Best Photography of All Time: Chronological II – 1946-2011

This is Part II of my meta-list of best photographs ever arranged in chronological order.  See Part I (1826-1945) for the explanation of my method, warnings,  etc.  Remember that you can click on most of the photos to enlarge them.

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Gandhi at his Spinning Wheel (1946) – Margaret Bourke-White (on 10 lists)
In early 1946, as Indian independence (and the tragic Partition that followed) loomed on the horizon, Life magazine sent star photographer Margaret Bourke-White (1904-1971) to photograph India’s leaders, including Mohandas K. Gandhi. Gandhi was living in a communal ashram, and all members were required to spin thread. When Bourne-White asked to photograph Gandhi at his spinning wheel, he encouraged her to learn to spin first. (A photo of Bourke-White with a loom – see below – provides evidence that she followed the suggestion.) The famous photo actually depicts Gandhi not during but shortly after his early morning spinning session, while he is reviewing some documents. Life did not publish the photo with the article it was taken for, but first used it to illustrate a shorter piece later in 1946. It was only the prominent use of the photo in Life’s 1948 spread on Gandhi’s assassination that established its iconic status. (c) Estate of Margaret Bourke-White.
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Igor Stravinsky (Dec. 1, 1946) – Arnold Newman (on 2 lists)
American photographer Arnold Newman (1918-2006) was quoted as saying, “Photography is one percent talent and 99 percent moving furniture.” The furniture in the case of his portrait of revolutionary composer Igor Stravinsky was a grand piano, which takes up the majority of the picture frame. The portrait was rejected by Harper’s Bazaar, who had commissioned Newman, possibly because it did not lend itself to cropping or overlay of text. Newman was famous for his radical cropping style, which often left editors with no room to make changes. Here, he eliminates all but a thin line of the piano at the lower edge of the photo, while the subject of the portrait occupies only a tiny section at the very edge of the lower left corner. Between the two of them, Newman and the piano lid – lit so it appears two dimensional – create a musical note. (c) Arnold Newman/Harry Ransom Center. For reproductions, go to www.gettyimages.com.

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Lella, Bretagne, France (1947) – Édouard Boubat (on 2 lists)
Édouard Boubat (1923-1999) was a French photographer who began taking pictures in 1946 after spending the war in Nazi Germany in a forced labor camp. He did much of his work for the French magazine Réalités. This 1947 photograph is of his first wife, Lella. (c) Estate of Édouard Boubat.

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Dali Atomicus (1948) – Philippe Halsman (on 5 lists)
Latvian-born American photographer Philippe Halsman (1906-1979) had been collaborating with Spanish surrealist Salvador Dali since 1941, but their most famous production is Dali Atomicus, from 1948. The genesis of the photo was the scientific discovery that, because atoms consisted of electrons suspended in orbit around the nucleus, all solid matter was actually suspended in space. Dali began a painting on the theme, Leda Atomica, which can be seen on an easel at the far right, and Dali and Halsman collaborated on a portrait of suspended reality. (Although some have identified Dali Atomicus as one of Halsman’s famous jumping photos, it actually precedes Halsman’s adoption of that technique – here the jumping is incidental to the notion of being suspended.) The photo shoot took 28 tries over six hours. When Halsman finally got the shot he wanted, he retouched it to insert a painting on Dali’s easel and eliminate an assistant’s hand holding up a chair and wires holding up other articles (see unretouched version below). The photo was published in a two-page spread in Life magazine. (c) 2012 Halsman Archive/Magnum Photo.  For reproductions, go to philippehalsman.com.
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Harry Callahan, Weed Against Sky, 1948, Gelatin Silver Print
Weed Against Sky, Detroit (1948) – Harry Callahan (on 3 lists)
Much of the work of American photographer and educator Harry Callahan (1912-1999) involved photographing his wife and daughter, but he was also known for his unique abstract compositions using plants and other subjects silhouetted against a featureless sky. In Weed Against Sky, Detroit, Callahan reduces a leafless plant to a series of lines and circles – without the title to guide us, we might take this photo to be a simple drawing. Gelatin silver prints are in the collections of the Museum of Modern Art in New York and the Tate in London. (c) Estate of Harry Callahan.

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Srinagar, Kashmir (1948) – Henri Cartier-Bresson (on 2 lists)
In 1947, French photographer Henri Cartier-Bresson jointed with Robert Capa and others to form Magnum Photos, a photography cooperative. On assignment for Magnum, Cartier-Bresson traveled to Kashmir, India in 1948. Here, Cartier-Bresson shows us four Muslim women on the slopes of Hari Parbat Hill, facing away from us and toward the Himalayas, praying as the sun rises. One woman appears to hold the clouds in her hands. © Henri Cartier-Bresson/Magnum Photo. For reproductions, go to www.magnumphotos.com.

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Last Days of the Kuomintang, Shanghai (1948-1949) – Henri Cartier-Bresson (on 2 lists)
In December 1948, as Communist victory neared, the value of paper currency in Nationalist China plummeted, leading the Kuomintang government in its last days to distribute 40 grams of gold to every citizen. This modern-day gold rush caused thousands to wait in long lines for many hours, causing the deaths of several people from suffocation. Life magazine sent Cartier-Bresson to document China in transition. His photograph of one such gold rush in Shanghai illustrates the chaos and uncertainty as the old China crumbled under the pressure of Mao’s revolution. Cartier-Bresson frames the photograph to capture the line of people within the claustrophobic walls of a prison, while he keeps the bank entrance towards which the people are pushing (and pushed) just outside the frame at right. © Henri Cartier-Bresson/Magnum Photo. For reproductions, go to www.magnumphotos.com.

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Korongo Nuba Wrestlers of Kordofan, South Sudan (1949) – George Rodger (on 2 lists)
One of the founders of Magnum Photos in 1947, British photographer George Rodger (1908-1995) traveled the world as a photographer for the BBC, Life magazine and other publications. His photography evinces his deep concern for the survival of ethnic people in remote areas of the world. National Geographic magazine sent Rodger to Kordofan in South Sudan to document the vanishing customs and rituals of the tribal peoples living in Korongo, in the Nuba Mountains. An important aspect of the Nuba culture was wrestling contests, in which naked men covered with ash fought each other as part of huge tournaments. Rodger’s photograph of the winner of a wrestling match being carried on another’s shoulders has attained iconic status. According to a recent article in National Geographic (http://news.nationalgeographic.com
/news/2014/11/141128-nuba-wrestlers-refugee-sudan-culture-tradition-infocus/), the wrestling tradition continues among the Nuban people, although the contestants now wear t-shirts and shorts and adopt nicknames from American professional wrestlers. Carrying winners on one’s shoulders remains a custom, as shown by the 2014 photo below ((c) James Sprankle/National Geographic). (c) Estate of George Rodger/Magnum Photo. For reproductions, go to www.magnumphotos.com.
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Segregated Water Fountains (1950) – Elliott Erwitt (on 4 lists)
Having been born in Paris to Russian parents, moved to Italy, then having to flee Fascism, Elliott Erwitt (1928- ) arrived in the US with a lot of emotional baggage. His photography shows us a different way of looking at things we see every day, as well as capturing some unexpected (often funny) juxtapositions. In some ways, Segregated Water Fountains is one of his more straightforward documents – there are no hidden jokes here. The stark, day-to-day reality of life in the segregated South is illustrated very simply by showing two water fountains and a man who can only drink from the more decrepit of the two. Erwitt shows us the man’s glance to his left but leaves it to us to guess what he is thinking and feeling. It is as if, in this moment, this man, like us, has paused to notice the degrading reality of segregation and he (through Erwitt) invites us to do the same. Erwitt took the photograph in North Carolina in 1950. (c) Estate of Elliott Erwitt/Magnum Photo. For reproductions, go to www.magnumphotos.com.

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Mine Workers, South Africa (1950) – Margaret Bourke-White (on 3 lists)
In 1949 and 1950, American photojournalist Margaret Bourke-White visited South Africa for Life magazine and brought back photographs that introduced the American public to the recently-imposed system of racial apartheid. Bourke-White traveled more than a mile underground in 95 degree heat and nearly 100 percent humidity to photograph black gold miners in the Robinson Deep mine, south of Johannesburg. The portrait of two unnamed miners was the first image in a Life photo essay entitled, South Africa and Its Problem. The photograph shows the dignity and strength of the men engaged in the grueling work of the mine; some have likened their hats to haloes. (c) Estate of Margaret Bourke-White.

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Woman with Roses on Her Arm (Lisa Fonssagrives) (1950) – Irving Penn (on 2 lists)
Irving Penn (1917-2009) was an American photographer known for his fashion photography and portraits. In 1950, Penn was a staff photographer at Vogue, who was on assignment in Paris. The model here is 39-year-old Lisa Fonssagrives, who married Penn later that year. She is wearing a pleated chiffon evening dress by LaFaurie, part of that year’s Paris haute couture collections. In later years, Penn recalled that he used a discarded theater curtain for the backdrop – he rarely used elaborate sets or props. Shooting from a lower angle, Penn gives his model a statuesque quality, while he uses the blackness of the dress for a silhouette effect. The couture fashions Penn was photographing were in such high demand that bicycle couriers would bring them to the studio and then return them to the salons the same day. (c) The Irving Penn Foundation. For reproductions, go to irvingpenn.org.

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Audrey Hepburn (1950) – Angus McBean (on 2 lists)
In October 1950, when Angus McBean made this portrait, Audrey Hepburn was not yet a movie star. Her first movie appearance did not come until 1951 and her breakout role (in Roman Holiday) would not arrive until 1953. Yet Surrealist portrait photographer Angus McBean clearly knew what was coming – that Hepburn was destined for stardom, and so while his over-the-top setting for her portrait may be a little silly, it is also quite prescient. McBean’s portrait focuses on one of the qualities that made Hepburn famous – her statuesque beauty, which was so iconic that she could emerge like a statue from the sands to dominate a row of columns topped by lesser statues. While McBean does not capture Hepburn’s mischievous side, he has taken the ‘classical’ portrait of old (with the subject dressed in a toga and leaning on a broken column) to a new (self-mocking?) level. Distracted by the props and the surrealist concept, the viewer may not notice that the true stars of the photograph are Ms. Hepburn’s face, neck and shoulders, as lit by McBean, expertly using his many years of experience lighting the faces of beautiful women. © Estate of Angus McBean.

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Kiss by the Hôtel de Ville (1950) – Robert Doisneau (on 2 lists)
French street photographer Robert Doisneau (1912-1994) was walking in Paris when he saw aspiring actors Jacques Carteaud (age 23) and Françoise Delbart (age 20) kissing. He approached the couple, told them they were charming and asked if they would kiss again, for the camera. He posed them at the Place de la Concorde, the Rue de Rivoli and finally in front of the Hôtel de Ville (Paris City Hall). Life magazine first published the photograph in 1950 without including the names of the kissers. In the 1980s, Jean and Denise Lavergne, who believed they were the couple in the picture, sued Doisneau for violating a French law requiring permission for any photographic likeness of a person. Doisneau won the suit by revealing the true identities of the kissers for the first time. (c) Estate of Robert Doisneau. For more information, go to http://www.robert-doisneau.com/fr/atelier/. Random Trivia: The relationship between Carteaud and Delbart lasted only nine months, but apparently involved a great deal of kissing. As Delbart (now Françoise Bornet) said in 2005: “We were doing it all the time then, it was delicious.”

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Pedestrian’s Foot (1950) – Otto Steinert (on 3 lists)
German physician-turned-photographer Otto Steinert (1915-1978) was one of the founders of Fotoform, an avant-garde movement that promoted subjectivity in photography through the use of multiple exposure, unusual angles and similar techniques. In Pedestrian’s Foot, Steinert has used darkroom technique to turn most of the pedestrian into a hazy blur, leaving only the left foot and a portion of the left leg to represent the otherwise invisible passerby. The bird’s eye view composition is balanced by the tree and its protective circular grating, which seem as static and permanent as the pedestrian is evanescent. (c) Museum Folkwang, Essen.

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Einstein Sticks His Tongue Out (1951) – Arthur Sasse (on 6 lists)
It was March 1951, the night of Albert Einstein’s 72nd birthday celebration, and the paparazzi were hounding the world-famous scientist Albert Einstein at Princeton’s Institute for Advanced Study. After the birthday banquet, the physicist walked back to a car with Dr. Frank Aydelotte and his wife, all the while being asked by photographers to smile for the camera. UPI photographer Arthur Sasse waited until Einstein and the Aydelottes were seated in the car to ask for a birthday smile. In response, the Nobel Prize winning genius stuck out his tongue for an instant, then quickly turned away. Quick on the shutter, Sasse got the shot that turned Einstein from a genius to a pop culture icon. Einstein liked the image so much that he cropped out his companions and sent the picture as a greeting card to friends. The cropped version continues to adorn t-shirts and other paraphernalia, reminding us that even geniuses have a sense of humor. (c) Bettman/Corbis. For more information, go to:
http://www.corbisimages.com/photographer/arthur-sasse.

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Death Watch (from Spanish Village) (1951) – W. Eugene Smith (on 5 lists)
In 1951, Life magazine sent American photographer W. Eugene Smith (1918-1978)  to the Spanish village of Deleitosa, population 2,300, which is situated in the Estramadura in western Spain. Smith’s photo essay highlights numerous aspects of daily life for the poorest subjects of Franco’s Fascist regime, including a traditional ‘death watch’, a type of wake for a deceased elder of the community. Included among the watchers are the man’s wife, daughter, granddaughter and friends. Another popular image from the Spanish Village photo essay is Guardia Civil, shown below. (c) Estate of W. Eugene Smith/Magnum Photos. For reproductions, go to www.magnumphotos.com.
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Salvador Dali (1951) – Arnold Newman (on 2 lists)
Arnold Newman was a master of environmental portraiture, in which he integrates props, setting and other so-called background elements to inform the portrait of the subject. In the case of artists, Newman often photographed them in their studios, surrounded by the tools of their trade. (c) Arnold Newman/Harry Ransom Center. For reproductions, go to:
www.gettyimages.com.

