.

Detail of Ernst Ludwig Kirchner’s painting Self-Portrait as a Soldier.

André Derain (France, 1880-1954) painter, sculptor
Portrait of Matisse (1905)

Andre Derain's Fauvist painting Portrait of Matisse.

Andre Derain’s Fauvist painting Portrait of Matisse.

Jacob Epstein (US/UK: England, 1880-1959) sculptor
The Rock Drill (1913-1914) (dismantled)
Torso in Metal from Rock Drill (1916)

The Rock Drill, by Jacob Epstein.

The Rock Drill, by Jacob Epstein, was later disassembled.

Fernand Léger (France, 1881-1955) painter, sculptor, filmmaker
The Wedding (1910-1912)
The Two Sisters (1935)

The Wedding, a Cubist painting by Fernand Léger.

The Wedding, a Cubist painting by Fernand Léger.

Pablo Picasso (Spain/France, 1881-1973) painter, sculptor, collagist
Blue Nude (1902)
The Old Guitarist (1903)
La Vie (1903)
Les Demoiselles d’Avignon (1907)
Three Musicians (1921)
Girl Before A Mirror (1932)
The Weeping Woman (1937)
Guernica (1937)
Las Meninas (after Velázquez) (series) (1957)

Weeping Woman, a painting by Pablo Picasso.

Weeping Woman, a painting by Pablo Picasso.

Umberto Boccioni (Italy, 1882-1916) painter, sculptor
Self-Portrait (1905)
The City Rises (1910)
The Street Enters the House (The Noise of the Street) (1911)
States of Mind I: The Farewells (1911)
States of Mind II: Those Who Go (1911)
States of Mind III: Those Who Stay (1911)
Synthesis of Human Dynamism (1913)
Dynamism of a Cyclist (1913)
Unique Forms of Continuity in Space (1913)
Dynamism of a Soccer Player (1913)
Development of a Bottle in Space (1913)
The Charge of the Lancers (1915)

Umberto Boccioni's Futurist sculpture, Synthesis of Human Dynamism, was later destroyed.

Umberto Boccioni’s Futurist sculpture, Synthesis of Human Dynamism, was later destroyed.

Georges Braque (France, 1882-1963) painter, sculptor, collagist, printmaker
Landscape at La Ciotat (1907)
Road Near L’Estaque (1908)
Large Nude (1908)
Violin and Candlestick (1910)
The Portuguese (1911)
Man with a Guitar (1911-1912)
Woman with a Guitar (1913)
The Gueridon (Still Life with Glass and Newspaper) (1935)
Woman with a Mandolin (1937)
L’Atelier (series of eight) (1949-1955)

The Gueridon, a Cubist painting by Georges Braque.

The Gueridon, a Cubist painting by Georges Braque.

Alvin Langdon Coburn (US/UK: Wales; 1882-1966) photographer
The Octopus (1912)
Vortograph No. 1 (1917)

Alvin Langdon Coburn's photograph The Octopus.

Alvin Langdon Coburn’s photograph The Octopus.

Edward Hopper (US, 1882-1967) painter
House by the Railroad (1925)
Chop Suey (1929)
Early Sunday Morning (1930)
New York Movie (1939)
Office at Night (1940)
Gas (1940)
Nighthawks (1942)

Office at Night, a painting by Edward Hopper.

Office at Night, a painting by Edward Hopper.

William Van Alen (US, 1883-1954) architect
Chrysler Building. New York City (1928-1930)

Detail of the Chrysler Building.

Detail of the Chrysler Building.

Charles Sheeler (US; 1883-1965) photographer
Criss-Crossed Conveyors, River Rouge Plant, Ford Motor Company (1927)
Upper Deck (1928)

Charles Sheeler used his photograph Upper Deck as the basis for an oil painting.

Charles Sheeler used his photograph Upper Deck as the basis for an oil painting.

Walter Gropius (Germany/US, 1883-1969) architect, designer
Fagus Factory. With Adolf Meyer. Alfeld an der Leine, Germany (1910-1911)
Werkbund Exhibition Buildings. Cologne, Germany (1914) (dismantled)
Bauhaus School (Bauhaus Dessau). Dessau, Germany (1925-1932)
Gropius House. Lincoln, Massachusetts (1937)
Harvard University Graduate Center. With The Architects’ Collaborative. Cambridge, Massachusetts (1949-1950)
U.S. Embassy in Athens. With The Architects’ Collaborative & Pericles A. Sakellarios. Athens (1959-1961)
Pan Am Building (now the Metlife Building). With Pietro Belluschi, Emery Roth & Sons. New York City (1958-1963)

Walter Gropius was one of the designers of the Pan Am Building (now the MetLife Building) in New York City.

Walter Gropius was one of the designers of the Pan Am Building (now the MetLife Building) in New York City.

Erich Heckel (Germany, 1883-1970) painter, printmaker
Nude on a Sofa (1909)

Heckel's Nude on a Sofa, from 1909.

