The following list is Part IIA of my attempt to trace the history of human artistic endeavors by finding the best, most significant, and most highly-regarded works of visual art (primarily painting and sculpture) from all times and places and presenting them in chronological order. The five Art History 101 lists contain every work of art that was on at least two of the 18 ‘Best Works of Art’ lists that I collected from the Internet and books. Although most of the resources available to me focused almost exclusively on the art of Western Civilization, the list does identify some of the most significant artworks produced by the artists of Asia, Africa and South America. Because I believe visuals are essential for discussing the visual arts, I have included images of the art works, In most cases, you can click on the images to enlarge them. (I have tried to use public domain images where possible. In other cases, I believe this is a fair non-commercial use for educational purposes. If there are copyright concerns, please let me know.) Each entry includes the date of the work, the artist’s name, the name (or names) of the work, the style or culture associated with the work, and the location where the work was produced. In addition, I have included a brief essay with description (including measurements), artistic materials used, background and interpretation. Much of the information in these essays comes from Wikipedia or from the website of the museum or other site where the artwork is located. Art History 101, Part I (Prehistoric Era-1399) is here; Part IIB (1500-1599) is here. Part III (1600-1799) is here. Part IV (1800-Present) is here.
For a list of the best works of visual art organized by rank, that is, with the items that were on the most lists at the top, go here.
1395-1405: Claus Sluter: The Well of Moses [International Gothic; Dijon, France]
In the late 14th Century, Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, ordered the building and decoration of a Carthusian monastery just outside Dijon so the monks would pray for his soul and to provide a burial site for him and his heirs. A number of artists provided artwork for the monastery, including Dutch sculptor Claus Suter, who created a massive limestone sculpture for the center of the main cloister. It consisted of a crucifixion scene, with Mary Magdalene at the foot of the cross where Jesus was hanging, and below it, a hexagonal base with statues of six prophets who foresaw Christ’s death, each standing about 5 ft., 8 in. tall, and six weeping angels. The sculptures were painted in vibrant colors – some paint remains. Unfortunately, during the French Revolution, the upper portion of the sculpture was destroyed (fragments are on display in a nearby museum), leaving the base, which has acquired the name the Well of Moses. In each of six niches, Suter has created life-sized statues of Moses, David, Jeremiah, Zachariah, Daniel and Isaiah. (Moses’ horns in this and other artworks come from a Hebrew phrase that can be translated as either ‘horn’ or ‘ray of light.’) Each prophet carries his prophecy on a scroll and each one is individually detailed with a unique expression and personality (see Moses in first image; King David and Jeremiah in the second image, and Zachariah in the fourth image above). Unlike Medieval relief sculptures, these figures appear to be independent of the stone behind them, and there is a sense of movement expressed by the bodies beneath the drapery. The angels, who top the slender colonnettes that separate the planes of the hexagon, also have individualized gestures and expressions (see third image above). The Well of Moses is located in the central courtyard of what was the main cloister of Carthusian monastery Chartreuse de Champmol, (now the Hospital de la Chartreuse) outside of Dijon, France.