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East Lake, Kings Canyon, California (1952) – Philip Hyde (on 2 lists)
American landscape photographer Philip Hyde once said, “I am interested primarily in what Emerson called the integrity of natural objects. Natural places too have their integrity. They express wholeness and individuality, and it is this sense of place that is the foundation of my work.” Hyde captured the “wholeness and individuality” of Kings Canyon during a 1952 visit to Kings Canyon National Park in California’s southern Sierra Nevada. East Lake is located at high altitude on a trail that is not car-accessible; it is fed by melting snow and glacier ice. Gelatin silver print. (c) Estate of Philip Hyde. For reproductions, go to www.philiphyde.com.

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Seville (1952-1953) – Brassaï (on 2 lists)
Brassaï arrived in Paris in  the 1920s and made his name with his book Paris By Night in 1933. After World War II, he became even more attached to his adopted country. He married a French woman, Gilberte Boyer, in 1948 and became a naturalized French citizen in 1949. In 1952 and 1953, now an internationally-known photographer, Brassaï traveled to Seville, Spain to photograph life in that city, including this meeting of two men with hats. © Mme G. Brassai.

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The Family, Luzzara, Italy (1953) – Paul Strand (on 8 lists)
After helping to found modernist photography with his formalist, quasi-abstract compositions of lines and shadows in the 1910s, Paul Strand’s interests evolved toward portraiture and the more traditional cultures of Europe. In the 1950s, he moved to France. In 1953, Strand traveled to the town of Luzzara in northern Italy’s Po River valley for several months. While there, he spent time with the Lusettis, a family of tenant farmers. The Family is a portrait of the Lusetti widow matriarch with several of her eight living sons in front of their modest house. Note how all the subjects’ heads are in nearly the same plane but most of the men are not looking at the camera. Also note how the bicycle wheel is echoed in the windows over the door and at the back of the house. Strand took another version of the shot without the man standing in the doorway but this version received more praise. (c) Estate of Paul Strand.

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Pool in a Brook, Near Whiteface, New Hampshire (1953) – Eliot Porter (on 3 lists)
The intensity and high saturation of American nature photographer Eliot Porter’s (1901-1990) colors are achieved through the dye transfer method. The original color image is separated into its primary colors with separation negatives, which are then used to produce positive gelatin relief images. The gelatin soaks up dyes in proportion to the gelatin’s thickness. The dye-soaked image is transferred onto another sheet to reproduce the original color image. This October 1953 photograph highlights the colors of autumn in a near-abstract composition, connected with the detail of reality by the fallen leaves, the reflections of the trees and the unmistakable chaos in the surface of a body of moving water. Color dye transfer print.  (c) Amon Carter Museum, Fort Worth Texas. For more information, go to:
http://www.cartermuseum.org/collections/porter/.

A New Record
Roger Bannister Breaks the Four-Minute Mile, Oxford, UK (May 6, 1954) – Norman Potter (on 2 lists)
A 25-year-old medical student and top British runner named Roger Bannister became the first man to run a mile in less than four minutes on May 6, 1954 in a meet between Oxford University and the Amateur Athletic Association. Bannister had set his sights on the four-minute barrier in 1952 after he failed to win a medal in the 1500 meter race at the Olympics in Helsinki, Finland. At the same time that Bannister was shaving seconds off his time, two other men – American Wes Santee and Australian John Landy – were trying to do the same. The May 6, 1954 meet was Bannister’s first chance to achieve his dream – despite the wet, cold, windy conditions and the relatively small audience of about 3,000, Bannister finished with a time of 3 minutes, 59.4 seconds. British photographer Norman Potter, who had just recently been hired by the Central Press agency (now part of Getty Images) caught the moment that Bannister crossed the finish line. The original print is shown below – the cropped version above is most commonly seen today.  Random Trivia: John Landy broke Bannister’s record just six weeks later with a 3 minute, 58 second finish. Bannister finished medical school and became a neurologist. In 1975, he was knighted and became Sir Roger Bannister.
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Willie Mays’ Big Catch (1954) – Frank Hurley (on 2 lists)
Willie Mays of the New York Giants made this spectacular catch in Game 1 of the 1954 World Series against the Cleveland Indians at the Polo Grounds in New York. There were runners on first and second bases when Vic Wertz, who already had three hits, hit the ball to center, looking to create a 4-2 lead for the Indians. Instead, Mays made a very difficult over-the-shoulder catch. The Giants went on to win the game and sweep the series. New York Daily News photographer Frank Hurley used a Hulcher 70 mm SLR sequence camera with a 600 mm lens to capture Mays’s white uniform and the white baseball against the dark background, surrounded by the crowd and architectural details in dramatic light.  (c) NY Daily News Archive via Getty Images.

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Bar Girl in a Brothel in the Red Light District, Havana, Cuba (1954) – Eve Arnold (on 2 lists)

Eve Arnold (1912-2012) was an American photojournalist and the first female member of the Magnum Photos Agency. Best known for her informal portraits of Marilyn Monroe, Arnold captured the inner life of a brothel worker in this sad but beautiful image, which illustrates Arnold’s observation, “If you are careful with people, they will offer you part of themselves.” (c) Estate of Eve Arnold/Magnum Photo. For reproductions, go to www.magnumphotos.com.

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Pablo Picasso, Vallauris, France (1954) – Arnold Newman (on 2 lists)
Although Arnold Newman is known for photographing his subjects amid the objects of their lives, the most highly regarded image from his 1954 portrait session with artist Pablo Picasso simply shows the man’s bust, a hand pushing on his scalp, raising a series of wrinkles. A more typical Newman environmental portrait from the same session (shown below) lacks the power and emotional intensity of the image shown above. A gelatin silver print is in the collection of the Art Institute of Chicago. © Arnold Newman/Getty Images/All Over Press. For reproductions, go to www.gettyimages.com.
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Marilyn Monroe in The Seven Year Itch (1954) – Sam Shaw (on 3 lists)

New York photographer Sam Shaw had been hired to take still photos during the filming of Billy Wilder’s film The Seven Year Itch, starring Marilyn Monroe and Tom Ewell, when he came up with a brilliant idea. Shaw remembered a series of photos he took of girls in skirts on Coney Island; a photo of a girl with her skirt flying up made the cover and the magazine issue sold out. Shaw suggested to the movie producers that having Marilyn Monroe’s skirt fly up over a subway grating (using an electric fan instead of a subway train to generate the wind) would make great cinema, and the photo would make a sure-fire movie poster. The filming was staged as a publicity stunt at 2 a.m. on a New York City street (Lexington Ave. between 52nd and 53rd streets), with boisterous crowds gathered around. Shaw took a series of shots, including the ones above (cropped and uncropped) that were eventually used as the basis for the poster, and the ones below, in which Monroe is calling out, “Hi, Sam Spade”, her nickname for Shaw. The film footage from the stunt was unusable due to crowd noise, and the actual scene was filmed on a Hollywood soundstage. Random Trivia: Among the other photographers present to shoot Marilyn’s flying skirt was street photographer Elliott Erwitt. (c) Estate of Sam Shaw.  For more information, go to www.shawfamilyarchives.com.
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Marilyn Monroe Resting, Bement, Illinois (1955) – Eve Arnold (on 2 lists)
The story sounds too good to be true, but according to the News-Gazette in Champaign, Illinois, Marilyn Monroe was short of money when checking out of the Ritz hotel in New York City when Carlton Smith, president of the National Arts Foundation, offered to pay her bill “on one condition: you have to come to Bement, Illinois (Smith’s hometown) for their centennial.” (See http://www.news-gazette.com/living/2015-08-06/60-years-ago-marilyn-monroe-came-town.html.) True story or not, Monroe did arrive in Bement in August 1955, accompanied by Magnum photographer Eve Arnold, to take part in the small town’s 100th anniversary celebration. She gave a speech at the opening of an Abraham Lincoln Museum, visited a nursing home and judged a “best beard” contest. The festivities must have worn her out, so Ms. Monroe took a nap at Smith’s home on East Wing Street, which is where Arnold captured this tender image of the haunted superstar. (c) Estate of Eve Arnold/Magnum Photo.  For reproductions, go to www.magnumphotos.com.

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Marilyn Monroe reading James Joyce’s Ulysses (1955) – Eve Arnold (on 2 lists)
Despite accusations by some who are taken in by the “dumb blonde” stereotype that the photograph must have been staged, the evidence is clear that Marilyn Monroe was a voracious reader who kept a copy of James Joyce’s Ulysses in the car while she and Eve Arnold were traveling on Long Island in New York. They were shooting at a beach – hence the bathing suit – and stopped at a children’s playground for Arnold to load film. While waiting, Monroe grabbed Ulysses and dipped into it (she told Arnold she didn’t read the chapters consecutively, and found it slow going). The candid moment with the wife of Arthur Miller showed the beautiful and sexy Marilyn Monroe in a guise that the public was not prepared to accept. (c) Estate of Eve Arnold/Magnum Photo. For reproductions, go to www.magnumphotos.com.

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James Dean in Times Square, New York (1955) – Dennis Stock (on 3 lists)
When Magnum photographer Dennis Stock met James Dean at a Hollywood party in early 1955, Dean was a relative unknown, whose first movie, East of Eden, was just about to be released. When Stock saw the film and realized Dean would be a star in the vein of Marlon Brando and Montgomery Clift, he proposed an unusual photo essay idea: to follow Dean from Hollywood to his Indiana hometown and to New York, where he learned acting. Dean agreed and Stock convinced Life magazine to pay him. Life published many of Stock’s images, which showed a moody, troubled young man on the cusp of fame. Stock’s image of Dean walking through Times Square in the rain has become iconic. Dean died while racing his Porsche in September 1955. (c) Dennis Stock/Magnum Photo. For reproductions, go to:
www.magnumphotos.com.

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Remi Listening to the Sea
(1955) – Édouard Boubat (on 2 lists)

Remi is the grandson of French photographer Édouard Boubat. The close cropping is unusual for a portrait, but the effect of the unusual lighting, the monochrome palette and, above all, Remi’s expression, eyes closed and angelic smile, combine to make this a rule-breaking masterwork. (c) Estate of Edouard Boubat.  For reproductions go to:
http://www.gettyimages.com.

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El Morocco (1955) – Garry Winogrand (on 2 lists)
Garry Winogrand (1928-1984) was an American street photographer known for his insightful and incisive look at life in New York City and elsewhere.  Unlike some other photographers, Winogrand rarely spent much time on the post-shutterclick aspects of photography. He had his film developed by a commercial establishment and did not pay much attention to books and exhibits of his work. When Winogrand died, he left behind thousands of undeveloped images, leaving the art world to decide which ones to exhibit. El Morocco was a fashionable nightclub in New York City, where Winogrand managed to capture the vampire-like expression and grasp of a woman dancing with her partner. © Estate of Garry Winogrand. For more information, go to www.creativephotography.org.

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Provence, France (1955) – Elliott Erwitt (on 2 lists)
Elliott Erwitt joined the Magnum agency in 1953. In 1955, he was in Provence, France on assignment for the French Office of Tourism. Despite the spontaneous “street photography” appearance of the photograph, it was actually set up by Erwitt using his assistant and the assistant’s nephew as models.  The elements of the advertising photo – which is selling the idea of France more than its reality, perhaps – the berets, the bicycle, the baguettes, and the setting of bicycling down a tree-lined street with a couple of baguettes.  The boy’s backward glance creates a connection between the viewer and this quintessential image of rural France in the 1950s. (c) Estate of Elliott Erwitt/Magnum Photo.  For reproductions, go to:
www.magnumphotos.com.

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Dovima with Elephants (1955) – Richard Avedon (on 2 lists)
Richard Avedon (1923-2004) was an American fashion and portrait photographer. This photo features clothing by Dior. (c) Richard Avedon Foundation.  For more information, go to www.richardavedon.com.

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Parade, Hoboken, New Jersey (1955) – Robert Frank (on 4 lists)
Robert Frank (1924- ) was a Swiss-born photojournalist best known for his 1958 book of photographs, The Americans. (c) Robert Frank.

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Political Rally, Chicago (from The Americans) (1956) – Robert Frank (on 4 lists)
Swiss-born American photographer Robert Frank used a Guggenheim Fellowship to travel all over the United States in 1955 and 1956 taking pictures of Americans doing what they do. After all the traveling was over, Frank had 27,000 images. He winnowed those down to 83 sometimes challenging, sometimes caustically funny, sometimes sublimely beautiful photographs, which were published in The Americans (1958 in France, 1959 in the US). Some at the time found Frank’s vision of life in these United States too dark and his attitude too critical. Over time, however, Frank’s personal portrait of his adopted homeland has been recognized as a milestone in the history of photography. Political Rally – Chicago is emblematic of Frank’s polemical style: by obliterating the tuba player’s face behind his tuba, Frank is making a visual joke, but on a deeper level, he has something to say about how organized politics drowns out the voice of the individual, and about the ridiculous pageantry of political campaigns. (c) Robert Frank.

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Suzy Parker and Robin Tattersall, Place de la Concorde, Paris (1956) – Richard Avedon (on 2 lists)
Another Avedon spread for Dior. (c) Richard Avedon Foundation.  For more information, go to www.richardavedon.com.

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Maple Leaves and Pine Needles, Tamworth, New Hampshire
(1956) – Eliot Porter

Dye imbibition print. © 1990 Amon Carter Museum, Fort Worth, Texas. For more information, go to http://www.cartermuseum.org/collections/porter/.

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German WWII POW is reunited with his daughter (1956) – Helmuth Pirath (on 2 lists)
Helmuth Pirath was a German photographer.  This photo won the World Press Photo of the Year award. (c) Helmuth Pirath.

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Marilyn Monroe (1956) – Cecil Beaton (on 4 lists)
Cecil Beaton (1904-1980) was a British photographer who spent much of his career in the United States, working for such established magazines as Vogue and Harper’s Bazaar. In the latter capacity, he photographed many of the most powerful and famous people in the world. Beaton’s assignment on February 22, 1956 was to meet Marilyn Monroe in a suite at the Ambassador Hotel in New York and photograph her for Harper’s Bazaar. At the time, Monroe was seeking to change her reputation from a sex symbol to a serious actress, and Beaton appears to have obliged by producing tasteful results. Beaton’s favorite photo from the shoot, and the one that is most highly regarded today shows Monroe lying on a Japanese print (brought by Beaton), holding a carnation, and wearing an enigmatic smile that seems to express childlike innocence and knowing sensuality at the same time. Marilyn Monroe herself chose a different photo from the same shoot as her favorite – it was the one she would sign and send to fans (see below). (c) Estate of Cecil Beaton.
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Marilyn Monroe (1956) – Cecil Beaton (on 2 lists)
(c) Estate of Cecil Beaton.