Heckel’s Nude on a Sofa, from 1909.

Amedeo Modigliani (Italy/France, 1884-1920) painter, sculptor
The Jewess (1908)
Head (series) (1911-13)
Portrait of Paul Guillaume, Novo Pilota (1915)
Portrait of Moise Kisling (1915)
Madame Pompadour (1915)
The Sculptor Jacques Lipchitz and His Wife Berthe Lipchitz (1916)
Portrait of Beatrice Hastings (1916)
Portrait of Leopold Zborowski (1916)
Seated Nude (1916)
Girl with Braids (1918)
Portrait of Jeanne Hébuterne (1918)
Reclining Nude (Le Grand Nu) (c. 1919)
Self-Portrait (1919)
Gypsy Woman with Child (1919)

Portrait of Beatrice Hastings, a painting by Amedeo Modigliani.

Portrait of Beatrice Hastings, a painting by Amedeo Modigliani.

Max Beckmann (Germany, 1884-1950) painter, draughtsman, printmaker, sculptor
Self-Portrait in Tuxedo (Self-Portrait Smoking) (1927)
Departure (1932-1933)

The right panel of Departure, a triptych by Max Beckmann.

The right panel of Departure, a triptych by Max Beckmann.

Robert Delaunay (France, 1885-1941) painter
Windows Open Simultaneously (First Part, Third Motif) (London) (1912)
Windows Open Simultaneously (First Part, Third Motif) (New York) (1912)
Simultaneous Windows (Second Motif, First Part) (New York) (1912)
Simultaneous Windows on the City (Hamburg) (1912)
The Three Windows, the Tower and the Wheel (New York) (1912)
Windows (New York) (1912)
The Window (Grenoble) (1912)
 A Window (Paris) (1912)

The Window, which is located in Grenoble, France, is one of Robert Delaunay's Simultaneous Windows series.

The Window, which is located in Grenoble, France, is one of Robert Delaunay’s Simultaneous Windows series.

Lawrence Beitler (US; 1885-1960) photographer
The Lynching of Young Blacks – Indiana (1930)

The Lynching of Young Blacks, a photograph by Lawrence Beitler.

The Lynching of Young Blacks, a photograph by Lawrence Beitler.

George Howe (US, 1886-1955) architect
PSFS Building. With William Lescaze. Philadelphia (1929-1932)

A view of the base of the PSFS Building in Philadelphia.

A view of the base of the PSFS Building in Philadelphia.

Edward Weston (US; 1886-1958) photographer
Manuel Hernandez Galvan Shooting (1924)
Excusado (1925)
Nautilus (1927)
Two Shells (1927)
Nude (knees covering face) (1927)
Pepper No. 30 (1930)
Cabbage Leaf (1931)
Nude on Sand, Oceano ((face down, legs apart) (1936)
Dunes, Oceano (darker) (1936)
Dunes, Oceano (lighter) (1936) 
Nude (Santa Monica, Charis) (1936)

Nude (Santa Monica, Charis) is a photograph by Edward Weston.

Nude (Santa Monica, Charis) is a photograph by Edward Weston.

Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (Germany/US, 1886-1969) architect
Barcelona Pavilion. Barcelona (1928-1929) (demolished 1930; reconstructed 1983-1986)
Tugendhat House. Brno, Czech Republic (1930)
Farnsworth House. Plano, Illinois (1946-1950)
Lake Shore Drive Apartments (860-880 Lake Shore Drive). Chicago (1951)
Crown Hall, Illinois Institute of Technology. Chicago (1950-1956)
Seagram Building. With Philip Johnson. New York City (1958)
Neue Nationalgalerie (New National Gallery). Berlin (1962-1968)

Crown Hall at the Illinois Institute of Technology was designed by Mies van der Rohe.

Crown Hall at the Illinois Institute of Technology was designed by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe.

Oskar Kokoshka (Austria, 1886-1980) painter
The Bride of the Wind (The Tempest) (1913-1914)

Detail of Oskar Kokoshka's painting Bride of the Wind.

Detail of Oskar Kokoshka’s painting Bride of the Wind.

James Van Der Zee (US; 1886-1983) photographer
Harlem Couple in Raccoon Coats (1932)

Harlem Couple in Raccoon Coats, a photograph by James Van Der Zee.

Harlem Couple in Raccoon Coats, a photograph by James Van Der Zee.

Juan Gris (Spain/France, 1887-1927) painter, sculptor
The Breakfast Table (Breakfast) (1915)

The Breakfast Table, a painting by Juan Gris.

The Breakfast Table, a painting by Juan Gris.

Erich Mendelsohn (Germany/UK: England/US, 1887-1953) architect
Einstein Tower. Potsdam, Germany (1919-1924)

A side view of Mendelsohn's Einstein Tower.

A side view of Mendelsohn’s Einstein Tower.

