Best Architects of All Time – The Critics’ Picks

I collected over a dozen lists of the best (most important, most influential) architects of all time and compiled them into one meta-list.  Then I determined the most highly-regarded buildings designed and/or built by each architect.  The list below contains every architect whose name appeared on at least four of the original lists, along with their best creations. The list of architects is chronological by birthdate and the list of buildings for each architect is in chronological order by the date major work was completed.  For other architecture lists, go to Best Architecture of All Time – The Critics’ Picks and Best Architecture of All Time – Chronological.

Vitruvius (Marcus Vitruvius Pollio) (Ancient Rome, 80-70 BCE – After 15 BCE)
Basilica di Fano. Fano, Italy (19 BCE). Destroyed.

Vitruvius.

Vitruvius.

Filippo Brunelleschi (Italy, 1377-1446)
Basilica of San Lorenzo. Florence, Italy (1434-1437).
Ospedale degli Innocenti (Hospital of the Innocents). Florence, Italy (1424-1445).
Florence Cathedral (Cathedral of St. Mary of the Flower). With Arnolfo di Cambio, Giotto, Andrea Pisano, Francesco Talenti, Giovanni di Lapo Ghini, Alberto Arnoldi, Giovanni d’Ambrogio, Neri di Fioravante, Andrea Orcagna. Florence, Italy (1296-1436).
Church of Santo Spirito. Florence, Italy (1434-1482).

This statue of Filippo Brunelleschi in Florence shows the architect looking up at his masterpiece - the dome of Florence Cathedral.

This statue of Filippo Brunelleschi in Florence shows the architect looking up at his masterpiece – the dome of Florence Cathedral.

Leon Battista Alberti (Italy, 1404-1472)
Façade, Palazzo Rucellai. Florence, Italy (1445–1451).
Church of San Francesco (Tempio Malatestiano). Rimini, Italy (1450-1468).
Upper Façade, Church of Santa Maria Novella. Florence, Italy (1448–1470).
Church of San Sebastiano. Mantua, Italy (1458-1470).
Basilica of Sant’Andrea. Mantua, Italy (1472-1490).

A statue of Leon Battista Alberti in Florence.

A statue of Leon Battista Alberti in Florence.

Donato Bramante (Italy, 1444-1514)
Santa Maria presso San Satiro. Milan, Italy (1476–1482).
Cloister and Apse, Santa Maria delle Grazie. Milan, Italy (1492–1497).
Tempietto, San Pietro in Montorio. Rome, Italy (c. 1502).
Cloister, Santa Maria della Pace. Rome, Itay (1500-1504).
Palazzo Caprini (House of Raphael). Rome, Italy. (1504-1510). Demolished.
Cortile del Belvedere (Belvedere Court). Vatican City (1505-1514).
St. Peter’s Basilica. With Antonio da Sangallo, Michelangelo Buonarroti, Giacomo della Porta, Carlo Maderno, Gian Lorenzo Bernini. Vatican City. (1506-1626).

A 1506 medallion by Caradosso depicting Donato Bramante.

A 1506 medallion by Caradosso depicting Donato Bramante.

Michelangelo Buonarroti (Italy, 1475-1564)
Medici Chapel (Sagrestia Nuova), Basilica of San Lorenzo. Florence, Italy (1520-1534).
Piazza del Campidoglio. Rome, Italy (1536-1546).
Laurentian Library. Florence, Italy (1525-1571).
St. Peter’s Basilica. With Donato Bramante, Antonio da Sangallo, Giacomo della Porta, Carlo Maderno, Gian Lorenzo Bernini. Vatican City (1506-1626).

Portrait of Michelangelo Buonarroti by Jacopino del Conte from 1535. It is located in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.

A 1535 portrait of Michelangelo Buonarroti by Jacopino del Conte.

Andrea Palladio (Italy, 1508-1580)
Villa Barbaro. Maser, Italy (c. 1555–1559).
Villa Capra “La Rotonda.” Vicenza, Italy (1566–1571).
Teatro Olimpico (Olympic Theater). Vicenza, Italy (1579–1580).
Il Redentore (Church of the Most Holy Redeemer). Venice, Italy (1577-1592).
Church of San Giorgio Maggiore. Venice, Italy (1566-1610).