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Vivien Leigh (1956) – Angus McBean (on 2 lists)
(c) Estate of Angus McBean.

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Picasso at La Californie, Cannes, France (1957) – Irving Penn (on 2 lists)
National Gallery of Art, Washington. (c) The Irving Penn Foundation.  For reproductions, go to irvingpenn.org.

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Ernest Hemingway (1957) – Yousuf Karsh (on 2 lists)
(c) Estate of Yousuf Karsh. For more information, go to www.karsh.org.

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Portrait of Walden Kirsch (1957) – Russell Kirsch (on 2 lists)
Russell Kirsch was an American scientist who led the team that developed the first digital scanner.  This photo of his son, Walden Kirsch, is the first digitally scanned image.

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Seaford, East Sussex Coast (1957) – Bill Brandt (on 2 lists)
© 2013 Bill Brandt Archive Ltd. For reproductions, go to www.billbrandt.com.

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Milk Drop Coronet
(1957) – Harold E. Edgerton (on 2 lists)

Dye transfer print.  Harold Edgerton (1903-1990) was an engineering professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology who (with Gjon Mili) photographed high speed phenomena using a stroboscope. (c) Harold Edgerton.

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Joan Crawford, Los Angeles (1959) – Eve Arnold (on 2 lists)
(c) Estate of Eve Arnold/Magnum Photo.  For reproductions, go to www.magnumphotos.com.

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Young Couple (1959) – Bruce Davidson (on 3 lists)
For several months during 1959, 25-year-old Magnum photographer Bruce Davidson (1933- ) immersed himself in an Italian-American teenage gang from Brooklyn, New York known as The Jokers, following them around until they eventually allowed him to photograph them in all their unsettling and disaffected moods and activities. The experience was a revelation for Davidson, who wrote, “In staying close to [the gang members], I uncovered my own feelings of failure, frustration and rage.” Many of the gang’s members eventually succumbed to drug overdoses. Gang member Kathy, shown here with her boyfriend Junior, lived longer, only to commit suicide. Davidson’s original caption read: “USA. New York City. Brooklyn Gang. Coney Island. Kathy fixing her hair in a cigarette machine mirror.” (c) Bruce Davidson/Magnum Photo. For reproductions, go to www.magnumphotos.com.

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Marilyn Monroe on the set of The Misfits
(1960) – Eve Arnold (on 2 lists)

(c) Estate of Eve Arnold/Magnum Photo.  For reproductions, go to www.magnumphotos.com.

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Guerrillero Heroico (March 5, 1960) – Alberto Korda (on 10 lists)

On March 4, 1960, the French ship La Coubre exploded in Havana harbor in Cuba under suspicious circumstances, killing nearly 100 people and injuring many more. Cuban President Fidel Castro blamed the American CIA and scheduled a memorial service the next day at Colón Cemetery. Among those attending were Castro’s official photographer, Alberto Korda, and Cuban revolutionary leader Che Guevara, who was then serving as Minister of Industry. Korda was using a Leica M2 camera with a 90 mm lens and Kodak Plus-X pan film to photograph the event. Guevara only came into Korda’s sight for a few seconds, and he snapped two shots of him, one framed by a palm tree and the profile of another mourner. Korda cropped out the framing images to create the timeless portrait known the world over, revealing Guevara’s anger, pain and implacability (see image above). In 1986, photographer José Figueroa suggested printing the original uncropped shot (shown below) as well as the cropped version. The photograph has its own film documentary, Chevolution (2008), and book, Che’s Afterlife: The Legacy of an Image (2009), by Michael Casey. (c) Alberto Korda.
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Assassination of Inejiro Asanuma, Japan
(Oct. 12, 1960) – Yasushi Nagao (on 4 lists)

Japanese political figure Inejiro Asanuma was the leader of the Japan Socialist Party in the post-war era.  He represented Tokyo’s 1st District in the Japanese House of Representatives from 1936-1942 and 1946-1960. On October 12, 1960, 17-year old Otoya Yamaguchi, a militant nationalist, ran up on stage during a televised debate in Tokyo’s Hibiya Hall while Asanuma was speaking and fatally stabbed him in the abdomen with a Samurai sword known as a wakizashi. After the stabbing, as Yamaguchi was attempting a second sword thrust, photojournalist Yasushi Nagao (then working for Mainichi Shimbun newspaper) snapped a photo of the mad teen, now being restrained, facing the fatally-stricken politician that ultimately won the Pulitzer Prize (the first for a Japanese photographer) and the World Press Photo of the Year award. (c) Yasushi Nagao.

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Moon and Half Dome, Yosemite, California (1960) – Ansel Adams (on 2 lists)
(c) Ansel Adams. For reproductions, go to http://anseladams.org.

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Malcolm X (1961) – Eve Arnold (on 2 lists)
(c) Estate of Eve Arnold/Magnum Photo.  For reproductions, go to www.magnumphotos.com.

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Aid from the Padre (Navy Chaplain Luis Padillo give last rites to soldier in Venezuela)  (1962) – Héctor Rondón Lovera (on 3 lists)

On June 2, 1962, rebel soldiers began the El Porteñazo revolt against the government of Rómulo Betancourt in Puerto Cabello, Venezuela. During the failed five-day rebellion, Catholic priest and Navy Chaplain Luis Padillo walked the streets amid gunfire to give Catholic soldiers the Last Rites. Padillo knew that the soldiers on both sides were Catholics and would think twice about shooting a priest. Here, Padillo approached an injured soldier, who managed to climb up on the priest to receive the sacrament before collapsing in death. As bullets flew from all directions, Héctor Rondón Lovera, a photographer for La Republica newspaper, lay flat on the ground and captured this image (also captioned Amid sniper fire, Navy Chaplain Luis Padillo gives last rites to soldier during a military uprising, Venezuela), which won a World Press Photo of the Year award. Those who can read Spanish will recognize that Lovera has not only captured a moment of heart-wrenching tragedy and personal courage but also a bitter irony: the store behind the priest and dying solider is a butcher’s shop, or carnicería, a word that also means “slaughter” and “carnage.” (c) Hector Rondon Lovera.

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Child with Toy Hand Grenade in Central Park, New York City (1962) – Diane Arbus (on 4 lists)

After leaving commercial photography in the late 1950s, American photographer Diane Arbus (1923-1971) set out on her own and soon became one of the most recognized and revered in her field. Always armed with her Rolleiflex camera, she was attracted to those on the margins of society, who did not look or act the way that ‘normal’ people are supposed to. One warm day in 1962, Arbus was walking through Central Park when she spotted a 7-year-old boy (later identified as Colin Wood). She asked to take some pictures, but was not satisfied with the results and continued to try new angles. The process was taking so long that Colin, who had been smiling and playful in earlier shots, finally became so frustrated that he put on the grimace and posture seen in the final print. The physical manifestations of the boy’s frustration – the face, the claw-like hand, even the fallen strap – when coupled with the simmering violence represented by the toy hand grenade, made this photo an iconic representation of troubled, violent youth produced by a decaying and morally-ambivalent society. Arbus’s lens also seems to see the unrest in American youth that would result in such disparate movements as Flower Power, Tune In, Turn On and Drop Out, and the Weather Underground. (c) Diane Arbus.

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New York
(1963) – Lee Friedlander (on 2 lists)

Lee Friedlander is an American photographer. (c) Lee Friedlander.

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Father Gregory Wilkins
, Nottingham, UK (1963) – Eve Arnold (on 2 lists)

(c) Estate of Eve Arnold/Magnum Photo.  For reproductions, go to www.magnumphotos.com.

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Richard Burton and Elizabeth Taylor at local pub, Shepperton, UK (1963) – Eve Arnold (on 2 lists)
(c) Estate of Eve Arnold/Magnum Photo.  For reproductions, go to www.magnumphotos.com.

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Martin Luther King, Jr. at the March on Washington (1963) – Unknown Photographer (on 2 lists)
For reproductions, go to www.gettyimages.com.

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Self-immolation of a Vietnamese monk,
Saigon (1963) – Malcolm Browne (on 9 lists)

Vietnamese president Ngo Dinh Diem was a Catholic whose repression of the Buddhist majority reached a crescendo with the killing of nine Buddhist protesters during a peace march on May 8, 1963. As a result of the killings, Buddhist monks began to organize protests. AP photographer Malcolm Browne received notice of an important protest to take place on June 11, 1963. When he arrived, he was the only Western journalist present as Buddhist monk Thich Quang Duc sat down in a Saigon intersection while other monks poured gasoline on him and set him on fire. Using a cheap Japanese camera called a Petri, Browne shot 10 rolls of film while the monk burned, then had the film sent to AP headquarters. The Pulitzer Prize winning shot above was chosen by AP editors, who then sent it out on the wire, from which newspapers all over the world printed it on June 12, 1963. (Another, somewhat different shot was also published – see below.) Not every paper ran the photo: The New York Times declined to publish Browne’s shot on the grounds that it was too grisly. (c) Malcolm Browne/AP.
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Lyndon Johnson takes oath of office on Air Force One, Dallas, Texas (1963) – Cecil W. Stoughton (on 2 lists)
The swearing in took place at Love Field Airport two hours after the assassination of President John F. Kennedy.  Stoughton had been Kennedy’s staff photographer. Public domain.

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Jack Ruby Shoots Lee Harvey Oswald, Dallas, Texas (1963) – Robert Jackson (on 7 lists)

On November 24, 1963, Dallas Times Herald photographer Bob Jackson was waiting for suspected JFK assassin Lee Harvey Oswald to be transferred from the city jail to the county jail when a reporter from the paper told him he had been reassigned to cover a press conference at Parkland Hospital, where Gov. John Connally’s wife Nellie was due to speak. Fortunately for photojournalism, Jackson, who had been riding in the motorcade two days before and missed shots of Kennedy’s assassination because he was out of film, disregarded the instructions. A few minutes later, Oswald came out and local nightclub owner Jack Ruby surged toward him with a pistol. Jackson and Dallas Morning News photographer Jack Beers both snapped their shutters. Neither one knew what they had until they went back to their darkrooms and developed the film. Beers got Ruby’s surge, with the rest of the crowd still unaware, but Jackson’s Pulitzer Prize winning photograph (also known simply as Ruby Shoots Oswald), snapped 6/10 sec after Beers’, captured Oswald’s reaction as the bullet hit him and became instantly iconic. The original print, shown below, was cropped considerably to create the familiar image above. Random Trivia: Some Internet trickster has manipulated the photo in an irreverent pop culture parody (either funny or in bad taste), by adding instruments and morphing the murder into a rock concert, with guitarist Ruby, the sheriff on keyboards and Oswald singing lead vocals. (c) Robert Jackson/Dallas Times-Herald.
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JFK Jr. salutes his father’s casket (1963) – Stan Stearns (on 3 lists)
November 25, 1963, the day that John F. Kennedy, Jr. turned three years old, was also the day of his father’s funeral. Stan Stearns was one of several UPI photographers assigned to follow the procession with President Kennedy’s coffin to Arlington Cemetery that day. He and 69 other photographers crammed into a much-too-small space as the hearse and white horse passed Kennedy’s brothers Bobby and Teddy, his wife Jackie and his children, Caroline and John. By instinct, Stearns kept his eyes on Jackie. When she leaned down and whispered in John, Jr.’s ear, Stearns immediately began pressing the shutter button. His watchful eye and a bit of luck made him the only photographer of the 70 present to capture the poignant salute of son to father. At that point, Stearns knew he had the best shot and returned to the office. When his superiors discovered he’d left the procession without permission, they were furious – until they saw the photograph, which is now generally regarded as “the picture of the funeral.” (original version above, cropped version below). (c) Estate of Stan Stearns.
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Bullet Through King of Diamonds (1964) – Harold Edgerton (on 2 lists)
(c) Harold Edgerton.

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Congolese soldiers torment suspected pro-Lumumba fighters before execution, Stanleyville, Congo (1964) – Don McCullin (on 2 lists)
Don McCullin (1935- ) is a British photojournalist best known for his war photography. (c) Don McCullin.  For more information, go to www.contactpressimages.com.

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Michael Caine
(1964) – Brian Duffy (on 2 lists)

Brian Duffy (1933-2010) was a British photographer who specialized in fashion and portrait photography. (c) The Duffy Archive Ltd. For reproductions, go to www.duffyphotographer.com.

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Cathedral in the Desert, Glen Canyon, Utah (1964) – Philip Hyde (on 3 lists)
The Cathedral in the Desert is an extraordinary sandstone formation that is part of Glen Canyon in Utah. Discovered in 1954, the cathedral and 125 major side canyons were submerged as the result of the giant reservoir (named Lake Powell) that was created by the building of the Glen Canyon Dam over the Colorado River. Landscape photographer Philip Hyde was instrumental in protecting many areas from the devastating effects of dams and other developments, but he could not save Glen Canyon from Lake Powell. Instead, he journeyed on several occasions in the early 1960s to document in black and white as well as color the marvels that would soon lie beneath up to 100 feet of water. American Photo magazine named the image above one of the top 100 photographs of the 20th Century. Ironically, fluctuations in the water levels of Lake Powell due to drought, evaporation and other causes, have led to the periodic exposure of the Cathedral in the Desert in recent times. (c) Estate of Philip Hyde. For reproductions, go to www.philiphyde.com.

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Cathedral in the Desert, Glen Canyon, Utah (1964) – Philip Hyde (on 2 lists)
(c) Estate of Philip Hyde.  For reproductions, go to www.philiphyde.com.

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Escalante River near Willow Canyon, Glen Canyon, Utah (1964) – Philip Hyde
(c) Estate of Philip Hyde.  For reproductions, go to www.philiphyde.com.

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Los Angeles (man with bandaged nose in convertible)
(1964) – Garry Winogrand (on 2 lists)

© Estate of Garry Winogrand. For more information, go to www.creativephotography.org.

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John Lennon
(1964) – David Bailey (on 2 lists)

David Bailey (1938- ) is a British photographer who specialized in portraits and fashion photography. (c) David Bailey.