Le Corbusier (Switzerland/France, 1887-1965) architect
Villa Savoye. With Pierre Jeanneret. Poissy, France (1928-1929)
Palace of Assembly. Chandigarh, India (1951)
Unité d’Habitation. Marseilles, France (1946-1952)
United Nations Headquarters. With Oscar Niemeyer, Harrison & Abramovitz. New York City (1947-1953)
Notre-Dame-du-Haut. Ronchamp, France (1955)
Convent of La Tourette (Sainte Marie del La Tourette). Eveux-sur-Arbresle, France (1957-1960)
Carpenter Center for the Visual Arts, Harvard University. Cambridge, Massachusetts (1961-1964)
Saint-Pierre. Firminy, France (1971-2006) (construction hiatus from 1975-2003)

Le Corbusier's Villa Savoye, showing the second floor patio.

Le Corbusier’s Villa Savoye, showing the second floor patio.

Marcel Duchamp (France/US, 1887–1968) painter, sculptor
Nude Descending a Staircase, No. 2 (1912)
Bicycle Wheel (1913)
Fountain (1917)
L.H.O.O.Q. (1919)
The Bride Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors, Even (The Large Glass) (1915–1923)
Étant donnés: 1. The Waterfall, 2. The Illuminating Gas (1946–1966)

Marcel Duchamp's final work of art was entitled Étant donnés: 1. The Waterfall, 2. The Illuminating Gas. It requires viewers to gaze through a peephole in a door.

Marcel Duchamp’s final work of art was entitled Étant donnés: 1. The Waterfall, 2. The Illuminating Gas. It requires viewers to gaze through a peephole in a door.

Marc Chagall (Russia (Belarus)/France, 1887-1985) painter, illustrator, stained glass artist
Half Past Three (The Poet) (1911)
I and the Village (1911)
The Fiddler (1912)
The Praying Jew (Rabbi of Vitebsk) (1914)
Birthday (1915-1923)
The White Crucifixion (1938)
Illustrations, Old Testament (series of 105) (1956)
Stained Glass Windows (Abbell Synagogue, Hadassah University Medical Center, Jerusalem) (1962)
Peace (stained glass, UN Headquarters, New York City) (1964)
War (1964-1966)
The America Windows (stained glass, Art Institute of Chicago) (1977)

Birthday is a painting by Marc Chagall.

Birthday is a painting by Marc Chagall.

Georgia O’Keefe (US, 1887-1986) painter
Blue and Green Music (1919-1921)
Lake George (formerly Reflection Seascape) (1922)
Gray Line with Black, Blue and Yellow (1923)
Black Iris III (1926)
Radiator Building – Night, New York (1927)
Oriental Poppies (1928)
Black Cross, New Mexico (1929)
Cow’s Skull: Red, White and Blue (1931)
Cow’s Skull with Calico Roses (1931)
Deer’s Skull with Pedernal (1936)
Black Place No. 1 (1944)
Sky above Clouds IV (1965)

Black Place I is a painting by Georgia O'Keeffe.

Black Place I is a painting by Georgia O’Keeffe.

Gerrit Rietveld (The Netherlands, 1888-1964) architect, designer
Schröder House (Rietvelt Schröder House). Utrecht, The Netherlands (1924)

A view of the interior of the Rietvelt Schröder House.

A view of the interior of the Rietvelt Schröder House.

Giorgio de Chirico (Greece/Italy, 1888-1978) painter
Enigma of an Autumn Afternoon (1909-1910)
Enigma of the Oracle (1909-1910)
The Soothsayer’s Recompense (1913)
The Red Tower (1913)
The Uncertainty of the Poet (1913)
Song of Love (1914)
Gare Montparnasse: The Melancholy of Departure (1914)
The Child’s Brain (1914)
Mystery and Melancholy of a Street (1914)
The Seer (1915)
Metaphysical Interior with Biscuits (1916)
Great Metaphysical Interior (1917)
The Disquieting Muses (1916-1918)

The Soothsayer's Recompense is a painting by Giorgio de Chirico.

The Soothsayer’s Recompense is a painting by Giorgio de Chirico.

Egon Schiele (Austria, 1890-1918) painter
Self-Portrait (1910)
Self-Portrait with Black Vase (1911)
Agony (1912)
Setting Sun (1913)
Death and the Maiden (1914-1915)
Lovers: Self Portrait with Wally (c. 1914-1915)
House with Shingles (1915)
Portrait of Edith Schiele in a Striped Dress (1915)
Mother with Two Children (1915-1917)
Sitting Woman with Legs Drawn Up (Seated Woman with Bent Knee) (1917)
Four Trees (1917)
The Embrace (1917)
The Family (1918)

Death and the Maiden is a painting by Egon Schiele.

Death and the Maiden is a painting by Egon Schiele.

Ossip Zadkine (Belarus/France, 1890-1967) sculptor, painter, lithographer
The Destroyed City (1951-1953)

A silhouetted view of Ossip Zadkine's sculpture The Destroyed City.

A silhouetted view of Ossip Zadkine’s sculpture The Destroyed City.