A 1576 portrait of Andrea Palladio.

A 1576 portrait of Andrea Palladio.

Inigo Jones (UK, 1573-1652)
The Banqueting House. Whitehall, London, UK (1619–1622).
The Queen’s Chapel. London, UK (1623–1627).
The Queen’s House. Greenwich, UK (1616–1635).

A portrait of Inigo Jones by Sir Anthony van Dyck from 1636-1641.

A portrait of Inigo Jones by Sir Anthony van Dyck c. 1636-1641.

Gian Lorenzo Bernini (Italy, 1598-1680)
Baldacchino, St. Peter’s Basilica. Vatican City (1624-1625).
St. Peter’s Basilica. With Donato Bramante, Antonio da Sangallo, Michelangelo Buonarroti, Giacomo della Porta, Carlo Maderno. Vatican City (1506-1626).
Fountain of the Tritons (Fontana dei Tritone). Piazza Barberini, Rome, Italy (1624-1643).
Fontana dei Quattro Fiumi (Fountain of the Four Rivers). Piazza Navone, Rome, Italy (1648-1651).
Cathedra Petri (Throne of St. Peter). St. Peter’s Basilica, Vatican City (1657-1666).
St. Peter’s Square (Piazza San Pietro). Vatican City (1656-1667).
Church of Sant’Andrea al Quirinale. Rome, Italy (1658-1670).

A Self-Portrait by Gian Lorenzo Bernini, from about 1623.

A Self-Portrait by Gian Lorenzo Bernini, from about 1623.

Sir Christopher Wren (UK, 1632-1723)
Sheldonian Theatre. Oxford, UK (1664-1668).
Royal Observatory. Greenwich, UK (1675-1676).
Monument to the Great Fire of London. With Robert Hooke. London, UK (1671-1677).
Trinity College Library. Cambridge, UK (1676-1684).
Royal Hospital. Chelsea, London, UK (1682-1692).
Façade, Hampton Court Palace. Richmond-upon-Thames, Greater London, UK (1689-1700).
St. Paul’s Cathedral (Cathedral Church of St. Paul the Apostle). London, UK (1673-1711)
Royal Naval Hospital. Greenwich, UK (1696-1715).

An anonymous undated portrait of Sir Christopher Wren.

A portrait of Sir Christopher Wren by John Closterman, from about 1690, showing St. Paul’s Cathedral.

Balthasar Neumann (Germany, 1687-1753)
Würzburg Residenz. Würzburg, Germany (1720-1744).
Schloss Bruchsal (Bruchsal Palace). Bruchsal, Germany (1728–1750).
Interior, St. Paulinus’ Church. Trier, Germany (1734-1757).
Basilika Vierzehnheiligen (Basilica of the Fourteen Holy Helpers). Bad Staffelstein, Germany (1743-1772).
Neresheim Abbey (Abbey of Sts. Ulrich and Afra). Neresheim, Germany (1747–1792).

A 1727 portrait of Balthasar Neumann by Markus Friedrich Kleinert.

A 1727 portrait of Balthasar Neumann by Markus Friedrich Kleinert.

Thomas Jefferson (US, 1743-1826)
Virginia State Capitol. With Charles-Louis Clérisseau. Richmond, Virginia (1788).
Addition, George Divers House (now ‘Jefferson Room’, Farmington Country Club). Charlottesville, Virginia (1802-1803).
Monticello. Near Charlottesville, Virginia (1768–1809).
Barboursville (House of James Barbour). Barboursville, Virginia (1822). Burned 1884, leaving ruins.
Charlotte County Courthouse. Charlotte Courthouse, Virginia (1822-1823).
Poplar Forest. Near Lynchburg, Virginia (1806–1826).
Academical Village, University of Virginia (including The Lawn and the Rotunda). Charlottesville, Virginia (1817-1826). Rotunda burned 1895, rebuilt 1898-1899.