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The Kray Twins
(1965) – David Bailey (on 2 lists)

The Brothers Kray were notorious London gangsters. (c) David Bailey.

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Muhammad Ali Defeats Sonny Liston (1965) – Neil Leifer (on 2 lists)
Neil Leifer is an American sports photographer. (c) Neil Leifer. For more information, go to www.neilleifer.com.

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Frostbitten Apples
, Tesque, New Mexico (1966) – Eliot Porter (on 2 lists)

(c) Amon Carter Museum, Fort Worth Texas.  For more information, go to http://www.cartermuseum.org/collections/porter/.

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Self Portrait as a Fountain
(1966-1967) – Bruce Nauman (on 2 lists)

Bruce Nauman is an American artist. His photographs explore the activity of creating art. (c) Bruce Nauman.

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Glyndebourne
(1967) – Tony Ray-Jones (on 2 lists)

Ray-Jones was a British photographer. (c) Estate of Tony Ray-Jones.

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Bolivian Army with the Corpse of Che Guevara
(1967) – Freddy Alborta (on 6 lists)

In 1967, Cuban revolutionary Che Guevara was fighting with Marxist insurgents in Bolivia when the CIA-trained Bolivian army captured and killed him. In a small mountain town they displayed his corpse for the press, including Bolivian photographer Freddy Alborta, whose portrait of Che in death was soon distributed around the world. The Bolivian government’s intent in parading the body before the cameras was to demonstrate their might but the photo, with its resemblance to paintings of the dead Christ, only furthered Che’s legend and made him a martyr to the cause. (c) Estate of Freddy Alborta. For more information, go to www.tecnologiafotografica.com/falborta1.htm.

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Audrey Hepburn
(1967) – Richard Avedon

(c) Richard Avedon Foundation.  For more information, go to www.richardavedon.com.

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Central Park Zoo, New York City
(1967) – Garry Winogrand (on 2 lists)

© Estate of Garry Winogrand. For more information, go to www.creativephotography.org.

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Mother and Child
(c. 1967) – Bruce Davidson (on 2 lists)

Gelatin silver print. (c) Bruce Davidson/Magnum Photo.  For reproductions, go to www.magnumphotos.com.

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Mother Holding Her Child, New Jersey (1967) – Diane Arbus (on 3 lists)

Diane Arbus took this photograph at a 1967 Diaper Derby in New Jersey and it accompanied a March 21, 1968 article in the Sunday Times (London) Magazine by Pauline Peters titled How to Train a Derby Winner. The original caption was, Loser at a Diaper Derby, N.J.  In a diaper derby, crawling infants are placed in a line facing their mothers, who call to the children. The first child to reach its mother wins the derby. This child is one of the losers. Is Arbus implying that he will always be thought of as a loser? Or is this just one awful moment in a long life of highs and lows? Arbus’s flash highlights the baby’s skin and spittle, and the mother’s clutching fingers, but sends all the rest into the shadows. (c) Estate of Diane Arbus.

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Patriotic Boy with a Straw hat, buttons and flag, waiting to march in a pro-war parade, NYC (1967) – Diane Arbus (on 3 lists)
The year 1967 was filled with protests against the Vietnam War by people young and old, but mostly young. So there is a fair amount of irony in Arbus’s photograph of a pro-war youth, whose corn-fed boy-next-door looks are belied by the casual violence of the “Bomb Hanoi” button he wears. Arbus was known (and sometimes criticized) for looking down on her subjects, for presenting them to the viewer not as fellow humans but as wholly other. She did say she was attracted to “freaks” and people’s flaws, but it was more likely because she saw herself (and maybe all of us) as flawed individuals, most of whom had yet to come to terms with their unique otherness. Those with the most obvious visual oddities – the freaks – had “already passed  the test”, Arbus once said, and so they had learned something about themselves that most of the rest of us had not. Unlike many of the characters in Arbus’s world, however, the “Bomb Hanoi” boy does not look particularly self-aware and there is a certain amount of mocking in Arbus’s portrait. But there is another layer here; this is not mere exploitation. Arbus shows us a defiantly uncool teenager whose over-the-top normalcy was freakish at a time when mainstream youth culture was dominated by so-called “hippie freaks.” While not sympathizing with her subject (she seems both amused and frightened by the combination of innocence and rage), Arbus rather asks us to engage with him through our curiosity: Who is he? Why is he like this? How did he come to be this way?  What is it like to be so unlike so many of your peers – to deliberately choose a life that, in New York City in 1967, would subject him to ridicule?

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Bratsk, Siberia
(1967) – Elliott Erwitt (on 2 lists)

(c) Estate of Elliott Erwitt/Magnum Photo. For reproductions, go to www.magnumphotos.com.

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General Nguyen Ngoc Loan executing a Viet Cong prisoner in Saigon (Feb. 1, 1968) – Eddie Adams (on 13 lists)

Associated Press photographer Eddie Adams, an American, won the 1969 Pulitzer Prize for Spot News Photography and a World Press Photo award for this photo of South Vietnamese police chief General Nguyễn Ngọc Loan executing Viet Cong prisoner Nguyễn Văn Lém on a street in the Cholon section of Saigon, on February 1, 1968, at the beginning of the Tet Offensive. Adams was photographing the prisoner and his captors when General Loan approached and pointed a gun at the prisoner’s head, as was common during interrogations. Instead of using the gun as a threat, Loan suddenly shot and killed Lem there on the street. NBC-TV captured the event on video. The photo by Adams (also known as Execution of a Vietcong Prisoner by a Saigon Police Chief) spread around the globe almost instantly. Although the Vietcong prisoner was accused of killing civilians as part of a ‘revenge squad’, the photograph destroyed the reputation of General Nguyễn Ngọc Loan, so much so that Adams wrote in Time magazine, “The general killed the Vietcong, but I killed the general with my camera.” (c) Estate of Eddie Adams. For more information, go to www.cah.utexas.edu/collections/photojournalists/adams.php.

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Earthrise (1968) – William Anders (on 8 lists)

On December 24, 1968, the Apollo 8 spacecraft was orbiting the Moon with three American astronauts aboard, when one of the men, William Anders, took of photograph of the Earth rising over the moon. Anders used a modified Hasselblad 500 EL with 70 mm Ektachrome film. The blue marble that is our planet appears both beautiful and fragile in the desolation of space. According to wilderness photographer Galen Rowell, Earthrise is “the most influential environmental photograph ever taken.” The U.S. Postal Service used a detail of the photo for a 1969 postage stamp. Public domain.

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Bob Beamon’s Long Jump at the Mexico City Olympics
(1968) – Tony Duffy (on 2 lists)

Beamon’s long jump record in Mexico City was not broken until 1991. The image made American sports photographer Tony Duffy famous. (c) Tony Duffy. For more information, go to www.tonyduffy.net.

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Black Power Salute, Mexico City Olympics
 (1968) – John Dominis (on 3 lists)

The 1968 Summer Olympics in Mexico City took place at a time when the West was in turmoil. Protests against the Vietnam War had grown stronger in the U.S. and elsewhere; the assassinations of Martin Luther King, Jr., and Presidential hopeful Robert F. Kennedy shocked the nation and led to violence in the streets across America. In France, students nearly toppled the government during the month of May. MLK’s death signaled a crisis in the civil rights movement for African Americans. In 1967, King had changed the course of the movement. He entered a more controversial political arena by opposing the Vietnam War and, with segregation now technically illegal, he focused his sights on the much more difficult subject of economic injustice. In 1968, the Black Panther movement, which rejected King’s nonviolent approach, was nearing its peak popularity, and James Brown’s “Say It Loud (I’m Black and I’m Proud”) topped the charts. Amid this turmoil, two American sprinters chose to highlight racial injustice by raising their fists and bowing their heads in the Black Power salute during the playing of the U.S. National Anthem at their medal ceremony in Mexico City. Tommie Smith won gold in the 200 meter sprint, and John Carlos won the bronze medal. Time-Life/Getty photographer John Dominis captured the defiant gestures, which led both men to be removed from the U.S. Olympic team. Silver medalist Peter Norman of Australia fully supported the protest and wore the badge of the Olympic Project for Human Rights during the ceremony as a sign of solidarity. Despite the outrage many expressed about incident at the time, Smith and Carlos never apologized. “We were just human beings who saw a need to bring attention to the inequality in our country,” Smith said later. (c) John Dominis. For more information, go to www.johndominis.us.

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A Shellshocked Marine, Vietnam
(1968) – Don McCullin (on 2 lists)

(c) Don McCullin.  For more information, go to www.contactpressimages.com

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Georgia O’Keeffe, Ghost Ranch, New Mexico
(1968) – Arnold Newman (on 2 lists)

© Arnold Newman/Getty Images/All Over Press.  For reproductions, go to www.gettyimages.com.

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Untitled (laughing woman with ice cream cone) (1968) – Garry Winogrand (on 4 lists)

When someone asked American photographer Garry Winogrand why he did what he did, he responded, “I photograph something to find out what it will look like photographed.” This became his mantra; he even had it stenciled on the walls of a gallery exhibiting his work. Winogrand is considered one of the great American street photographers – it was the act of finding and taking the photos that thrilled him, whether (as here) in his native New York or across the U.S. He didn’t like the darkroom, and liked books and exhibitions even less. As a result, new treasures are still being discovered years after his death in 1984, although there is controversy about exhibiting prints made posthumously from thousands of rolls of film that Winogrand exposed but never developed. The enigmatic photo of a woman in white standing against a store window, holding an ice cream cone and laughing (with a sliver of street life on the far left) adorned the cover of Winogrand’s 1975 book Women Are Beautiful. The shot, with its joke that we will never be in on, seems to illustrate the “you’re either on the bus or off the bus” attitude of Dylan’s Ballad of a Thin Man: “Something is happening here, but you don’t know what it is, do you, Mr. Jones?” Gelatin silver print. © Estate of Garry Winogrand. For more information, go to www.creativephotography.org.

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The Beatles, Abbey Road (1969) – Iain Macmillan (on 4 lists)

British freelance photographer Iain MacMillan, a friend of John Lennon and Yoko Ono, was enlisted to take the photograph for the cover of Abbey Road, which would become the last recorded album by The Beatles. The idea – which came from Paul McCartney – was to have all four Beatles walk across the crosswalk outside the group’s Abbey Road studios in London. At about 11:30 a.m., August 8, 1969, Lennon, McCartney, George Harrison and Ringo Starr arrived at the intersection, along with MacMillan, who brought a Hasselblad camera with a 50 mm wide angle lens. MacMillan stood on a stepladder while a police officer stopped traffic for a few minutes. MacMillan took a total of six shots, with the four men walking to the right and to the left; the photo chosen for the cover showed wonderful symmetry of their legs, each at full stride,  Apple Records art director John Kosh then took the photos and created the famous cover; Kosh broke with precedent by presenting MacMillan’s photograph with no additional graphics; it was the only Beatles album that did not contain the name of the band on the cover. The five unused photos from MacMillan’s session have been traded among private collectors for years, with ever increasing auction prices; one of the photos sold for $25,000 on May 22, 2012. (c) Iain Macmillan.

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Jane Birkin
(1969) – David Bailey (on 2 lists)

(c) David Bailey.

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Buzz Aldrin on the Moon (1969) – Neil Armstrong (on 5 lists)

Apollo 11 astronaut Buzz Aldrin stands on the surface of the moon on July 20, 1969. The photographer is Neil Armstrong, who managed to capture his reflection and that of the lunar module in Aldrin’s visor. The photograph had worldwide significance as it showed, for the first time, a man walking on the moon. Public domain.

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Footprint on the Moon (1969) – Buzz Aldrin (on 5 lists)

One of the tasks given to Apollo 11’s Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin, the first men to walk on the Earth’s moon, was to study the lunar soil (called regolith) in part to determine what acts the astronauts could perform safely while on the lunar surface. As part of this soil mechanics investigation, Buzz Aldrin took a photograph of the lunar surface, then he stepped on the spot with his boot and took a picture of the resulting footprint. Aldrin’s experiment took place on July 20, 1969, about one hour after Armstrong first set foot on the moon’s surface. The experiment gave scientists information about the behavior of the regolith when compressed by a heavy object. Once made public, the photo of Aldrin’s bootprint took on weightier significance as a symbol of man’s foothold on a new frontier and the permanent mark that humans had made on a celestial body other than Earth. Public domain.

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Nars Makeup Collection, Vogue Paris
 (1970) – Guy Bourdin (on 2 lists)

Guy Bourdin (1928-1991) was a French fashion photographer. (c) Guy Bourdin.  For more information, go to www.guybourdin.org.

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Kent State Massacre
(1970) – John Filo (on 5 lists)

Kent State University journalism student John Filo took this May 4, 1970 photograph of Mary Ann Vecchio, a 14-year-old runaway, as she knelt over the body of Kent State University student Jeffrey Miller, who had just been fatally shot by the Ohio National Guard. The Guard had been sent to quell student protests against the Vietnam War, and in particular the bombing of Cambodia, which President Nixon had announced on April 30, 1970. Three other students were killed and nine were injured, including one who was permanently paralyzed. The shootings led to a nationwide student strike involving four million students and contributed to turning public opinion against the war. Filo, who was working part-time at a local newspaper, used a Nikkormat camera with Tri X film at 1/500 sec. He won a Pulitzer Prize for his iconic anti-war image. (c) Valley News-Dispatch.

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Pelé and Bobby Moore at World Cup
, Mexico (1970) – John Varley (on 2 lists)

Varley was a British photographer working for The Daily Mirror who caught this moment of good sportsmanship after Brazil defeated England 1-0. (c) John Varley/Daily Mirror. For reproductions, go to www.vpa.uk.com.

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Untitled
(1970) – William Eggleston (on 2 lists)

William Eggleston is an American photographer who was influential in obtaining acceptance for color photography in the art world. (c) Eggleston Artist Trust. For more information, go to www.egglestontrust.com.

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A Homeless Irishman, Spitalfields, London (1970) – Don McCullin (on 2 lists)
(c) Don McCullin.  For more information, go to www.contactpressimages.com.

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Bobby Orr Scores Winning Goal in Stanley Cup
, Boston (1970) – Ray Lussier (on 2 lists)
Ray Lussier was an American sports photographer working for the Boston Record-American. (c) Ray Lussier/Boston Record-American.