Paul Strand (US; 1890-1976) photographer
Wall Street (1915)
Blind Woman, New York (1916)
Abstraction, Porch Shadows, Twin Lakes, Connecticut (small triangle) (1916)
Abstraction, Porch Shadows, Twin Lakes, Connecticut (large triangle) (1916)
White Fence, Port Kent (1916)
Wire Wheel (1917)
Lathe No. 3, Akeley Shop, NY (1923)
Cobweb in Rain, Georgetown, Maine (1927)
Young Boy, Gondeville, Charente, France (1951)
The Family, Luzzara, Italy (1953)
Anna Attinga Frafra, Accra, Ghana (1964)

Young Boy, Gondeville, Charente, France is a photograph by Paul Strand.

Young Boy, Gondeville, Charente, France is a 1951 photograph by Paul Strand.

Man Ray (Emmanuel Radnitzky) (US/France; 1890-1976) photographer
Rayograph (The Kiss) (1922)
Le Violon d’Ingres (1924)
Noire et blanche (1926)
Self-Portrait with Camera (1931)
Glass Tears (1930-1932)

Rayograph (The Kiss) is a camera-less photograph by Man Ray.

Rayograph (The Kiss) is a camera-less photograph by Man Ray.

Grant Wood (US, 1891-1942) painter
American Gothic (1930)

Detail of American Gothic, a painting by Grant Wood.

Detail of American Gothic, a painting by Grant Wood.

Alexander Rodchenko (Russia; 1891-1956) photographer, collagist
Illustrations for Maykovsky’s ‘About This’ (1923)
Portrait of My Mother (1924)
The Critic, Osip Brik (1924)
On the Telephone (1928)
Steps (1929)
Pioneer Girl (1930)

Steps, a photograph by Alexander Rodchenko.

Steps, a photograph by Alexander Rodchenko.

Otto Dix (Germany, 1891-1969) painter, printmaker
Card-Playing War Invalids (formerly The Skat Players) (1920)
Portrait of the Journalist Sylvia von Harden (1926)

Detail from The Skat Players, a painting by Otto Dix.

Detail from The Skat Players, a painting by Otto Dix.

Max Ernst (Germany, 1891-1976) painter, sculptor, graphic artist
The Elephant Celebes (1921)
Forest and Dove (1927)
The Great Forest (1927)
Forest and Sun (1927)
The Wood (1927)
The Forest (1927)
Petrified Forest (1927)

Detail of The Elephant Celebes, a painting by Surrealist Max Ernst.

Detail of The Elephant Celebes, a painting by Surrealist Max Ernst.

William F. Lamb (US, 1893-1952) architect
Empire State Building. New York City (1930-1931)

A view of the upper portion of the Empire State Building. AP Photo/Peter Morgan.

A view of the upper portion of the Empire State Building. AP Photo/Peter Morgan.

George Grosz (Germany/US, 1893-1959) painter, draughtsman
Suicide (1916)
Pillars of Society (1926)

Suicide is a painting by German Expressionist George Grosz.

Suicide is a painting by German Expressionist George Grosz.

Joan Miró (Spain, 1893-1983) painter, sculptor
The Farm (1921-1922)
The Tilled Field (1923-1924)
The Hunter (Catalan Landscape) (1923-1924)
The Harlequin’s Carnival (1924-1925)
The Birth of the World (1925)
Dog Barking at the Moon (1926)
Dutch Interior I (1928)
Dutch Interior II (1929)
Still Life with Old Shoe (1937)
Constellations (series of 23) (1939-1941)
The Beautiful Bird Revealing the Unknown to a Pair of Lovers (1941)
Blue II (from Triptych) (1961)
The Gold of the Azure (1967)
Personnage Oiseaux (1978)

The Gold of the Azure is a 1967 painting by Spanish Surrealist Joan Miró.

The Gold of the Azure is a 1967 painting by Spanish Surrealist Joan Miró.

Tom Howard (US; 1894-1961) photographer
The Execution of Ruth Snyder (1928)

The Execution of Ruth Snyder is a photograph by journalist Jim O'Sullilvan.

The Execution of Ruth Snyder is a photograph by journalist Tom Howard.

André Kertész (Hungary/France/US; 1894-1985) photographer
Lovers, Budapest (1915)
Underwater Swimmer, Hungary (1917)
Circus, Budapest (1920)
Wandering Violinist, Abony (1921)
Stairs of Montmartre, Paris (1925)
Chez Mondrian (1926)
Satiric Dancer, Paris (1926)
Meudon, Paris (1928)
The Fork, Paris (1928)
Under the Eiffel Tower (1929)
Carrefour, Blois (1930)
Distortion #40 (1933)
Melancholic Tulip (1939)
Martinique (1972)

Stairs of Montmartre, Paris is a photograph by André Kertész.

Stairs of Montmartre, Paris is a photograph by André Kertész.