An 1800 portrait of Thomas Jefferson by Rembrandt Peale.

An 1800 portrait of Thomas Jefferson by Rembrandt Peale.

Daniel Hudson Burnham (US, 1846-1912)
Montauk Building. With John Wellborn Root. Chicago, Illinois (1882-1883). Demolished 1902.
Rookery Building. With John Wellborn Root. Chicago, Illinois (1886).
Monadnock Building. With John Wellborn Root. Chicago, Illinois (1889-1891)
Masonic Temple. With John Wellborn Root. Chicago, Illinois (1892).
Reliance Building. Chicago, Illinois (1890-1895).
Flatiron Building. New York, New York (1902).
Union Station. Washington, D.C. (1907).

An 1899 portrait of Daniel Hudson Burnham by Anders Zorn.

An 1899 portrait of Daniel Hudson Burnham by Anders Zorn.

Antoni Gaudí (Spain, 1852-1926)
Palau Güell (Güell Palace). Barcelona, Spain (1886-1888).
Casa Vicens. Barcelona, Spain (1883-1889).
Casa Calvet. Barcelona, Spain (1898-1900).
Casa Batlló. Barcelona, Spain (1904-1906).
Casa Milà (‘La Pedrera’). Barcelona, Spain (1906-1912).
Parc Güell. Barcelona, Spain (1900-1914).
La Sagrada Familia (Basílica i Temple Expiatori de la Sagrada Família). Barcelona, Spain (1882-Present). Under construction.

A photograph of Antoni Gaudi.

A photograph of Antoni Gaudi.

Louis Sullivan (US, 1856-1924)
Auditorium Building. With Denkmar Adler. Chicago, Illinois (1886-1890).
Wainwright Building. With Denkmar Adler. St. Louis, Missouri (1890-1891).
Chicago Stock Exchange. With Denkmar Adler. Chicago, Illinois (1893-1894).
Guaranty Building (now Prudential Building). With Denkmar Adler. Buffalo, New York (1894-1895).
Carson, Pirie, Scott & Co. (now Sullivan Center). Chicago, Illinois (1899).
National Farmers’ Bank. Owatonna, Minnesota (1907-1908).
Merchants’ National Bank. Grinnell, Iowa (1914).

A photograph of Louis Sullivan from about 1895.

A photograph of Louis Sullivan from about 1895.

Victor Horta (Belgium, 1861-1947)
Hôtel Tassel. Brussels, Belgium (1893-1894).
Maison Autrique. Brussels, Belgium (1893-1895).
Hôtel Solvay. Brussels, Belgium (1895-1898).
Maison du Peuple. Brussels, Belgium (1896-1898). Demolished.
Hôtel van Eetvelde. Brussels, Belgium (1897-1901).
Maison & Atelier Horta (now Victor Horta Museum). Brussels, Belgium (1898-1901).
Hôtel Winssinger (now Galerie Paris-Beijing). Brussels, Belgium (1894-1903).
Waucquez Department Store (now Comic Strip Museum). Brussels, Belgium (1903-1905).
Palais des Beaux-Arts (Center for Fine Arts). Brussels, Belgium (1920-1928).
Central Railway Station. Brussels, Belgium (1914-1952).

A photograph of Victor Horta at work from about 1900.

A photograph of Victor Horta at work from about 1900.

Frank Lloyd Wright (US, 1867-1959)
Wright Home and Studio. Oak Park, Chicago, Illinois (1888-1889).
William H. Winslow House. River Forest, Illinois (1893).
Unity Temple. Chicago, Illinois (1904).
Robie House. Chicago, Illinois (1908-1910).
Taliesin (3rd version). Spring Green, Wisconsin (1925).
Hollyhock House. Los Angeles, California (1921-1923).
Johnson Wax Headquarters. Racine, Wisconsin (1936).
Fallingwater (Kauffmann Residence). Mill Run, Pennsylvania (1936-1937).
Taliesin West. Scottsdale, Arizona (1937).
Beth Sholom Synagogue. Elkins Park, Pennsylvania (1954).
Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum. New York, New York (1959).