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Guedras in the Wind
, Morocco (1971) – Irving Penn (on 2 lists)

(c) The Irving Penn Foundation.  For reproductions, go to irvingpenn.org.

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Stray Dog
(1971) – Daido Moriyama (on 2 lists)

Daido Moriyama (1938- ) is a Japanese photographer. (c) Moriyama Daido. For more information, go to www.moriyamadaido.com/english/#.

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Three little white children
(1971) – Robert Doisneau (on 2 lists)

(c) Estate of Robert Doisneau. For more information, go to http://www.robert-doisneau.com/fr/atelier/.

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Vietnam, Inc.
(1966-1971) – Philip Jones Griffiths (on 2 lists)

Philip Jones Griffiths was a Welsh photographer. (c) Estate of Philip Jones Griffiths. For reproductions, go to www.magnumphotos.com.
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Vietnam children after napalm attack (1972) – Huynh CongNick” Ut (on 10 lists)
This photograph, which was taken by Vietnamese-born AP photographer Huỳnh Công “Nick” Út about a year before the end of America’s involvement in the Vietnamese Civil War, put the lie to government claims that American napalm attacks did not affect Vietnamese civilians. The napalm had burned the clothes off the body of the screaming girl, Phan Thị Kim Phúc.  After taking the shot, Ut used his media pass to get Kim and the other children admitted into a hospital.  Nick and Kim have stayed in touch over the years. The cropped version of the photo shown above, which places Kim in the center, was the one originally published. The cropping eliminated two soldiers and a photojournalist dressed in soldier’s gear engaged in changing his film, as seen in the original uncropped print below. (c) Nick Ut/AP. For reproductions, go to www.ap.org/products-services/photo-prints.
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Tomoko Uemura in Her Bath, Minamata, Japan (1972) – W. Eugene Smith (on 5 lists)

W. Eugene Smith and his wife moved to Minimata, Japan in 1971 to bring attention to the victims of Minimata disease, which was caused by mercury poisoning from a nearby manufacturer. Smith took many graphic photos, some of which were published, but he decided he needed a shot with more symbolic value. He discussed the idea with Ryoko Uemura, whose daughter Tomoko was afflicted. She agreed to allow Smith to photograph Tomoko’s paralyzed body and suggested the bath as a setting. The resulting photo, which was the centerpiece of an article in Life magazine, brought Minimata disease to the world’s attention and helped pressure the polluting company to compensate victims. In 1997, Smith’s widow gave the copyright for the photo to Tomoko’s parents (Tomoko died in 1977 at age 21) and the family has chosen not to allow further distribution of the image (although it is widely available on the Internet).

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The Red Ceiling, Greenwood, Mississippi
(1973) – William Eggleston (on 2 lists)

William Eggleston (1939- ) is an American photographer known for his use of color film. (c) Eggleston Artist Trust.  For more information, go to www.egglestontrust.com.

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Salvador Allende during military coup at Moneda presidential palace, Chile (1973) – Orlando Lagos (on 2 lists)
This photo, which won a World Press Photo of the Year award, was taken only shortly before President Allende’s execution. Lagos was a Chilean photographer who worked for Allende. © Luis Orlando Lagos Vázquez/The Dmitri Baltermants Collection/Corbis.

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David Bowie as Alladin Sane
(1973) – Brian Duffy (on 2 lists)

(c) The Duffy Archive Ltd. For reproductions, go to www.duffyphotographer.com.

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Harold Whittles hears for the first time (pre-1974) – Jack Bradley (on 2 lists)
American photographer Jack Bradley captured the moment a deaf boy hears his first sound. (c) Jack Bradley.

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Untitled (from The Los Alamos Project) (1965-1974) – William Eggleston (on 3 lists)

In 1976, New York’s Museum of Modern Art took a big risk in art circles by giving American photographer William Eggleston a one-man exhibit called William Eggleston’s Guide. The photographs in the show were shocking to many because they were so utterly unlike traditional art photography, whether landscapes by Ansel Adams, social documents by Dorothea Lange or Walker Evans, or the street photography of Henri Cartier-Bresson or Helen Levitt. The photographs seemed to depict random moments in time – it was as if the photographer had merely lifted up his camera to his eye, collected a few disparate elements within the frame and clicked the shutter, without consideration of the meaning or truth behind the image. One imagines that Seinfeld character George Costanza would have described the Eggleston exhibit as a show about nothing. To make matters worse, these prints were in full, lurid color – like a snapshot from a family vacation or a commercial fashion spread! Without the dignity and character of black & white, how was the public to distinguish between art and trash? The critics were merciless. When MOMA curator John Szarkowski described Eggleston’s photography as “perfect”, New York Times critic Hilton Kramer responded, “Perfectly banal, maybe.” Art history has favored Szarkowski’s view over Kramer’s. In particular, the art world eventually embraced Eggleston’s daring use of color. Eggleston began working with color film in 1965 but was not satisfied with the results until he discovered the complicated dye-transfer process in the early 1970s. The colors in the photographs are not additions to the composition but are essential elements of the composition itself, to the extent that the same photograph, seen in black & white, would lack the artistic value of the original. (c) Eggleston Artist Trust. For more information, go to www.egglestontrust.com.

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Untitled
(1965-1974) – William Eggleston (on 2 lists)

(c) Eggleston Artist Trust.  For more information, go to www.egglestontrust.com.

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Pollen, Shadows, Lake Tenaya, California
(1974) – Philip Hyde

(c) Estate of Philip Hyde.  For reproductions, go to www.philiphyde.com.

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New York City
(1974) – Elliott Erwitt (on 2 lists)

Gelatin silver print. (c) Estate of Elliott Erwitt/Magnum Photo.  For reproductions, go to www.magnumphotos.com.

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Fire Escape Collapse (Fire on Marlborough Street) (1975) – Stanley J. Forman (on 5 lists)

Stanley Forman was a photographer for the Boston Herald American in July 1975 when he took this controversial photo of a fire rescue turned tragic. Diana Bryant, age 19, and her two-year-old goddaughter Tiare Jones were standing on the fire escape ladder outside their burning apartment as a firefighter dropped from a ladder to save them (the photo below shows the scene just seconds before the collapse). Forman stood on the fire truck and photographed the dramatic scene when the fire escape suddenly gave way, sending Bryant and Jones tumbling to the ground (the firefighter remained tethered to the ladder and did not fall). Miraculously, the two-year-old survived, but her godmother died from her injuries. The photo, which won Forman a Pulitzer Prize, is credited with motivating the state to toughen building codes for fire escapes. (c) Stanley Forman. For more information, go to www.stanleyformanphotos.com.
forman fire escape collapse

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Le Smoking
(by Yves St. Laurent) (1975) – Helmut Newton (on 2 lists)

Helmut Newton (1920-2004) was a fashion photographer who was born in Germany into a Jewish family, lived many years in Australia, then London, and finally Paris. (c) Helmut Newton. For more information, go to www.helmutnewton.com.

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Catching the Breeze, Hathod village, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India (1975) – Raghubir Singh (on 2 lists)
Raghubir Singh (1942-1999) was an Indian photographer known for his colorful landscapes and documentary photographs of his native India. (c) Raghubir Singh. For more information, go to www.raghubirsingh.com.

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Laurie, Ward 81, Oregon State Hospital,
Salem, Oregon (1976) – Mary Ellen Mark (on 2 lists)
Mary Ellen Mark (1940-2015) was an American photographer. © Mary Ellen Mark. For more information, go to www.maryellenmark.com.

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Untitled
(1976) – Jerry Uelsmann (on 2 lists)

Jerry Uelsmann (1934- ) is an American photographer who specializes in photomontage. (c) Jerry Uelsmann. For reproductions, go to www.uelsmann.net.

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Dog on Wheels
(1977) – Robert Doisneau (on 2 lists)

(c) Estate of Robert Doisneau. For more information, go to http://www.robert-doisneau.com/fr/atelier/

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Virginia Creeper, Northern Sierra Nevada, California
(1977) – Philip Hyde (on 3 lists)

Landscape photographers work hard to provide us with the perfect visual documents of what we think we see when we look at nature, but in this photograph, Philip Hyde gives us nature as our eyes really see it, even when our brains convince us otherwise. According to a published account by Hyde’s son David Leland Hyde (http://landscapephotographyblogger.com/58-years-in-the-wilderness-introduction-2/), the Virginia creeper vine that is the subject of this photograph was growing up the side of Hyde’s gray cedar shingle home in northeastern California. One autumn day, when the vine’s leaves had begun to turn red, yellow and orange, Hyde noticed that some of the leaves were reflecting the blue sky above, producing an almost metallic sheen. He hurried inside the house, grabbed his 4 X 5 Baby Deardorf view camera, set it on his wooden Reis tripod, and took the picture. While our brains normally convert such unusual effects into the more recognizable green (or red) leaf underlying the blue reflection, Hyde’s camera makes no such adjustment, and records the actual color of the leaves, creating a unique palette in which a familiar vine becomes something strange and fantastic. (c) Estate of Philip Hyde. For reproductions, go to www.philiphyde.com.

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Untitled Film Still #6
(1977) – Cindy Sherman (on 2 lists)

American photographer Cindy Sherman (1954- ) has spent her career exploring the way we perceive humans – almost always women – by photographing herself in a variety of different roles. These are not self-portraits in the traditional sense, though. The subject matter of the photograph is not Cindy Sherman but a character she plays. Commentators have theorized that Sherman’s photos treat women’s images and roles as a series of masks and personas presented either to conform with or rebel against society/patriarchal expectations, while never revealing the true self under the mask. Each of Sherman’s photographs belongs to one of a number of series, each with its own formats and themes. Her first true series was Untitled Film Stills, a collection of about 70 black & white photographs created between 1977 and 1980. In each Untitled Film Still, Sherman photographs herself as an actress playing a role in an imaginary film. Sherman provides no accompanying text or explanatory title for each image, so we must rely on her character’s face, hair, clothing and situation to find meaning. Most of the Untitled Film Stills reproduce tropes and stereotypes that are familiar to moviegoers, even though they are not taken directly from any actual film, and they explore the way that culture generally and film in particular shape the way we look at women and the roles they are allowed to play. According to Zachary Press, “Untitled Film Still #6 is a prime example of Sherman’s representation of women through objectification and sex appeal.” Sherman communicates the subject’s “explicit vulnerability” through her “exposed torso, the pensive placement of her hand underneath her cheek and [her] blank gaze framed in the folds of the sheets.” (http://womenswork.tumblr.com/post/274123082/cindy-sherman-untitled-film-stills.) © 2012 Cindy Sherman. For more information, go to www.metropicturesgallery.com/artists/cindy-sherman.

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Untitled Film Still #21 (1978) – Cindy Sherman (on 3 lists)

In Cindy Sherman’s Untitled Film Still #21, a young career woman scans the big city anxiously. We have seen her before, or others like her – we know that she will face obstacles, if she is not in crisis already, and either overcome them or not. Of course, there is no film to accompany this still, so we will never know what happens to this young lady or the 69 others in the series. The rest of the film only exists in the imaginations of the viewers. © 2012 Cindy Sherman. For more information, go to www.metropicturesgallery.com/artists/cindy-sherman.

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Basilicata, Italia (1978) – Franco Fontana (on 3 lists)

Like William Eggleston, Italian photographer Franco Fontana found that the dye transfer process, while difficult, produced the best color prints. Fontana uses color and shape to produce almost abstract compositions, whether of natural landscapes, architecture or human bodies. Basilicata, Italia (also known as Italian Landscape) is typical in that it reduces the landscape to a series of geometric patches of color. Specifics, such as what plants or other features are creating the color, are suppressed so that even the patch of blue sky becomes another geometric form. Fontana is said to have invented the photographic concept of line, although it must also be said that I’m not sure what that means.

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Horse Training for the Militia, Inner Mongolia, China (1979) – Eve Arnold (on 4 lists)

American-born photographer Eve Arnold – a member of the prestigious Magnum Photos cooperative – is best known for her photographs of Marilyn Monroe taken throughout her short career, but Arnold’s lens captured many other subjects. In 1979, Arnold, by then living in the UK, became one of the first Western photographers to visit China, where she traveled extensively for several months. Using color film (Arnold began using color in the early 1970s), she took a series of photos of young women training to be horse riders in the national militia in Inner Mongolia, a region of China, including the evocative portrait shown above. (c) Eve Arnold/Magnum Photos. For reproductions, go to www.magnumphotos.com.

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Vogue Paris
(June 1979) – Guy Bourdin (on 2 lists)

(c) Guy Bourdin.  For more information, go to www.guybourdin.org.

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Charles Jourdan
(Spring 1979) – Guy Bourdin (on 2 lists)

(c) Guy Bourdin.  For more information, go to www.guybourdin.org.

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Man in Bus
, Bucharest, Romania (1979) – Jay Maisel (on 2 lists)

Jay Maisel (1931- ) is an American photographer. (c) Jay Maisel. For reproductions, go to http://studio.jaymaisel.com.

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Missionary holding hand of starving child, Uganda (1980) – Mike Wells (on 4 lists)

A drought in the Karamoja section of Uganda in 1979-1980, combined with the effects of a war to overthrow dictator Idi Amin, resulted in a famine in 1980 that killed between 20,000 and 50,000 people, most of them children. British photographer Mike Wells went to Karamoja in April 1980 and took this photograph of a missionary and a starving child. He sent it to the magazine he was working for but instead of publishing the photo, the publishers entered it in the World Press Photo competition, which it won, much to the chagrin of the photographer, who did not want starving children’s images used to win contests.

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Exhibit A: Red Cosmetics
(1980) – Guy Bourdin (on 2 lists)

(c) Guy Bourdin. For more information, go to www.guybourdin.org.