Dorothea Lange (US; 1895-1965) photographer
White Angel Breadline, San Francisco (1933)
Daughter of Migrant Tennessee Coal Miner, Sacramento (1936)
Migrant Mother – Nipomo, California (1936)
Destitute Pea Pickers in Nipomo, California (1936)
Children of Oklahoma drought refugee in migratory camp in California (1936)
Refugee of 1936 drought from Polk, Missouri awaits the opening of orange picking season, Porterville, California (1936)
Ex-tenant farmer on relief grant in Imperial Valley, California (1937)
Toward Los Angeles (“Next Time, Try the Train”) (1937)
On the Move: Car on siding, Calipatria (1937)
Child and Her Mother, Wapato, Yakima Valley, Washington (1939)
Country Store on Dirt Road, Sunday Afternoon, Gordonton, North Carolina (1939)

Refugee of 1936 drought from Polk, Missouri awaits the opening of orange picking season, Porterville, California is the title of this 1936 photograph by Dorothea Lange.

Refugee of 1936 drought from Polk, Missouri awaits the opening of orange picking season, Porterville, California is the title of this 1936 photograph by Dorothea Lange.

William Lescaze (Switzerland/US, 1896-1969) architect
PSFS Building. With George Howe. Philadelphia (1929-1932)

A view of the top portion of the PSFS Building in Philadelphia.

A view of the top portion of the PSFS Building in Philadelphia.

Skidmore, Owings & Merrill (SOM) architects
Louis Skidmore (US, 1897-1962); Nathaniel Owings (US, 1903-1984); John O. Merrill (US, 1896-1975) 
Lever House. New York City (1952)
One Chase Manhattan Plaza. New York City (1961)
John Hancock Center. Chicago (1970)
Haj Terminal, King Abdulaziz International Airport. Jeddah, Saudi Arabia (1972)
Sears Tower (now Willis Tower). Chicago (1974)
Jin Mao Tower. Shanghai, China (1998)
One World Trade Center (‘Freedom Tower’). New York City (2014)

Lever House, in New York City, was designed by SOM.

Lever House, in New York City, was designed by SOM.

Albert Renger-Patzsch (Germany; 1897-1966) photographer
Echeveria (c. 1922)

Echeveria is a photograph by Albert Renger-Patsch.

Echeveria is a photograph by Albert Renger-Patzsch.

René Magritte (Belgium, 1898–1967) painter
The Menaced Assassin (1927)
The Lovers (1928)
The Treachery of Images (1929)
The Human Condition (Washington, D.C.) (1933)
The Human Condition (Geneva) (1935)
Time Transfixed (1938)
Golconda (1953)
The Empire of Light (series) (1949-1955)
The Son of Man (1964)

Golconda is a painting by Belgian Surrealist René Magritte.

Golconda is a painting by Belgian Surrealist René Magritte.

Alexander Calder (US, 1898-1976) sculptor
Cirque Calder (Calder’s Circus) (1926-1931)
A Universe (1934)
Devil Fish (1937)
Mercury Fountain (1937)
Lobster Trap and Fish Tail (1939)
La Spirale (1958)
Teodelapio (1962)
Man (1967)
La Grande Vitesse (1969)
Cheval Rouge (Red Horse) (1974)
Flamingo (1974)

Devil Fish is a sculpture by Alexander Calder.

Devil Fish is a sculpture by Alexander Calder.

Alvar Aalto (Finland, 1898-1976) architect
Turun Sanomat Newspaper Offices. Turku, Finland (1928-1930)
Paimio Sanatorium (now part of Turku University Hospital). Paimio, Finland (1928-1932)
Viipuri Municipal Library (now Central City Alvar Aalto Library). Vyborg, Russia (1927-1935)
Villa Mairea. Noormarkku, Finland (1937-1939)
Finnish Pavilion, 1939 World’s Fair. New York City (1939) (dismantled)
Baker House, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Cambridge, Massachusetts (1947-1948)
Säynätsalo Town Hall (multiple buildings). Säynätsalo, Finland (1949-1952)
House of Culture. Helsinki, Finland (1952-1958)
Aalto Center (Seinjoki Town Center) (six buildings). Seinjoki, Finland (1960-1968)
Finlandia Hall. Helsinki, Finland (1962-1971)

A view of the interior of the House of Culture in Helsinki, Finland, which was designed by Alvar Aalto.

A view of the interior of the House of Culture in Helsinki, Finland, which was designed by Alvar Aalto.

Henry Moore (UK: England, 1898-1986) sculptor, draughtsman
Shelter Drawings (series) (1940-1941)
King and Queen (multiple casts) (1952)
Draped Reclining Figure (four casts) (1952-53)
Reclining Figure (UNESCO, Paris) (1957-1958)
Draped Seated Woman (six casts) (1957-1958)
Knife Edge Two Piece (four casts) (1962-1965)
Nuclear Energy (1967)
Oval with Points (multiple casts) (1968-1970)

King and Queen is a sculpture by Henry Moore.