A 1945 photographic portrait of Frank Lloyd Wright by Yousef Karsh.

A 1945 photographic portrait of Frank Lloyd Wright by Yousef Karsh.

Walter Gropius (Germany, 1883-1969)
Fagus Factory. With Adolf Meyer. Alfeld an der Leine, Germany (1910-1911).
Werkbund Exhibition Buildings. Cologne, Germany (1914). Dismantled.
Bauhaus School (Bauhaus Dessau). Dessau, Germany (1925-1932).
Gropius House. Lincoln, Massachusetts (1937).
Harvard University Graduate Center. With The Architects’ Collaborative. Cambridge, Massachusetts (1949-1950).
U.S. Embassy in Athens. With The Architects’ Collaborative & Pericles A. Sakellarios. Athens, Greece (1959-1961).
Pan Am Building (now the Metlife Building). With Pietro Belluschi, Emery Roth & Sons. New York, New York (1958-1963).

A 1933 photograph of Walter Gropius, shown with his proposed design for the Chicago Tribune tower. (AP Photo)

A 1933 photograph of Walter Gropius, shown with his proposed design for the Chicago Tribune tower. (AP Photo)

Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (Germany/US, 1886-1969)
Barcelona Pavilion. Barcelona, Spain. (1928-1929). Demolished 1930; reconstructed 1983-1986.
Tugendhat House. Brno, Czech Republic (1930).
Farnsworth House. Plano, Illinois (1946-1950).
Lake Shore Drive Apartments (860-880 Lake Shore Drive). Chicago, Illinois. (1951).
Crown Hall, Illinois Institute of Technology. Chicago, Illinois (1950-1956)
Seagram Building. With Philip Johnson. New York, New York. (1958).
Neue Nationalgalerie (New National Gallery). Berlin, Germany (1962-1968).

A photograph of Mies van der Rohe with a model of Crown Hall at the Illinois Institute of Technology.

An undated photograph of Ludwig Mies van der Rohe with a model of Crown Hall at the Illinois Institute of Technology in Chicago.

Le Corbusier (Switzerland/France, 1887-1965)
Villa Savoye. With Pierre Jeanneret. Poissy, France (1928-1929).
Palace of Assembly. Chandigarh, India (1951).
Unité d’Habitation. Marseilles, France (1946-1952).
United Nations Headquarters. With Oscar Niemeyer, Harrison & Abramovitz. New York, New York (1947-1953).
Notre-Dame-du-Haut. Ronchamp, France (1955).
Convent of La Tourette (Sainte Marie del La Tourette). Eveux-sur-Arbresle, France (1957-1960).
Carpenter Center for the Visual Arts, Harvard University. Cambridge, Massachusetts (1961-1964).
Saint-Pierre. Firminy, France (1971-2006). Construction hiatus from 1975-2003.

An anonymous undated photograph of Le Corbusier (Charles-Édouard Jeanneret-Gris).

An undated photograph of Le Corbusier (Charles-Édouard Jeanneret-Gris).

Skidmore, Owings & Merrill (SOM)
Founders: Louis Skidmore (US, 1897-1962) & Nathaniel Owings (US, 1903-1984)
Lever House. New York, New York (1952).
One Chase Manhattan Plaza. New York, New York (1961).
John Hancock Center. Chicago, Illinois (1970).
Haj Terminal. Jeddah, Saudi Arabia (1972).
Sears Tower (now Willis Tower). Chicago, Illinois (1974).
Jin Mao Tower. Shanghai, China (1998).
One World Trade Center (‘Freedom Tower’). New York, New York (2014).

An undated anonymous photograph of Skidmore, Owings and Merrill.

An undated photograph of Louis Skidmore, Nathaniel Owings and John Merrill.