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John Lennon and Yoko Ono (1980) – Annie Leibowitz (on 5 lists)

American photographer Annie Leibovitz (1949- ) was working for Rolling Stone magazine in December 1980 when she received an assignment to photograph John Lennon for the cover. Lennon had just released a new album, Double Fantasy, his first in five years. Leibovitz suggested a portrait of John and his wife Yoko Ono, similar to the one on the cover of the new album, but in the nude. Yoko balked at complete nudity, so Leibovitz had a nude John pose with a fully-clothed Yoko. Leibovitz captured John’s touching fetal wraparound with an instant camera. Both subjects felt that the photo captured their relationship exactly, Leibovitz recalled. The photograph took on additional significance when, just hours after the photo session, Lennon was shot and killed by a demented fan. Rolling Stone printed a somewhat altered version of the photograph on the cover of its January 1981 issue (see below). © Annie Leibovitz.
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Charles Jourdan (c. 1970-1981) – Guy Bourdin (on 2 lists)
(c) Guy Bourdin. For more information, go to www.guybourdin.org.

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Untitled #92
(1981) – Cindy Sherman (on 2 lists)

© 2012 Cindy Sherman. For more information, go to www.metropicturesgallery.com/artists/cindy-sherman.

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Untitled #96
(1981) – Cindy Sherman (on 2 lists)

© 2012 Cindy Sherman. For more information, go to www.metropicturesgallery.com/artists/cindy-sherman.

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They’re Coming! I and II (1981) – Helmut Newton (on 4 lists)
Born in Germany to a Jewish family, Helmut Neustädter (later Newton) and his family escaped Nazi Germany in 1938. A photographer from the age of 16, when he studied with Yva, Newton lived in Singapore, Australia, London, Paris, Monte Carlo and Los Angeles at various points in his life. He was best known for his fashion photography., particularly for French Vogue, and his willingness to push the boundaries of what was acceptable. One of his interests was the contrast between the nude and clothed body, exemplified by They’re Coming!, a diptych showing the same five models in the same poses with and without clothing. Newton received praise for presenting his female models – nude or clothed – as bold, forceful and in charge, unlike many of the degrading ‘sex object’ images of women in later fashion photography. (c) Helmut Newton. For more information, go to www.helmutnewton.com.

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Cirio Tree, Granite Boulder, Baja California, Mexico (II) (1981) – Philip Hyde (on 3 lists)

According to Philip Hyde’s son David Leland Hyde (http://landscapephotographyblogger.com), Philip and his wife Ardis fell in love with Baja California after a four-wheel-drive camping trip there in 1973. They returned on many occasions, including the 1981 trip when Hyde took this photo of a cirio or Boojum tree (Fouquieria columnaris) casting a curved shadow onto a granite boulder. The photograph (also known as Cirios, Boulder, Baja California) was first published in Tom Turner’s 1991 book, Sierra Club: 100 Years of Protecting Nature. By 1981, Hyde was working exclusively in color photography. He had begun experimenting with color as early as 1948, but continued to produce both black & white and color work until the 1970s. (c) Estate of Philip Hyde.  For reproductions, go to www.philiphyde.com.

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Diego Maradona Confronts Six Defenders
(1982) – Steve Powell (on 2 lists)

The legendary Maradona, of Argentina, meets six Belgian defenders.

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The Catch
(1982) – Walter Iooss, Jr. (on 2 lists)

San Francisco’s Dwight Clark catches a game-winning pass from Joe Montana. Walter Iooss, Jr. is an American sports photographer.

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Lady Lisa Lyon
(1982) – Robert Mapplethorpe (on 2 lists)

Robert Mapplethorpe (1946-1989) was an American photographer known for his black and white portraits. (c) Robert Mapplethorpe.  For more information, go to www.mapplethorpe.org.

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Untitled
(1982) – Jerry Uelsmann (on 2 lists)

(c) Jerry Uelsmann. For reproductions, go to www.uelsmann.net.

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Tiny in her Halloween costume
, Seattle (1983) – Mary Ellen Mark (on 2 lists)

(c) Mary Ellen Mark. For more information, go to www.maryellenmark.com.

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Untitled #119
(1983) – Cindy Sherman (on 3 lists)

After completing the Untitled Film Stills series in 1980, Cindy Sherman switched to color photography and abandoned the conceit that her photographs were film stills. Sherman continued to portray characters in her photos, usually grouping them together in series according to a theme. Her first color theme was Centerfolds, from 1981, which upended the traditional conception of the magazine centerfold as simply an object of male sexual desire (although the resemblance of some of the characters to victims of abuse alarmed some feminists). Sherman also received commissions to do fashion photography for Diane Benson and others, although the resulting images skewered the beauty factory paradigm. Untitled #119, shown here, is part of the Fashion series of 1983-1984 and was one of the works commissioned by Diane Benson’s Diane B. boutique. It was first published as a black & white advertisement in Interview magazine in 1983. Untitled #119 is one of the few Sherman works that depicts the subject in action – here probably singing or possibly shouting – with her mouth open, as if she is devouring the attention of the spotlight. It is also shot horizontally, unlike most of Sherman’s other works (excluding the Centerfolds, which adopt the horizontal format to mimic the magazine spreads). The black background is also an anomaly; most of Sherman’s photos place the subject in context, whether palpably real or obviously fake. As Sherman certainly intended, this dark character study in no way resembles the seductive models and poses of traditional fashion photography. It is as if Sherman is saying, “Instead of using sex to sell, why not depict the people who are actually going to buy these overpriced clothes?” In this case, not a pouting ingénue but a brash woman of a certain age with more self-confidence than talent and money to burn. © 2012 Cindy Sherman. For more information, go to:
www.metropicturesgallery.com/artists/cindy-sherman.

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Untitled #131 (1983) – Cindy Sherman (on 2 lists)
© 2012 Cindy Sherman. For more information, go to www.metropicturesgallery.com/artists/cindy-sherman.

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Crocodile Eating Ballerina
(1983) – Helmut Newton (on 2 lists)

(c) Helmut Newton.  For more information, go to www.helmutnewton.com.

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Cookie at Tin Pan Alley
, NYC (1983) – Nan Goldin (on 2 lists)

Nancy “Nan” Golding (1953- ) is an American photographer. (c) Nan Goldin. For more information, go to www.matthewmarks.com/new-york/artists/nan-goldin.

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Nan and Brian in bed, NYC (1983) – Nan Goldin (on 2 lists)
(c) Nan Goldin. For more information, go to www.matthewmarks.com/new-york/artists/nan-goldin.

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Nan, one month after being battered (1984) – Nan Goldin (on 2 lists)
(c) Nan Goldin. For more information, go to www.matthewmarks.com/new-york/artists/nan-goldin.

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Ken Moody and Robert Sherman
(1984) – Robert Mapplethorpe (on 2 lists)

(c) Robert Mapplethorpe.  For more information, go to www.mapplethorpe.org.

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Milk
(1984) – Jeff Wall (on 2 lists)

Jeff Wall (1946-) is a Canadian photographer known for his large-scale cibachrome photographic tableaux.  © Jeff Wall.  For more information, go to www.mariangoodman.com/artists/jeff-wall.

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Korem Camp Refugees
, Ethiopia (1984) – Sebastião Salgado (on 2 lists)

Sebastião Salgado (1944- ) is a Brazilian social documentary photographer and photojournalist. © Sebastião Salgado.  For reproductions, go to www.amazonasimages.com.

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Omayra Sánchez after Colombia Volcano (1985) – Frank Fournier (on 4 lists)
Frank Fournier was a French photographer for Contact Press Images who covered the eruption of the Nevado del Ruiz volcano in Armero, Colombia in 1985. The volcano had sent a lahar, or mud/debris flow, traveling at 20 feet per second into the town, killing up to 20,000 people and trapping the legs of 13-year-old Omayra Sánchez beneath her collapsed house. Efforts to free the girl failed and amputation was ruled out as unsanitary. Rescuers and journalists kept her company and brought her food, but Sánchez – still trapped – died 60 hours after the eruption. Fournier’s heartbreaking photo of the doomed teenager was given the World Press Photo award. (c) Frank Fournier/Contact Press Images.

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Afghan Girl
(1985) – Steve McCurry (on 9 lists)

During the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, a young Pashtun girl’s parents were killed, so she, her brother and grandmother walked many miles to a refugee camp in neighboring Pakistan. In 1984, the girl, then about 12 years old, was attending a makeshift school when American photographer Steve McCurry (1950- ) took her picture for a National Geographic magazine assignment. It was only after McCurry developed the film that he realized the power of the girl’s portrait, with her piercing green eyes looking right into the camera. The photo, titled Afghan Girl, graced the June 1985 cover of National Geographic, and became one of the most popular photos in the magazine’s history. In 2002, after the US invaded Afghanistan and deposed the Taliban, the magazine sent McCurry and a team to try to find the Afghan girl. After many false leads, they found her – now a 30-year old mother of three whose hard life showed on her face and who had no idea that her photograph was famous (see photo below). (c) Steve McCurry/Magnum Photo. For reproductions, go to www.magnumphotos.com.
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Anvil Cloud over Badlands
(1985) – Philip Hyde
. (on 2 lists)
(c) Estate of Philip Hyde.  For reproductions, go to www.philiphyde.com.

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England, New Brighton
(1983-1985) – Martin Parr
. (on 2 lists)
Martin Parr (1952- ) is a British documentary photographer and photojournalist. (c) Martin Parr/Magnum Photo.  For reproductions, go to www.magnumphotos.com.

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Trichur, Kerala
(1985) – Raghubir Singh
. (on 2 lists)
(c) Raghubir Singh. For more information, go to www.raghubirsingh.com.

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Ball Rolls Through Bill Buckner’s Legs, World Series, Game 6, Boston Red Sox vs. NY Mets
(1986) – Stan Grossfeld
. (on 2 lists)
Stan Grossfeld is an American photojournalist who worked for the Boston Globe. (c) Stan Grossfeld/Boston Globe.

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Challenger Explosion
(1986) – NASA (on 3 lists)

On January 28, 1986, the United States space program suffered one of its greatest tragedies when the Space Shuttle Challenger mission ended in disaster just over a minute into its flight. In the face of public pressure to conduct a successful launch after many prior delays, NASA had ignored the warnings of engineers working for its contractor, Morton Thiokol, and sent seven astronauts – including school teacher Krista McAuliffe – to their deaths after O-ring connectors in the solid fuel rocket boosters failed in the unseasonably cold weather. The bizarre smoke trails were caused by the solid fuel boosters, which continued to fly uncontrolled after the spacecraft broke apart. Investigators have theorized that the crew survived the break-up but may have lost consciousness during their 2 1/2 minute plunge to the ocean below, where they died on impact. The official NASA photo shown above is the most iconic still image of the event, although AP photographer Bruce Weaver’s shot of the orange fireball of combusting fuel, taken a fraction of a second earlier, is also justly famous (see below).
challenger

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Sea Lions, Little Hopkins Island, Australia
(1986) – David Doubilet
. (on 2 lists)
David Doubilet (1946- ) is an American photographer known for his underwater work, especially for National Geographic magazine. (c) David Doubilet.  For reproductions, go to www.daviddoubilet.com.

ketchum root wads
Rootwads and Slash/Ode to Woodie
(1986) – Robert Glenn Ketchum (on 2 lists)

Robert Glenn
Ketchum (1947- ) is an American landscape and nature photographer and environmental advocate. (c) Robert Glenn Ketchum.  For reproductions, go to www.robertglennketchum.com.

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Yohiji Red
(1986) – Nick Knight (on 2 lists)

Nick Knight (1958- ) is a British fashion and documentary photographer. (c) Nick Knight.  For more information, go to www.nickknight.com.

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Tights
(1986) – Daido Moriyama (on 2 lists)

(c) Moriyama Daido.  For more information, go to www.moriyamadaido.com/english/#.

sebastiao salgado gold mine
Serra Pelada Goldmine, Para, Brazil
(1986) – Sebastião Salgado (on 2 lists)

(c) Sebastião Salgado.  For reproductions, go to www.amazonasimages.com.

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Choucroute
(c. 1970-1987) – Guy Bourdin (on 2 lists)

(c) Guy Bourdin.  For more information, go to www.guybourdin.org.

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Cat burglar
(c. 1970-1987) – Guy Bourdin (on 2 lists)

(c) Guy Bourdin.  For more information, go to www.guybourdin.org.

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The Damm Family in their Car, Los Angeles
(1987) – Mary Ellen Mark (on 2 lists)

(c) Mary Ellen Mark. For more information, go to www.maryellenmark.com.

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Susie Smoking
(Yohji Yamamoto) (1988) – Nick Knight (on 2 lists)

(c) Nick Knight.  For more information, go to www.nickknight.com.

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Untitled #183
(1988) – Cindy Sherman (on 2 lists)

Cindy Sherman reimagines Madame Pompadour.  © 2012 Cindy Sherman. For more information, go to www.metropicturesgallery.com/artists/cindy-sherman.

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The Bulldog Lady
(1988) – Elliott Erwitt (on 2 lists)

(c) Estate of Elliott Erwitt/Magnum Photo.  For reproductions, go to www.magnumphotos.com.

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Paris
(1989) – Elliott Erwitt (on 2 lists)

(c) Estate of Elliott Erwitt/Magnum Photo.  For reproductions, go to www.magnumphotos.com.

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Tank Man (1989) – Jeff Widener (on 7 lists)
There are several similar photos of the famous Tiananmen Square Tank Man by different photographers, all taken on June 4, 1989, the morning after the Chinese government had violently suppressed the massive pro-democracy protests in which hundreds of thousands of citizens occupied Beijing’s central square for several weeks in spring 1989.  The unidentified man stood in front of the government tanks to stop them from going forward. When the tanks tried to move around him, he would move to block them again. Eventually, someone took the man aside, and the tanks proceeded. AP photographer Jeff Widener was about a half mile away, on the sixth floor of the Beijing Hotel, at the time of the Tank Man’s protest. He used a Nikon FE2 camera with a Nikkor 400mm 5.6 ED IF lens and TC-301 teleconverter and a roll of Fuji 100 ASA color negative film. Photographs of the event by Stuart Franklin and Charlie Cole also received wide attention, as did videos. (c) Jeff Widener/AP.

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Tank Man (1989) – Stuart Franklin (on 3 lists)
In May and June, 1989, British photographer Stuart Franklin, a Magnum agency photograph working on assignment for Time magazine, was in Beijing, where a large student protest movement was going on. He covered the events of the days and weeks leading up to the government’s violent crackdown on the night of June 4 and after photographing that brutal night, he returned to his hotel just outside Tiananmen Square on the morning of June 5. From his hotel balcony, Franklin was one of the few photographers to capture images of the lone protestor who stood in front of Chinese tanks to prevent them from moving forward. Because Chinese government officials were confiscating all film from foreign photographers, Franklin hid his film in a box of tea and gave it to a French student heading back to Paris, who brought the images to Magnum. Franklin recalled the events leading to the Tank Man photo in a June 2014 interview with The Guardian newspaper.
(https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/photography-blog/2014/jun/03/stuart-franklin-tiananmen-square-tank-man). (c) Stuart Franklin/ Magnum Photos. For reproductions, go to www.magnumphotos.com.