King and Queen is a sculpture by Henry Moore.

Berenice Abbott (US; 1898-1991) photographer
James Joyce (1926)
Blossom Restaurant, 103 Bowery, New York City (Oct. 24, 1935)
Broadway to the Battery, New York City (May 4, 1938)

Blossom Restaurant is a pjhotograph by Berenice Abbott.

Blossom Restaurant is a 1935 photograph by Berenice Abbott.

Alfred Eisenstaedt (Germany/US; 1898-1995) photographer
V-J Day in Times Square “The Kiss” (1945)

The Kiss.

The Kiss is a 1945 photograph by Life Magazine’s Alfred Eisenstaedt.

Weegee (Arthur Fellig) (Ukraine/US; 1899-1968) photographer
Heatspell (1938)
The Critic (Opening Night at the Opera) (1943)

Heatspell is a photograph by Weegee.

Heatspell is a photograph by Weegee.

Brassaï (Gyula Halász) (Hungary/France; 1899-1984) photographer
“Bijou” of the Montmarte Cabarets (close-up) (from Paris by Night) (1932)
”Bijou” of the Montmarte Cabarets (looking right) (1932)
Prostitute at corner of Rue de la Reynie and Rue Quincampoix (from Paris by Night) (1932)
Lovers in a Small Café, near the Place d’Italie (1932)
Couple d’Amoureau Assis, Bal Musette des Quatre Saisons, Rue de Lappe (c. 1932)
Fille de Montmartre playing Russian billiards, Blvd. Rochechouart (1932-1933)
Chez Suzy (couple on bed in mirror) (1933)
Open Gutter (from Paris by Night) (1933)
Night View over Paris from Notre Dame (1933-1934)
Avenue de l’Observatoire (1934)
Seville (1952-1953)

Couple d'Amoureau Assis, Bal Musette des Quatre Saisons, Rue de Lappe is a photograph by Brassaï .

Couple d’Amoureau Assis, Bal Musette des Quatre Saisons, Rue de Lappe is a photograph by Brassaï.

Louise Nevelson (Russia/US, 1899-1988) sculptor
First Personage (1956)
Moon Garden Plus One (1958)
Sky Cathedral (1958)
Dawn’s Wedding Chapel (1959)
Royal Tide I (1960)
Homage to 6,000,000 I (1964)
Transparent Horizon (1975)
Bicentennial Dawn (1976)
Louise Nevelson Plaza (1979)

Sky Cathedral is a sculpture by Louise Nevelson.

Sky Cathedral is a sculpture by Louise Nevelson.

George Hoyningen-Huene (Russia/France/US; 1900-1968) photographer
Bathing Suits by Izod (1930)

Bathing Suits by Izod is a photograph by fashion photographer Hoyningen-Heune.

Bathing Suits by Izod is a photograph by fashion photographer George Hoyningen-Heune.

Barbara Morgan (US; 1900-1992) photographer
Martha Graham: Satyric Festival Song (1935)
Martha Graham – Letters to the World: Kick (1940)
Pure Energy and Neurotic Man (1940, 1941?)

Martha Graham: Satyric Festive Song is a photograph by Barbara Morgan.

Martha Graham: Satyric Festival Song is a photograph by Barbara Morgan.

Alberto Giacometti (Switzerland, 1901-1966) sculptor, painter
The Spoon Woman (1926-1927)
Suspended Ball (1930-1931)
Woman with her Throat Cut (1932)
The Palace at 4 a.m. (1932)
Hands Holding the Void (Invisible Object) (1934)
Head of a Man on a Rod (1947)
Man Pointing (1947)
City Square (1948)
Composition with Seven Figures and a Head (The Forest)
(1950)
Portrait of Jean Genet
(three versions) (1954-1957)
Walking Man I (1961)

Head of a Man on a Rod is a sculpture by Alberto Giacometti.

Head of a Man on a Rod is a sculpture by Alberto Giacometti.

Eliot Porter (US; 1901-1990) photographer
Pool in a Brook, Near Whiteface, New Hampshire (1953)
Maple Leaves and Pine Needles, Tamworth, New Hampshire (1956)
Frostbitten Apples, Tesque, New Mexico (1966)

Maples Leaves and Pine Needles is a photograph by Eliot Porter.

Maples Leaves and Pine Needles, Tamworth, New Hampshire is a photograph by Eliot Porter.

Ansel Adams (US; 1902-1984) photographer
Monolith, the Face of Half Dome (1927)
Rose and Driftwood (1932)
Moonrise over Hernandez, New Mexico (1941)
The Tetons and Snake River, Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming (1942)
Evening, McDonald Lake, Glacier National Park, Montana (1942)
Church, Taos Pueblo National Historic Landmark, New Mexico (1942)
Winter Sunrise, Sierra Nevada from Lone Pine, California
(1944)
Aspens, Northern New Mexico (1958)
Moon and Half Dome, Yosemite National Park, California
(1960)

Winter Sunrise, Sierra Nevada from Lone Pine, California is a photograph by Ansel Adams.