1395-1410: Claus Sluter & Claus de Werve: Mourners, Tomb of Philip the Bold
[International Gothic; Dijon, France]
Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, built Chartreuse de Champmol, a Charthusian Monastery, in part to house the tombs of his dynasty and in part to house the monks who would pray for him and his family. In the late 14th Century, Philip commissioned the workshop of Jean de Manville to make a tomb for him. Unfortunately, the work was incomplete when Philip died in 1404. De Manville gave most of the work to his assistant Claus Sluter, who designed an elaborate monument with an effigy of Philip atop a marble slab, attended by angels, while beneath him in an arcaded gallery is a funeral procession consisting of 41 Mourners (see first image above). De Manville executed the arcaded gallery (see second image above), and Sluter made the statues for the top of the slab, but Sluter died in 1405, before he was able to make the mourners. The job fell to Sluter’s nephew, Claus de Werve, to execute the final phase of Sluter’s design. Most of the 41 alabaster statuettes are approximately 16 in. tall, 5 in. wide and 5 in. deep. They are solitary or in groups of two. The leader of the procession is a choir boy carrying a container with holy water. He is followed by 40 highly individualized Mourners, including clerics and court dignitaries as well as numerous Carthusian monks, some of whom have been identified. Some of the monks have their cloaks pulled over their heads, obscuring their faces (see third image, above). Each mourner expresses grief in his own way – some are solitary, others console each other (see fourth and fifth images, above). (There is also a macabre humor as one monk holds his nose from the stench of the body.) Art historians have noted the expressiveness and variety of the drapery worn by the Mourners, so that even the monks with obscured faces appear to be grieving, from the way the folds of the clothing represent the body beneath it. The tomb was partially destroyed during the French Revolution, and the Mourners were scattered throughout Europe. Over time, many have been returned; more than 30 of the originals are now part of a restored tomb in the Musée des Beaux-Arts of Dijon, where some of their individual expressiveness remains hidden inside the arcade (see second image above). Three are on display at the Cleveland Museum of Art, which gave replicas to the Dijon museum. A large number of the mourners went on an American tour in 2010-2012.
1411-1416: The Limbourg Brothers: Les Très Riches Heurs du Duc de Berry
[International Gothic; France]
Les Très Riches Heures is a Book of Hours, a type of prayer book, that was created for John, Duke of Berry. The book, which measures 11.8 in. high and 8.5 in. wide contains a total of 206 sheets of vellum, with 66 large miniatures and 65 small paintings made with tempera. The book begins with a series of calendar pages and a zodiac, followed by numerous prayers. Most of the work was done by the three Dutch Limbourg Brothers (Paul, Jean and Herman) between 1411-1416, but they left the project unfinished, so it was completed by others, including Jean Colombe, in the 1480s. Seen above are: (1) The page for the month of January, showing the exchange of New Year’s gifts among the Duke’s family and friends; (2) the page for the month of October, showing farm workers with the Louvre Castle; and (3) the zodiac with the signs displayed on the body of a young man, then again in the frame surrounding the two figures. The book is now in the Musée Condé in Chantilly, France.
1414-1419: Jacopo della Quercia: Fonte Gaia [Early Renaissance; Siena, Italy]
The Fonte Gaia is a tremendously large fountain located in the Piazza del Campo at the center of Siena, Italy. The original fountain was built in 1342-1346, but the rectangular white marble frame with its many sculptures was added in 1419 by noted Sienese artist Jacopo della Quercia. The central bas relief figure is the Madonna and Child, surrounded by allegorical figures of the Virtues, the Creation of Adam, and the Flight from the Garden of Eden. Freestanding statues of Roman historical women Rea Silvia and Acca Larentia, both pictured with Romulus and Remus, stood atop the end columns, and two wolves, representing the she-wolf that raised Romulus and Remus, spouted water. The original sculptures were removed and replaced by copies made by Tito Sarrocchi between 1858 and 1866. The reconstruction omitted the two freestanding nude figures. The original sculptures, which are in poor condition, are now in the Loggia of the Palazzo Communale in Siena. The images shown above are: (1) a view of the present-day Fonte Gaia fountain, with Sarrocchi’s copies: (2) Jacopo della Quercia’s original Madonna and Child; (2) an angel with a portion of the marble frame from the original Fonte Gaia; (4) Della Quercia’s statue of Rhea Silvia, with her sons Romulus and Remus; and (5) the original allegorical figure of Wisdom.