Alvar Aalto (Finland, 1898-1976)
Turun Sanomat Newspaper Offices. Turku, Finland (1928-1930).
Paimio Sanatorium (now part of Turku University Hospital). Paimio, Finland (1928-1932).
Viipuri Municipal Library (now Central City Alvar Aalto Library). Vyborg, Russia (1927-1935).
Villa Mairea. Noormarkku, Finland (1937-1939).
Finnish Pavilion, 1939 World’s Fair. New York, New York (1939). Dismantled.
Baker House, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Cambridge, Massachusetts (1947-1948).
Säynätsalo Town Hall (multiple buildings). Säynätsalo, Finland (1949-1952).
House of Culture. Helsinki, Finland (1952-1958).
Aalto Center (Seinjoki Town Center) (six buildings). Seinjoki, Finland (1960-1968).
Finlandia Hall. Helsinki, Finland (1962-1971).

A 1948 photograph of Alvar Aalto.

A 1948 photograph of Alvar Aalto.

Philip Johnson (US, 1906-2005)
The Glass House (Johnson House). New Canaan, Connecticut (1949).
Rockefeller Guest House. New York, New York (1949-1950).
Seagram Building. With Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. New York, New York (1958).
Amon Carter Museum of Western Art. Fort Worth, Texas (1961).
New York State Theater (now David H. Koch Theater). With Richard Foster. Lincoln Center, New York, New York (1964).
John F. Kennedy Memorial. Dallas, Texas (1970)
Boston Public Library Extension (Johnson Building). Boston, Massachusetts (1972).
Pennzoil Place. Houston, Texas (1976).
Crystal Cathedral. Garden Grove, California (1977-1980).
AT&T Building (now Sony Tower). With John Burgee. New York, New York (1980-1984).
PPG Place. With John Burgee. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (1981-1984).
53rd and Third (‘Lipstick Building’). With John Burgee. New York, New York (1986).
One International Place. With John Burgee. Boston, Massachusetts (1987).
Two International Place. With John Burgee. Boston, Massachusetts (1992).

A photograph of Philip Johnson at the New York State Theater (now the David H. Koch Theater), Lincoln Center, New York, from about 1964.

A photograph of Philip Johnson at the New York State Theater (now the David H. Koch Theater), Lincoln Center, New York, from about 1964.

Oscar Niemeyer (Brazil, 1907-2012)
Church of Saint Francis of Assisi (Igreja de Sao Francisco de Assis). Belo Horizonte, Pampulha, Brazil (1943).
United Nations Headquarters. With Le Corbusier, Harrison & Abramovitz. New York, New York. (1947-1953).
Palácio da Alvorada (Presidential Palace). Brasília, Brazil (1957-1958).
National Congress of Brazil. Brasília, Brazil (1957-1964).
Edifício Copan. São Paulo, Brazil (1952-1966).
Cathedral of Brasília (Metropolitan Cathedral of Our Lady Aparecida). Brasília, Brazil (1958-1970).
French Communist Party Headquarters. Paris, France (1967-1981).
Niterói Contemporary Art Museum (Museu de Arte Contemporânea de Niterói). Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (1996).
Oscar Niemeyer Museum (Museu Oscar Niemeyer; ‘Museum of the Eye’). Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil (2001-2002).

A photograph of Oscar Niemeyer in front of the Palácio da Alvorada in Brasília, by Gil Pinero.

A photograph of Oscar Niemeyer in front of the Palácio da Alvorada in Brasília, by Gil Pinero.

I.M. Pei (Ieoh Ming Pei) (China/US, 1917- )
Mesa Laboratory, National Center for Atmospheric Research. Boulder, Colorado (1961-1967).
Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art, Cornell University. Ithaca, New York (1973).
East Building, National Gallery of Art. Washington, D.C. (1974-1978).
Kennedy Memorial Library. Boston, Massachusetts (1979).
Pyramide du Louvre. Paris, France (1989).
Bank of China. Hong Kong, China (1982-1990).
Miho Museum. Shiga, Japan (1997).
Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Cleveland, Ohio (1998).
Museum of Islamic Art. Doha, Qatar (2008)

A photograph of I.M. Pei stands at the construction site for the Louvre Pyramid, by Owen Frankel.

A photograph of I.M. Pei stands at the construction site for the Louvre Pyramid, by Owen Frankel.