Winter Sunrise, Sierra Nevada from Lone Pine, California is a photograph by Ansel Adams.

Mark Rothko (Russia/US, 1903-1970) painter
Entrance to Subway (Subway Scene) (1938)
Slow Swirl at the Edge of the Sea (1944-1945)
No. 3/No. 13 (Magenta, Black, Green on Orange) (1949)
Number 10 (1950)
White Center (Yellow, Pink and Lavender on Rose) (1950)
No. 61 (Rust and Blue) (1953)
Untitled (Purple White and Red) (1953)
Green and Maroon (1953)
Ochre and Red on Red (1954)
Orange and Yellow (1956)
Green and Tangerine on Red (1956)
Four Darks in Red (1958)
Number 14 (1960)
Orange, Red, Yellow (1961)
Rothko Chapel (series of 14 paintings) (1964-1967)
Untitled (Black on Grey) (1970)

Green and Tangerine on Red is a color field painting by Mark Rothko.

Green and Tangerine on Red is a color field painting by Mark Rothko.

Walker Evans (US; 1903-1975) photographer
Girl in Fulton Street, New York (1929)
42nd Street, New York (1929)
Torn Movie Poster (1931)
Main Street, Sarasota Springs, New York (1931)
Parked Car, Small Town Main Street (1932)
Sidewalk and Shopfront, New Orleans (1935)
Interior Detail, West Virginia Coal Miner’s House (1935)
Penny Picture Display, Savannah (1936)
Negro Barber Shop, Interior, Atlanta (1936)
Wooden Church, Beaufort, South Carolina (1936)
Alabama Tenant Farmer Wife (Allie Mae Burroughs) (1936)

Penny Picture Display, Savannah, Georgia is a photograph by Walker Evans.

Penny Picture Display, Savannah, Georgia is a photograph by Walker Evans.

Harold E. Edgerton (US; 1903-1990) photographer
Milk Drop Coronet (1957)
Bullet Through King of Diamonds (1964)

Milk Drop Coronet is a photograph by Harold Edgerton.

Milk Drop Coronet is a photograph by Harold Edgerton.

Arshile Gorky (Armenia/US, 1904-1948) painter
The Artist and His Mother (1926-1929)
The Artist and His Mother (1929-1936)
Garden in Sochi (multiple versions) (1938-1943)
Waterfall (1943)
The Liver is the Cock’s Comb (1944)
One Year the Milkweed (1944)
Water of the Flowery Mill (1944)
The Betrothal II (1947)
Agony (1947)
The Plough and the Song (series) (1947)

Water of the Flowery Mill is a painting by Arshile Gorky.

Water of the Flowery Mill is a painting by Arshile Gorky.

Margaret Bourke-White (US; 1904-1971) photographer
Taxi Dancers, Ft. Peck, Montana (1936)
At the Time of the Louisville Flood (1937)
Buchenwald Victims (1945)
Civilians Walk by a Pile of Corpses, Buchenwald, Germany (1945)
Gandhi at his Spinning Wheel (1946)
Mine Workers (1950)

Taxi Dancers is a photograph by Margaret Bourke-White.

Taxi Dancers is a photograph by Margaret Bourke-White.

Cecil Beaton (UK: England; 1904-1980) photographer
Paula Gellibrand, the Marquesa de Casa Maury (1928)
‘Soapsuds’ (Baba Beaton, Wanda Ballie-Hamilton and Lady Bridget Poulett) (1930)
Marlene Dietrich (with statue) (1935)
Sir Winston Churchill (at desk with cigar) (1940)
Charles James Gowns (color) (1948)
Truman Capote, Tangier, Morocco (1949)
Queen Elizabeth II (color) (1953)
Marilyn Monroe (on bed with rose, looking left) (1956)
Marilyn Monroe (on bed with rose, looking straight) (1956)
Marilyn Monroe (daisy stem in mouth) (1956)
Elizabeth Taylor (1957)
Audrey Hepburn (behind curtain) (1960)
Audrey Hepburn on the set of My Fair Lady (1963)
Pablo Picasso at his Home in Mougins (1965)

A portrait of Elizabeth Taylor by photographer Cecil Beaton.

A 1957 portrait of Elizabeth Taylor by photographer Cecil Beaton.

Bill Brandt (Germany/UK; 1904-1983) photographer
Evening in Kenwood (c. 1934)
East End girl, doing the Lambeth Walk (c. 1936)
Northumbrian Miner at his Evening Meal (1937)
Policeman in a Dockland Alley, Bermondsey (1938)
Seaford, East Sussex Coast (ear) (1957)

Northumbrian Miner at His Evening Meal is a photograph by Bill Brandt.

Northumbrian Miner at His Evening Meal is a photograph by Bill Brandt.