1420: Unknown Bohemian Master: The Bohemian Madonna [Bohemian; Czech Republic]
Measuring 2.9 ft. tall by 2.5 ft. wide and painted with tempera on wood panel, the Bohemian Madonna was created in about 1420 for St. Vitus Cathedral in Prague. While the painting has some of the devotional elements of an icon, it is known for its naturalism as well. The tilt of the Madonna’s head and her expression seem almost flirtatious, while the Christ child shows an unusual degree of animation. Scholars have noted the way the artist creates the illusion of three-dimensionality through the modelling of the figures and the folds of Mary’s clothing so it appears that Mary is truly offering her son to the congregation. According to art historians, the artist has conceived this Madonna and Child as a group composition in at least two ways. First, the angles of the figures and their body masses, particularly areas of bare skin such as Mary’s face and Jesus’s entire body, align with crossed diagonal lines. Second, the artist balances the composition by having Mary and Jesus lean in different directions. The Bohemian Madonna, also known as Madonna of St. Vitus Cathedral in Prague, is in the Convent of St. Agnes in Prague, an exhibition space of Národní Galerie. It is not known if the unusually ornate, three-dimensional frame is original (see second image above).
1403-1424: Lorenzo Ghiberti: North Doors, Florence Baptistery
[Early Renaissance, Florence, Italy]
The Baptistery in Florence has three sets of bronze doors that are decorated with relief sculptures. The south doors were done by Andrea Pisano in 1330-1336; Lorenzo Ghiberti did the north doors between 1403-1424, and the east doors (known as the Gates of Paradise) from 1425-1452. The 23-year-old Ghiberti won a competition to sculpt the north doors over such names as Brunelleschi and Jacopo della Quercia. The north doors consist of a large frame consisting of rosettes and prophets’ heads, inside of which are 28 panels (14 per door), each surrounded by a polylobate Gothic frame, each of which was set inside a square frame with plant motifs. Twenty of the panels depict the life of Christ, and eight panels portray the evangelists and church fathers. While Ghiberti’s work on the north doors shows some signs of the naturalism that would usher in the Renaissance, the style of the reliefs is essentially Gothic. This should come as no surprise when one compares Ghiberti’s audition piece with that of Brunelleschi’s – the latter sculptor’s version of the Sacrifice of Abraham is more modern and forward-looking than Ghiberti’s, but Ghiberti won the prize. A major restoration project was undertaken in 2012-2015. The original doors were removed, restored and moved to the Museo dell’Opera del Duomo, where they have been on display (and safe from the ravages of the weather) since late 2015. In January 2016, a faithful replica of the North Doors was installed at the Baptistery. The images shown above are pre-restoration versions of: (1) The Adoration of the Magi; (2) The Annunciation; and (3) the newly-installed replica of the Baptistery’s North Doors.
1408-1425: Andrei Rublev: Holy Trinity Icon [Byzantine; Russia]
Russian painter and Russian Orthodox Church Saint Andrei Rublev is best known for the Holy Trinity Icon, which depicts the three angels who appeared to Abraham at Mamre, as related in the Book of Genesis, but who are also theologically connected with the three persons of the Christian trinity (from left to right, God the Father, Son and Holy Spirit). Rublev used tempera to paint the icon, which measures 4.6 ft. tall and 3.75 ft. wide and contains layers of symbolism. It is considered a religious icon rather than a religious painting because it is intended to convey the inner spiritual meaning of its subject matter. Like many older icons, there has been considerable damage, repainting and other alteration over the years with attempts at restoration beginning in the 20th Century. The Holy Trinity Icon, also known simply as Trinity, is now at the State Tretyakov Gallery in Moscow.
1423-1427: Donatello: The Feast of Herod [Early Renaissance, Siena, Italy]
Donatello’s The Feast of Herod is one of six bronze panels, measuring 1.97 ft. square, that are located in the base of the hexagonal baptismal font in the baptistry of the Siena Cathedral (see first image above). The piece is remarkable for its use of the principles of linear perspective, recently rediscovered by Brunelleschi, to create the illusion of depth, particularly rare in a relief sculpture. The story takes place on three levels and chronologically follows the dance of Salome, after which Herod grants her any wish and she, at her mother’s bidding, asks for the head of John the Baptist. In the far background, in low relief, an executioner shows the head to someone, perhaps Salome. In the middle background, also in low relief, two men watch a woman playing a musical instrument. In the foreground, in high relief, Herod and his family react in horror to the head of John the Baptist (see second image above), while Salome, sinuous in her dance costume, watches and gloats (see third image above). The use of orthogonal lines in the floor tiles emphasizes the sense of real space. Donatello also demonstrates his ability to depict true human emotion, particularly in the faces and gestures of Herod and the young men sitting at the table.