Jørn Oberg Utzon (Denmark, 1918-2008)
Kingo Houses. Helsingør, Denmark (1956–1960)
Fredensborg Houses. Fredensborg, Denmark (1959–1963).
Sydney Opera House. Sydney, Australia (1956–1973)
Can Lis (The Utzon House). Majorca, Spain (1971–1973)
Bagsværd Church. Bagsværd, Denmark (1968–1976)
National Assembly of Kuwait. With Jan Utzon. Kuwait City, Kuwait (1972–1984).
Paustian Furniture Store. Copenhagen, Denmark (1985–1987).

Jorn Utzon in an undated photo.

Jorn Utzon in an undated photo.

Norma Merrick Sklarek (US, 1928-2012)
Fox Plaza. San Francisco, California (1961-1966).
San Bernardino City Hall. With César Pelli. San Bernardino, California (1963-1972).
Pacific Design Center (‘The Blue Whale’). With César Pelli. Los Angeles, California (1972-1975).
U.S. Embassy in Tokyo. With César Pelli. Tokyo, Japan (1974-1976).
Terminal One, Los Angeles International Airport. Los Angeles, California (1984).

An undated photo of Norma Merrick Sklarek, by Rick Schmitt.

An undated photo of Norma Merrick Sklarek, by Rick Schmitt.

Frank Gehry (Canada/US, 1929- )
Gehry Residence. Santa Monica, California (1977-1978).
Weisman Art Museum. Minneapolis, Minnesota (1993).
Nationale-Nederlanden Building (‘Dancing House’, ‘Fred and Ginger’). With Valdo Milunic. Prague, Czech Republic (1996).
Guggenheim Museum Bilbao. Bilbao, Spain (1997).
Experience Music Project. Seattle, Washington (1999-2000).
Walt Disney Concert Hall. Los Angeles, California (2003).
Stata Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Cambridge, Massachusetts (2004).
Art Gallery of Ontario (expansion), Toronto, Canada (2008).
Beekman Tower (now 8 Spruce Street), New York, New York (2011).

A 2007 photograph of Frank Gehry by Thomas Mayer.

A 2007 photograph of Frank Gehry by Thomas Mayer.

Norman Foster (UK, 1935- )
Willis Faber and Dumas Headquarters. Ipswich, UK (1970-1974).
Sainsbury Centre for the Visual Arts, University of East Anglia. Norwich, UK (1977).
Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank (HSBC Tower). Hong Kong, China (1979-1986).
Commerzbank Headquarters. Frankfurt, Germany (1991-1997)
Chek Lap Kok Airport (Hong Kong International Airport). Hong Kong, China (1992-1998).
Reichstag (renovation). Berlin, Germany (1992-1999).
Great Court, British Museum (renovation). London, UK (2001).
London City Hall. London, UK (2003).
30 St Mary Axe (‘The Gherkin’). London, UK (2000-2004).
Hearst Tower. New York, New York (2006).

A 2009 photograph of Norman Foster by Enrique Cidoncha.

A 2009 photograph of Norman Foster by Enrique Cidoncha.

Renzo Piano (Italy, 1937- )
Centre Georges Pompidou. With Richard Rogers. Paris, France (1971-1977).
IRCAM Extension. With Richard Rogers. Paris, France (1988-1989).
Kansai International Airport. Osaka, Japan (1991-1994).
Science Center NEMO. Amsterdam, The Netherlands (1997).
Auditorium Parco della Musica. Rome Italy (2002).
New York Times Building. New York, New York (2007).
California Academy of Sciences. San Francisco, California (2008).
Shard London Bridge (‘The Shard’). London, UK (2012).

An undated (possibly 2015) photograph of Renzo Piano.

An undated (possibly 2015) photograph of Renzo Piano.