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Tank Man
(1989) – Charlie Cole (on 2 lists)

Cole is an American photographer for Newsweek magazine. His ‘Tank Man’ photo won the World Press Photo of the Year award. (c) Charlie Cole/Newsweek.

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The Supermodels
(1989) – Herb Ritts (on 2 lists)

Herb Ritts (1952-2002) was an American fashion photographer. (c) Herb Ritts.  For more information, go to www.herbritts.com.

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Candy Cigarette (from Immediate Family) (1989) – Sally Mann (on 2 lists)

Sally Mann (1951- ) is an American photographer known for her large black and white photos, many of her own family. (c) Sally Mann.  For more information, go to www.sallymann.com.

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Wilson Arch
, Utah (1989) – David Muench (on 2 lists)

David Muench (1936- ) is an American nature and landscape photographer known best for his photos of the American West. (c) David Muench.  For reproductions, go to www.muenchphotography.com.

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Siemens, Karlsruhe
(1990) – Andreas Gursky (on 2 lists)

Andreas Gursky (1955- ) is a German art photographer. C-type print. (c) Andreas Gursky.

FACE TO FACE
Face Off during the Oka Crisis
(1990) – Shaney Komulainen (on 2 lists)

Komulainen is a Canadian photographer who documented this Mohawk land dispute in Quebec. (c) Shaney Komulainen/Canadian Press.

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Leaning Tower of Pisa
(1990) – Martin Parr (on 2 lists)

(c) Martin Parr/Magnum Photo. For reproductions, go to www.magnumphotos.com.

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Stingray with Sailboat, Grand Cayman
(1990) – David Doubilet (on 2 lists)

(c) David Doubilet. For reproductions, go to www.daviddoubilet.com.

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Madonna
, San Pedro (1990) – Herb Ritts (on 2 lists)

(c) Herb Ritts. For more information, go to www.herbritts.com.

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Christy Turlington
(1990) – Patrick Demarchelier (on 2 lists)

Patrick Demarchelier (1943- ) is a French fashion photographer. (c) Patrick Demarchelier.  For reproductions, go to www.demarchelier.net.

Sebastiao-Salgado kuwait
Oil Well, Burhan, Kuwait
(1991) – Sebastião Salgado (on 3 lists)

In 1991, when the US and Coalition forces removed the invading Iraqi army from Kuwait, Iraqi troops, in a last gesture of defiance, set fire to hundreds of Kuwait’s oil wells. Brazilian photographer Sebastião Salgado photographed the workers from all around the world sent to fight those fires and recap the wells, jobs that placed the workers in horrific conditions. The most highly-regarded of those photos depicts two oil-covered men standing like greasy statues at a well head while oil rains from the sky around them. Another of Salgado’s images from the same assignment is shown below. (c) Sebastião Salgado. For reproductions, go to:
www.amazonasimages.com.
kuwait oil fields

Martin Parr Greece-Athens-Acropolis-1991
Acropolis
(1991) – Martin Parr

(c) Martin Parr/Magnum Photo. For reproductions, go to www.magnumphotos.com.

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Hilton Head, S.C., US
(June 24, 1992) – Rineke Dijkstra (on 2 lists)

Rineke Dijkstra (1959- ) is a Dutch photographer who specializes in portraits. (c) Rineke Dijkstra. For more information, go to www.mariangoodman.com/artists/rineke-dijkstra.

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Naomi Campbell
(1992) – Steven Meisel (on 2 lists)

Steven Meisel (1954- ) is an American fashion photographer. (c) Steven Meisel.

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A Sudden Gust of Wind (after Hokusai)
(1993) – Jeff Wall (on 3 lists)

Canadian artist Jeff Wall has expanded the limits of photography as an art by embracing the technological possibilities of digital manipulation and by rejecting the street photographer’s dictum that the medium is at its best when it captures spontaneous “decisive moments.” Instead, Wall uses his own visual memories as well as other works of arts to inspire him to recreate scenes using actors and all the tools of technology. In recreating Katsushika Hokusai’s 1832 woodblock Travellers Caught in a Sudden Breeze at Ejiri (shown below), Wall transplanted the scene to a desolate landscape near his native Vancouver and created a collage of over 100 separate prints to create the final product, which is a huge (13.2 ft by 8.2 ft.) transparency displayed atop a light box that illuminates it from behind. (c) Jeff Wall. For more information, go to www.mariangoodman.com/artists/jeff-wall.
travellers-caught-in-a-sudden-breeze-at-ejiri-ca-1832-a-woodprint-by-katsushika-hokusai

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Vulture Stalking a Child – Sudan Famine (1994) – Kevin Carter (on 8 lists)

Shortly after arriving in southern Sudan in March 1993 during a famine, South African photographer Kevin Carter observed a hooded vulture standing near a starving Sudanese child, waiting for her to die. Carter took this Pulitzer Prize winning photo of predator and human prey that has become a symbol of the despair and misery of Third World famine. When the photo was taken, the child’s parents had left their daughter to get food from a relief plane that had just landed. The little girl eventually got up and walked away after Carter shooed away the vulture, although no one knows her ultimate fate. Carter was haunted by the event and, despite instructions not to touch famine victims (to avoid spreading disease), he regretted not doing more for the girl. The picture ran in The New York Times on March 26, 1993. While many praised the photo for bringing attention to the famine, some editorials castigated Carter as a heartless journalist who was just ‘another vulture.’ On July 27, 1994, three months after winning the Pulitzer Prize, the 34-year-old Carter, who suffered from depression, committed suicide. (c) Estate of Kevin Carter/The New York Times.

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Hong Kong Island (1994) – Andreas Gursky (on 2 lists)

Andreas Gursky is a German artist who specializes in large format archictecture and landscape color photos. A student of Bernd and Hilla Becher, whose catalogs of industrial structures urged us to appreciate the things our eyes normally pass over (see Pitheads, below, from 1974), Gursky takes the idea of cataloging and twists it around with his photos – with or without manipulations – of structures, buildings and landscapes that we may not identify as beautiful.
(c) Andreas Gursky.
becher pitheads 1974


Hutu man mutilated by Hutu ‘Interahamwe’ militia for suspected Tutsi sympathies (1994) – James Nachtwey (on 3 lists)
American photojournalist James Nachtwey (1948- ) won the 1995 World Press Photo for his photograph of a Hutu man who was mutilated with machetes because he did not support the genocide in Rwanda. The slaughter of over 800,000 Tutsis and moderate Hutus by Hutus armed with machetes and sticks was sparked in April 1994 by the death of Rwandan President Juvenal Habyarimana in a suspicious plane crash. The Hutu Interahamwe militia maimed and starved this young Hutu man because he did not support the killings. When Nachtwey encountered him in the Red Cross Hospital in Nyanza, Rwanda, the man was unable to speak or swallow and could barely walk. (c) James Nachtwey. For more information, go to www.jamesnachtwey.com.

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The Eagle Nebula from Hubble Space Telescope (1995) – NASA (on 2 lists)

This photo shows stars being born in an area 7,000 light years from Earth. Public domain.

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Oklahoma City firefighter holds infant (1995) – Charles Porter (on 3 lists)
Charles Porter IV was not a professional photographer but an aspiring journalist who worked in a bank near the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma on April 19, 1995 when he heard an explosion, grabbed his camera and ran out to document the tragic scene caused by domestic terrorists Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols, who were motivated by anger over FBI actions at Ruby Ridge, Idaho in 1992 and the Branch Davidian complex in Waco, Texas in 1993. The massive blast killed 168 people, injured 680 others, and destroyed the federal building and 324 other buildings in a 16-block radius. Porter’s heart-wrenching photograph of Oklahoma City firefighter Christopher Fields holding the body of one-year-old Baylee Almon won the 1996 Pulitzer Prize for Spot News Reporting. Baylee Almon’s mother, Aren Almon-Kok, had put Baylee in the federal building’s nursery that day so she could obtain federal assistance in compelling the baby’s father to make child support payments. Ironically, in the aftermath of the bombing, some claimed that Porter’s photograph resulted in Baylee Almon’s family receiving more attention (and donations) than others who suffered equally tragic losses. According to an April 19, 2015 USA Today article Porter is now a physical therapist living in Texas. (http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/2015/04/18/oklahoma-city-photo/25957831/). (c) Charles Porter/AP.

HubbleDeepField
Hubble Deep Field (1995) – NASA (on 2 lists)

This image is a combination of 342 exposures by the Hubble Space Telescope of a tiny portion of the sky.  It reveals nearly 3,000 galaxies, some of them the youngest and most distant known. Public domain.

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Prada (1996) – Andreas Gursky (on 3 lists)
While German photographer Andreas Gursky usually adopts a bird’s eye perspective for his large-scale photographs of landscapes – many of them human-created – the view he gives us of a minimalist high-end shoe store display in Prada I (also known as Untitled IV (Prada I)) is straight-on, though we feel a distance from the products. Gursky’s gaze appears to be impartial, but some have noted a tinge of irony in the notion that shoes should be presented to consumers with the formality and dignity of exhibits in a museum. Gursky manipulated the photograph in ways that are not apparent to the casual viewer, thus upending the notion of photography as mirror of reality. He digitally widened the shelving to increase the sense of the horizontal, and he mixed shoes from different seasons so they sit together in ways they would never do in reality. Each of Gursky’s chromogenic prints of Prada I is 33.5 inches tall and 73 5/8 inches wide and is presented in a frame measuring 53.1 inches tall and 89 inches wide. In 1997, Gursky created a photograph of three empty Prada shelves, which acquired the name Prada II (see below). (c) Andreas Gursky.
gursky prada ii

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Baby Green Sea Turtle, French Polynesia (1997) – David Doubilet (on 3 lists)
Photographer David Doubilet has been taking underwater photographs ever since he was 12 years old and wrapped a Brownie Hawkeye camera in a rubber anesthetist’s bag to keep it dry. Many years later, he has made a career out of creating stunning underwater photography, most of it for National Geographic. Several of Doubilet’s most highly-regarded photographs use a split-lens camera that he invented, which has separate focus points for each half of the lens and so allows him to capture images that are in focus in both the underwater and above-water portions. In order to overcome the light differential between the two worlds, Doubilet works with powerful strobe lights to brighten the underwater realm. The photograph here shows a newborn green sea turtle heading to the open ocean from the Nengonengo Atoll in French Polynesia. (c) David Doubilet. For reproductions, go to www.daviddoubilet.com.

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Devon Aoki for Alexander McQueen, Visionaire (1997) – Nick Knight (on 2 lists)
(c) Nick Knight. For more information, go to www.nickknight.com.

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Bundestag (1998) – Andreas Gursky.

The Bundestag is part of the German legislature. (c) Andreas Gursky.

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Endless Meanders, Alaska (1998) – Robert Glenn Ketchum. (on 2 lists)
(c) Robert Glenn Ketchum. For reproductions, go to www.robertglennketchum.com.

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Sea Lion Chase (1999) – David Doubilet. (on 2 lists)
(c) David Doubilet. For reproductions, go to www.daviddoubilet.com.

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Baby’s hand clutches finger (1999) – Michael Clancy
. (on 2 lists)
This controversial photo shows the hand of 21-week-old Samuel Armas, still in his mother’s uterus, clutching the finger of the surgeon performing a pre-natal operation on him. (c) Michael Clancy.

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Kosovo Refugees send boy through fence (1999) – Carol Guzy
. (on 2 lists)
American photojournalist Carol Guzy won one of her four Pulitzer Prizes for this and other photos of Kosovo refugees trying to escape to Albania, first published in the Washington Post. (c) Carol Guzy.

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Chicago Board of Trade II (1999) – Andreas Gursky (on 4 lists)
German photographer Andreas Gursky trained with Hilla and Bernd Becher, famous for their documentation of industrial buildings.  Gursky is also a documentarian, but unlike the dour monochrome productions of his mentors, Gursky’s photos are large format, in color and sometimes digitally manipulated. Like so many of Gursky’s photos, Chicago Board of Trade II is taken from a high angle, in this case from the visitor gallery. Gursky shows us the trading floor without the walls, creating the impression that this organized chaos might go on forever. He has double exposed some areas, creating a sense of movement, and digitally enhanced the colors, giving the impression, noted Rachel Taylor of the Tate Modern, “that mimics mosaic or stained glass.” (c) Andreas Gursky.

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Rhine II (1999) – Andreas Gursky. (on 2 lists)

In 2011, a print of this photo sold at auction for $4.3 million, making it the most expensive photograph ever sold. (c) Andreas Gursky.

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Brandi Chastain Celebrates Winning Penalty Kick During U.S. Womens World Cup Victory (1999) – Roberto Schmidt
. (on 2 lists)
(c) Roberto Schmidt/AFP.

Jeff Wall, After “Invisible Man” by Ralph Ellison, the Prologue 1999-2000
After ‘Invisible Man’ by Ralph Ellison, The Prologue (1999-2000) – Jeff Wall
. (on 2 lists)
(c) Jeff Wall.  For more information, go to www.mariangoodman.com/artists/jeff-wall.

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Shanghai (2000) – Andreas Gursky (on 2 lists)

(c) Andreas Gursky.

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Olivier, French Foreign Legion, Camp Raffalli, Calvi, Corsica (June 18, 2001) –Rineke Dijkstra (on 2 lists)

(c) Rineke Dijkstra. For more information, go to www.mariangoodman.com/artists/rineke-dijkstra

Falling Man
The Falling Man (Sept. 11, 2001) – Richard Drew (on 4 lists)

After terrorists crashed large airplanes into the twin towers of the World Trade Center in New York City on September 11, 2001, some of the people trapped by the flames and smoke began jumping or falling from the windows – as many as 200, according to some estimates. Richard Drew captured the almost balletic pose of one man during his descent. When the New York Times published the photo the following day, many criticized the paper for doing so. There have been many attempts to identify the man – some say he is Windows on the World restaurant employee Jonathan Briley. The photo was the subject of a 2003 piece by Tom Junod in Esquire and a 2006 documentary film. Don DeLillo’s Falling Man, a novel, involves a performance artist who recreates the Falling Man pose. (c) Richard Drew/AP.