Salvador Dalí (Spain, 1904-1989) painter, sculptor
Landscape near Figuera (1910)
The Great Masturbator (1929)
The Persistence of Memory (1931)
Soft Construction with Boiled Beans (Premonition of Civil War) (1936)
Lobster Telephone (1936)
Mae West Lips Sofa (1937)
The Metamorphosis of Narcissus (1937)
Dream Caused by the Flight of a Bee around a Pomegranate a Second before Awakening (1944)
The Temptation of St. Anthony (1946)
Christ of St. John of the Cross (1951)
The Disintegration of the Persistence of Memory (1952-1954)
Crucifixion (Corpus Hypercubus) (1954)
The Discovery of America by Christopher Columbus (1959)

The Metamorphosis of Narcissus is a painting by Spanish Surrealist Salvador Dali.

The Metamorphosis of Narcissus is a painting by Spanish Surrealist Salvador Dali.

Angus McBean (UK: Wales; 1904-1990) photographer
René Ray (1938)
June Clyde (1940)
Audrey Hepburn (1950)
Vivien Leigh (1956)

A portrait of June Clyde by photographer Angus McBean.

A portrait of June Clyde by photographer Angus McBean.

Willem de Kooning (The Netherlands/US, 1904-1997) painter, sculptor
Pink Angels (1945)
Painting (1948)
Excavation (1950)
Woman I (1950-1952)
Woman II (1952)
Woman III (1952)
Woman IV (1952)
Woman V (1952-1953)
Woman VI (1952-1953)
Woman and Bicycle (1952-1953)
Police Gazette (1955)
Door to the River (1960)

Woman and Bicycle is a painting by Willem de Kooning.

Woman and Bicycle is a painting by Willem de Kooning.

Charles C. Ebbets (US; 1905-1978) photographer
Lunch Atop a Skyscraper (attrib.) (1932)

Lunch Atop a Skyscraper, a photograph attributed to Charles Ebbets.

Lunch Atop a Skyscraper, a photograph attributed to Charles Ebbets.

Sam Shere (US; 1905-1982) photographer
Explosion of the Hindenburg (1937)

The explosion of the Hindenburg is a photograph by Sam Shere.

The explosion of the Hindenburg is a photograph by Sam Shere.

Philippe Halsman (Latvia/US; 1906-1979) photographer
Albert Einstein (1947)
Dali Atomicus (1948)
Jean Cocteau (framed) (1949)
The Versatile Jean Cocteau (with many hands) (1949)
Self-Portrait (1950)
Dean Martin and Jerry Lewis (jumping) (1951)
Marilyn Monroe (1952)
Salvador Dali (facing right, looking at camera) (1954)
Richard Nixon (jumping) (1955)
Salvador Dali with Rhinoceros (1956)
Duke and Duchess of Windsor (jumping) (1956)
Alfred Hitchcock (bird on cigar) (1962)

The Versatile Jean Cocteau is a photograph by Philippe Halsman.

The Versatile Jean Cocteau is a photograph by Philippe Halsman.

Willard Van Dyke (US; 1906-1986) photographer
Funnels (1932)

Funnels is a photograph by William van Dyke.

Funnels is a photograph by Willard van Dyke.

Horst P. Horst (Germany/US; 1906-1999) photographer
Mainbocher Corset, Paris (1939)
Dress by Hattie Carnegie (blue striped dress, green striped floor, roses) (1939)
Muriel Maxwell, Vogue (lipstick, sunglasses) (July 1, 1939)
Salvador Dali’s Costumes for Leonid Massine’s Ballet Bacchanale (1939)
Summer Fashions (white swimsuit, red ball) (1941)
Marlene Dietrich (1942)
Patterns from Nature, Photographic Collage (c. 1945)
Dinner suit and headdress by Schiaparelli (1947)
View of ruins at Persepolis, Persia (1949)
Round the Clock, New York (1987)

Muriel Maxwell, Cover of American Vogue, July, 1939 is a photograph by Horst P. Horst.

Muriel Maxwell, Cover of American Vogue, July, 1939 is a photograph by Horst P. Horst.

Philip Johnson (US, 1906-2005) architect
The Glass House (Johnson House). New Canaan, Connecticut (1949)
Rockefeller Guest House. New York City (1949-1950)
Seagram Building. With Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. New York City (1958)
Amon Carter Museum of Western Art. Fort Worth, Texas (1961)
New York State Theater (now David H. Koch Theater). With Richard Foster. Lincoln Center, New York City (1964)
John F. Kennedy Memorial. Dallas, Texas (1970)
Boston Public Library Extension (Johnson Building). Boston (1972)
Pennzoil Place. Houston, Texas (1976)
Crystal Cathedral. Garden Grove, California (1977-1980)
AT&T Building (now Sony Tower). With John Burgee. New York City (1980-1984)
PPG Place. With John Burgee. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (1981-1984)
53rd and Third (‘Lipstick Building’). With John Burgee. New York City (1986)
One International Place. With John Burgee. Boston (1987)
Two International Place. With John Burgee. Boston (1992)