Rem Koolhaas (The Netherlands, 1944- )
Netherlands Dance Theater. The Hague, The Netherlands (1988).
Nexus Housing. Fukuoka, Japan (1991)
Kunsthal. Rotterdam, The Netherlands (1993).
Educatorium, University of Utrecht. Utrecht, The Netherlands (1993–1997).
Maison à Bordeaux (House in Bordeaux). Bordeaux, France (1998).
McCormick Tribune Campus Center, Illinois Institute of Technology. Chicago, Illinois (1997–2003).
Netherlands Embassy. Berlin, Germany (2003).
Seattle Central Library. With Joshua Prince-Ramus. Seattle, Washington (2004).
Casa da Música. Porto, Portugal (2001–2005).
CCTV Headquarters. Beijing, China (2004–2008).

An undated photograph of Rem Koolhaas.

An undated photograph of Rem Koolhaas.

Jean Nouvel (France, 1945- )
Nemausus Housing. Nimes, France (1985-1987).
Arab World Institute. Paris, France (1987).
Opera House. Lyon, France (1993).
Fondation Cartier. Paris, France (1994).
Cultural and Conference Centre. Lucerne, Switzerland (2000).
Torre Agbar (Agbar Tower). Barcelona, Spain (2005).
Guthrie Theater. Minneapolis, Minnesota (2006).
Musée du quai Branly. Paris, France (2006).
53 West 53rd Street (MoMA Tower; formerly Tour de Verre). New York (2007-Present). Under construction.

A 2009 photograph of Jean Nouvel by Christopher Ohmeyer.

A 2009 photograph of Jean Nouvel by Christopher Ohmeyer.

Daniel Libeskind (Poland/US, 1946- )
Jewish Museum Berlin. Berlin, Germany (1989-1999).
Felix Nussbaum Haus. Osnabrück, Germany (1995-1999).
Imperial War Museum North. Manchester, UK (2000-2002).
Master Plan, World Trade Center. New York, New York (2002).
Danish Jewish Museum. Copenhagen, Denmark (1996-2003).
Wohl Centre, Bar-Ilan University. Ramat-Gan, Israel (2000-2004).
Contemporary Jewish Museum. San Francisco, California (1998-2005).
Frederick C. Hamilton Building, Denver Art Museum. Denver, Colorado (2000-2005).
Michael Lee-Chin Crystal, Royal Ontario Museum. Toronto, Canada (2007).

A 2011 photograph of Daniel Libeskind at the opening of the Museum in Dresden. © Bundeswehr / Mandt.

A 2011 photograph of Daniel Libeskind at the opening of the Military History Museum in Dresden, Germany. © Bundeswehr / Mandt.

Zaha Hadid (Iraq/UK, 1950- )
Vitra Fire Station. Weil am Rhein, Germany (1994).
Rosenthal Center for Contemporary Art. Cincinnati, Ohio (2003).
Phaeno Science Center. Wolfsburg, Germany (2005).
BMW Central Building. Leipzig, Germany (2005).
MAXXI – National Museum of 21st Century Art. Rome, Italy (2010).
London Aquatic Center. London, UK (2011).
Hejdar Aliyev Center. Baku, Azerbaijan (2007-2012).

A 1995 photographic portrait of Zaha Hadid by Irving Penn. Courtesy of the Irving Penn Foundation.

A 1995 photographic portrait of Zaha Hadid by Irving Penn. Courtesy of the Irving Penn Foundation.

Santiago Calatrava (Spain, 1951- )
Stadelhofen Railway Station. Zürich, Switzerland (1983-1990).
Puente del Alamillo (Alamillo Bridge). Seville, Spain (1989-1992).
Quadracci Pavilion, Milwaukee Art Museum. Milwaukee, Wisconsin (1994-2001).
Auditorio de Tenerife. Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain (1997-2003).
Olympic Athletic Center (renovation). Athens, Greece (2002-2004).
Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències (City of Arts and Sciences) (multiple buildings) With Félix Candela, Valencia, Spain (1996-2005).
Turning Torso. Malmö, Sweden (2001-2005).
Bridge of Strings (Chords Bridge). Jerusalem, Israel (2005-2008).
World Trade Center Transportation Hub. New York, New York (2006-Present). Under construction.

An undated photo of Santiago Calatrava inside one of his creations.

An undated photo of Santiago Calatrava inside one of his creations.

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