1424-1428: Tommaso Masaccio: Frescoes, Brancacci Chapel
[Early Renaissance; Florence, Italy]
Of the 15 frescoes in the Brancacci Chapel in Florence’s Santa Maria del Carmine Church, scholars believe that at least six are attributable to Italian artist Tommaso Masaccio. Masaccio had begun as the assistant to the commissioned artist, Masolino da Panicale, but he eventually took over the project (although he, too, left it unfinished, to be completed by Filippino Lippi). Of the six Masaccio frescoes in the chapel, The Tribute Money (8.1 ft. tall by 19.6 ft. wide), which depicts the story of Peter and the tax collector from the Gospel of Matthew (see first image above), and The Expulsion of Adam and Eve (also known as Expulsion from the Garden of Eden, measuring about 7 ft. tall by 3 ft. wide) (second image above), are considered high points of Early Renaissance style, with an emotional intensity, substantiality, and use of perspective not seen in Gothic and Medieval painting. The frescoes were restored in the 1980s and fig leaves were removed from Adam and Eve. Other Masaccio frescoes from the Brancacci Chapel shown in the images above are: (3) St. Peter Heals the Sick with His Shadow; and (4) The Distribution of Alms and Death of Ananias.
1428: Tommaso Masaccio: The Holy Trinity [Early Renaissance; Florence, Italy]
Measuring 21.9 ft. tall by 10.4 ft. wide, Masaccio’s Holy Trinity fresco sends a very simple message: accept the saving grace of the Christian God, or spend eternity in darkness. For artists, however, the work sent a different message, because it demonstrated the ways in which they could use Brunelleschi’s rules of perspective to create images that tricked the eye (tromp l’oeil) into seeing depth on a flat surface. When Renaissance artist and art historian Giorgio Vasari was commissioned in the mid-1500s to renovate the chapel in Florence’s Santa Maria Novella church, where the Holy Trinity was painted, he constructed a new screen and altar directly in front of the fresco to both hide it and prevent its destruction. Masaccio’s masterpiece was not revealed again until another round of renovations in 1860. Even then, the lower portion of the fresco depicting the skeleton and tomb was not reunited with the upper portion until 1952. The first image shows the entire painting including the tomb; the second image shows the upper portion only.
c. 1425-1428: Robert Campin (?): The Mérode Altarpiece (The Annunciation Triptych)
[Early Netherlandish; Flanders]
The Early Netherlandish triptych known as the The Mérode Altarpiece or The Annunciation Triptych was created from 1425-1428 (although some experts date it to 1427-1432) using oil paints on oak panels. Most experts believe that Robert Campin painted the triptych with the assistance of members of his workshop (including Rogier van der Weyden), although some believe the work is a copy of a Campin original. The entire triptych measures 2.1 ft. tall by 3.9 ft. wide (see first image above); the left wing, measuring 2.1 ft. tall by 0.9 ft. wide, shows the donor, his wife and a messenger (the wife and messenger were probably added later, after the donor married); the center panel, measuring 2.1 ft. tall by 2.1 ft. wide, shows the Annunciation; the right wing shows Joseph in his workshop, making a mousetrap (see third image, above). The small size of the triptych leads experts to believe that it was intended for private devotional use. The painting includes many examples of Early Netherlandish attention to detail, and the technique of applying thin layers of oil paint over an opaque base allowed the artist to create illusionistic effects. The triptych abounds with religious symbolism. The center panel actually shows the Virgin Mary at the moment before she recognizes the Angel Gabriel is present. At the same time, a tiny Jesus flies down from the window with his cross, a sign of the Incarnation (see second image, above). The just-snuffed candle may show the transformation of God into man. Similarly, the mousetrap Joseph is making may allude to St. Augustine’s writings, in which he describes the Incarnation of Jesus as a mousetrap to catch the Devil. Perhaps unintentionally, the triptych seems to imply that Joseph and Mary were living together before they were married. Based on other details, the donor who commissioned the work was probably from Mechelen, Belgium, possibly a member of the Ingelbrecht family. The name Mérode comes from one of the families that owned the piece, which is currently at the Cloisters, part of the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York. There is another version of the central panel in a private collection in Brussels – some experts believe it may be Campin’s original.