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Copan (2002) – Andreas Gursky
 (on 2 lists)
Edificio Copan is located in São Paulo, Brazil. It was designed by architect Oscar Niemeyer. (c) Andreas Gursky.

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Amanda as Andy Warhol’s Marilyn (2002) – David LaChapelle (on 2 lists)

David LaChapelle (1963- ) is an American artist and photographer. His style has been described as “kitsch pop surrealism.” (Laila Pedro, Idiom Magazine.) (c) David LaChapelle. For reproductions, go to www.davidlachapelle.com.

DeathbyCheeseburger
Death by Cheeseburger
(2002) – David LaChapelle
 (on 2 lists)
(c) David LaChapelle. For reproductions, go to www.davidlachapelle.com.

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Peaches, Rouilly, Le Bas
 (2002) – Ellen von Unwerth
 (on 2 lists)
Ellen von Unwerth (1954- ) is a German fashion photographer known for her exploration of female erotica. (c) Ellen von Unwerth. For more information, go to www.ellenvonunwerth.com.

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Bullet-scarred apartment building and shops, Karte Char, Kabul, Afghanistan (2002) – Simon Norfolk
 (on 2 lists)
Photographer Simon Norfolk (1963- ) was born in Nigeria and educated in England. He specializes in documenting landscapes in the aftermath of wars and other disruptive events. (c) Simon Norfolk. For reproductions, go to www.simonnorfolk.com.

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Man with balloons near destroyed building, Afghanistan (2002) – Simon Norfolk (on 2 lists)
(c) Simon Norfolk. For reproductions, go to www.simonnorfolk.com.

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Coal Miner Smoking a Cigarette, Afghanistan (2002) – Steve McCurry
 (on 2 lists)
(c) Steve McCurry/Magnum Photo. For reproductions, go to www.magnumphotos.com.

CindyShermanWomanInSundress
Woman in Sun Dress (2003) – Cindy Sherman
 (on 2 lists)
(c) 2012 Cindy Sherman. For more information, go to www.metropicturesgallery.com/artists/cindy-sherman.

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Bjork (2003) – David LaChapelle (on 2 lists)

(c) David LaChapelle. For reproductions, go to www.davidlachapelle.com.

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The Last Supper (from Jesus is my homeboy) (2003) – David LaChapelle (on 2 lists)
(c) David LaChapelle. For reproductions, go to www.davidlachapelle.com.

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Y K Delta from 1500 (2003) – Robert Glenn Ketchum (on 2 lists)

This photo shows a silk loom weaving incorporating Ketchum’s photo – it is a collaboration with the Suzhou Embroidery Research Institute in China. (c) Robert Glenn Ketchum. For reproductions, go to www.robertglennketchum.com.

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Ancient Trade, Morocco (2003) – Art Wolfe
 (on 2 lists)
Art Wolfe (1951) is an American photographer who specializes in landscape, nature and wildlife photography. (c) Art Wolfe. For reproductions, go to www.artwolfe.com.

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Abu Grahib prisoner (2004) – Unknown Photographer (on 2 lists)

Caption.

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Russia. Moscow. Fashion Week (2004) – Martin Parr
 (on 2 lists)
(c) Martin Parr/Magnum Photo. For reproductions, go to www.magnumphotos.com.

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Tail of Southern right whale, Valdes Peninsula, Patagonia, Argentina (2004) – Sebastião Salgado
 (on 2 lists)
(c) Sebastião Salgado. For reproductions, go to www.amazonasimages.com.

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Marc Jacobs (Charlotte Rampling and Juergen Teller) (2004) – Juergen Teller
 (on 2 lists)
Juergen Teller (1964- ) is a German artist who specializes in fine art and fashion photography. (c) Juergen Teller. For more information, go to www.juergenteller.com.

Top 40 Naturfoto / Conservation International
Giant Tortoises at Dawn, Galapagos Islands (2004) – Frans Lanting (on 2 lists)

Frans Lanting (1951- ) is a Dutch photographer specializing in wildlife photography. (c) Frans Lanting.  For reproductions, go to www.lanting.com.

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Smiling Ed (2005) – Juergen Teller
 (on 2 lists)
© Juergen Teller. For more information, go to www.juergenteller.com.

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Pearl Harbor survivor hugs Iraq war veteran, Dallas, Texas (2005) – Jim Mahoney (on 2 lists)
Jim Mahoney is a staff photographer for the Dallas Morning News. (c) Jim Mahoney/Dallas Morning News.

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Tanisha Blevin, 5, holds hand of Nita LaGarde, 89, during evacuation of New Orleans Convention center after Katrina (2005) – Eric Gay (on 2 lists)
Eric Gay is a photographer for the Associated Press. (c) Eric Gay/AP.

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Untitled (2005) – Nobuyoshi Araki (on 2 lists)
Nobuyoshi Araki (1940- ) is a controversial Japanese photographer whose work has led some to debate whether it is art or pornography. (c) Nobuyoshi Araki.  For more information, go to www.arakinobuyoshi.com.

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Lava River
, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Hawaii (2000-2006) – Frans Lanting
 (on 2 lists)
(c) Frans Lanting.  For reproductions, go to www.lanting.com.

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Kaori (2004-2006) – Nobuyoshi Araki (on 2 lists)
(c) Nobuyoshi Araki. For more information, go to www.arakinobuyoshi.com.

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Water Lilies, Botswana (2006) – Frans Lanting (on 2 lists)
(c) Frans Lanting.  For reproductions, go to www.lanting.com.

Mario Testino, Kate Moss, London, 2006
Kate Moss, London (2006) – Mario Testino (on 2 lists)
Mario Testino (1954- ) is a Peruvian fashion photographer. (c) Mario Testino. For more information, go to www.mariotestino.com.

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Boy in Mid-Flight, Jodhpur, India (2007) – Steve McCurry (on 2 lists)
(c) Steve McCurry/Magnum Photo.  For reproductions, go to www.magnumphotos.com.

Oded Bality/AP
The Power of One (2007) – Oded Bality (on 3 lists)
Oded Bality is an AP photographer based in Tel Aviv, Israel.  In February 2006, he photographed a lone Jewish girl fighting numerous Israeli security officers during the evacuation of settlers from the illegal Jewish settlement of Amona in the Palestinian West Bank.  The 15-year-old girl pictured, known only as Nili, lived in one of the nine homes that was demolished that day pursuant to a court order.  Bality’s image of one determined person defying overwhelming odds won the 2007 Pulitzer Prize for Breaking News photography. (c) 2006/Associated Press.

aaron thompson boy and flag
Eight-year-old Christian Golczynski takes flag of father killed in Iraq (2007) – Aaron Thompson. (on 2 lists)
Aaron Thompson is an American photographer. (c) Aaron Thompson.

maine_forest_mist_Meisel
Maine Forest Mist (2007) – Jay Maisel. (on 2 lists)
(c) Jay Maisel. For reproductions, go to http://studio.jaymaisel.com.

meisel first look at spring 2007
Vogue Italia
, from Patterns (2007) – Steven Meisel
. (on 2 lists)
(c) Steven Meisel.

art wolfe koyasan winter 2
Koyasan Winter, Japan (2008) – Art Wolfe. (on 2 lists)
(c) Art Wolfe. For reproductions, go to www.artwolfe.com.

russian man with tank
Russian Vet Kneels by His Former Tank, Now Monument (2008) – Unknown Photographer. (on 2 lists)
Caption.

teller beckham bag
Victoria Beckham in Marc Jacobs bag (2008) – Juergen Teller. (on 2 lists)
(c) Juergen Teller. For more information, go to www.juergenteller.com.

annie leibovits miley cyrus vanity-fair
Miley Cyrus (2008) – Annie Leibowitz. (on 2 lists)
This controversial photo was first published in Vanity Fair. (c) Annie Leibovitz/Vanity Fair.

heinz kluetmeier - phelps larger
Michael Phelps Wins 100 Meter Butterfly at Beijing Olympics (2008) – Heinz Kluetmeier. (on 2 lists)
© Heinz Kleutmeier/Sports Illustrated. For reproductions, go to www.gettyimages.com/Editorial/Frontdoor/SportsIllustrated.

dijkstra amy-liverpool-december-23-2008
Amy, The Krazyhouse, Liverpool, UK (December 22, 2008) – Rineke Dijkstra.
(c) Rineke Dijkstra. For more information, go to www.mariangoodman.com/artists/rineke-dijkstra.

Ellen von Unwerth Ana-Beatriz-Barros
Ana Beatriz Barros (from Naughty Christmas) (2008) – Ellen von Unwerth. (on 2 lists)
(c) Ellen von Unwerth.  For more information, go to www.ellenvonunwerth.com.
ellen von unwerth santa spanking

david-doubilet-mv-keith-tibbets-wreck-cayman-brac
Wreck of the Keith Tibbetts, Cayman Brac (1996-2009) – David Doubilet. (on 2 lists)
(c) David Doubilet. For reproductions, go to www.daviddoubilet.com.

mark pardew koala
Firefighter gives Koala water, Victoria, Australia (2009) – Mark Pardew. (on 2 lists)
Mark Pardew was a firefighter who took this photo with his cell phone. (c) Mark Pardew/AP.

david-doubilet-southern-stingrays-grand-cayman-island
Southern Stingrays, Grand Cayman Island (2009) – David Doubilet (on 3 lists).
Underwater photography is hard enough, but split-lens, or “over-under” photographs are even more difficult. David Doubilet has published many such photos (he prefers to call them ‘half and half’ images), many of them for National Geographic. This black and white image of stingrays, a fishing boat (far right) and a sunburst shows the surreal quality of such shots. Taking such a picture properly requires the right equipment, including a very wide angle lens, a dome, and strobe lights. Other Doubilet tips: make sure both above and underwater portions of the image are interesting, some of the best photos are taken in shallow water with a focal point underwater and few distractions, make sure the surface of the water itself is interesting, and most of all, make sure you have no water droplets on the above-water portion of the lens (http://www.divephotoguide.com/underwater-photography-techniques/article/over-unders/). (c) David Doubilet. For reproductions, go to

robyn beck larger
Return of journalists from North Korea (2009) – Robyn Beck. (on 2 lists)
American journalists Euna Lee and Laura Ling were imprisoned in North Korea for five months. Robyn Beck is an American photojournalist with Agence France-Presse (AFP). (c) Robyn Beck. For more information, go to www.robynbeck.com.

Papuan fisherman Raja Ampat Indonesia
Indonesian Fisherman (2009) – David Doubilet. (on 2 lists)
(c) David Doubilet. For reproductions, go to www.daviddoubilet.com.

david-doubilet pompano
Pompano Fish and Feet, US Virgin Islands (before 2010) – David Doubilet. (on 2 lists)
(c) David Doubilet.  For reproductions, go to www.daviddoubilet.com.

helen fisher
Helen Fisher at the hearse of her cousin, Douglas Halliday, UK (2010) – Unknown Photographer. (on 2 lists)
Halliday was one of seven soldiers killed in Afghanistan who were laid to rest that day. For reproductions, go to www.gettyimages.com.

patrick demarchelier aline weber larger
Aline Weber (2010) – Patrick Demarchelier. (on 2 lists)
(c) Patrick Demarchelier.  For reproductions, go to www.demarchelier.net.

david bailey photography
Abbey Lee Kershaw (2010) – David Bailey. (on 2 lists)
(c) David Bailey.

almeida dog-mourns-owner
Dog sits by owner’s grave after floods, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (2011) – Vanderlei Almeida. (on 2 lists)
Vanderlei Almeida is a Brazilian photographer. (c) Vanderlei Almeida/AFP/Getty Images. For reproductions, go to www.gettyimages.com.

juergen teller bjork
Björk (2011) – Juergen Teller. (on 2 lists)
(c) Juergen Teller. For more information, go to www.juergenteller.com.

JeffRobertsTornado
Aftermath of Alabama tornado (2011) – Jeff Roberts. (on 2 lists)
Jeff Roberts was an American photojournalist. (c) Jeff Roberts/Birmingham News.
jeff roberts mother son

chinese-monk-prays-for-dead-man-in-train-station
Monk in China Prays for Dead Man in Train Station (2011) – Unknown Photographer. (on 2 lists)
Caption.

yomiuri shimbun tsunami
Soldier holds 4-month-old found 4 days after Japanese tsunami (2011) – Hiroto Sekiguchi. (on 2 lists)
Hiroto Sekiguchi is a Japanese photojournalist who works for Yomiuri Shimbun. (c) Hiroto Sekiguchi/Yomiuri Shimbun.

terri gurrola
Terri Gurrola is reunited with her daughter after seven months in Iraq (2011) – Louie Favorite. (on 2 lists)
(c) Louie Favorite/Atlanta Journal Constitution.  For reproductions, go to www.apimages.com.

camel-thorn-trees-namibia_larger
Camel Thorn Trees, Namibia (2011) – Frans Lanting. (on 2 lists)
(c) Frans Lanting.  For reproductions, go to www.lanting.com.

art wolfe chamonix needles
Chamonix Needles, France (2011) – Art Wolfe. (on 2 lists)
(c) Art Wolfe. For reproductions, go to www.artwolfe.com.

art wolfe zebras larger
Zebras, Kenya [Undated] – Art Wolfe. (on 2 lists)
(c) Art Wolfe. For reproductions, go to www.artwolfe.com.

david muench cypresses larger
Cypress, tupelo silhouettes, Horseshoe Lake, Illinois [Undated] – David Muench (on 2 lists)
© David Muench.  For reproductions, go to www.muenchphotography.com.

david-muench-kadasham-rain-forest-in-tongass-national-forest
Kadasham Rain Forest in Tongass National Forest, Alaska [Undated] – David Muench (on 2 lists)
(c) David Muench.  For reproductions, go to www.muenchphotography.com.

One thought on “Best Photography of All Time: Chronological II – 1946-2011

  1. Pingback: Take A Picture, It’ll Last Longer: The Photography Lists | Make Lists, Not War

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