1432: Jan and Hubert van Eyck: The Ghent Altarpiece [Early Netherlandish; Ghent, Flanders]
The Ghent Altarpiece (also known as Adoration of the Mystic Lamb) was made for the Church of St. John the Baptist (now St. Bavo Cathedral) in Ghent, Belgium, where it is still located. The large altarpiece (11 ft. tall by 15 ft. wide when open) consists of 12 panels, eight of them with hinged shutters. The commission from merchant and mayor Joost Vijdt was given to Hubert van Eyck, but many scholars believe Hubert’s brother Jan painted most or all of the piece. When closed, the altarpiece shows the Annunciation, imitation statues of two saints, and portraits of the donor and his wife, Joost Vijdt and Lysbette Borluut (see second image, above). The brightly-colored interior panels (see first image above) show: (top row) God the Father, dressed as the Pope, Mary, St. John the Baptist, musical angels and Adam and Eve and (bottom row) a grand celebration of Jesus as the Lamb of God. The third image shows the Adoration of the Lamb in detail, showing the Lamb of God bleeding into the Holy Grail. The style combines aspects of International Gothic, Byzantine and Romanesque, but the lack of idealization (see, for example, the individualized faces of the angels) and the attention to detail indicate a new artistic conception that may show the influence of the Italian Renaissance.
1433: Jan van Eyck: Portrait of a Man (Portrait of a Man in a Red Turban)
[Early Netherlandish; Flanders]
Early Netherlandish artist Jan van Eyck made Portrait of a Man (also known as Portrait of a Man in a Red Turban) with oils on a wood panel measuring 10 in. tall by 7.5 in. wide in 1433. The picture frame and the painted panel are part of the same piece of wood (see first image above). On the frame, van Eyck has painted a inscription in Latin at the bottom (“Jan van Eyck Made Me on October 21, 1433”) and a motto in Greek at the top (“As I Can”), which contains a pun on I =Ich/Eyck. The letters are painted to appear as if they are carved into the wood. Light enters the painting from the left, and the subject, with his direct gaze and bright red headpiece, appears to emerge from the dark background, a use of tenebrism. Despite the painting’s nickname, the subject is wearing not a turban but a chaperon, a common form of 15th Century male headgear with a hood and a hanging tail known as a cornette, here wound up over the upper portion, or bourrelet, perhaps to keep it out of the way while the subject paints. In fact, some experts believe the painting is a self-portrait; the National Gallery in London, where the work has been since 1851, has given it the title, Portrait of a Man (Self Portrait?). Although there is no direct evidence to support this theory, there are some circumstantial clues: the clothing is appropriate for van Eyck’s social position; the personal motto only appears on a small number of paintings and never as prominent as here; the subject gazes directly at the viewer; and the painting of the intricate folds in the chaperon requires a prodigious talent. In addition, as noted, the way the cornette of the chaperon is tied up on the subject’s head would be a sensible precaution for a painter. A more technical clue is the fact that the subject’s left eye is sharply focused on some object in front of him, while the right eye appears only vaguely engaged in the act of looking. This effect would result if van Eyck was painting his own eyes by looking at them in a mirror. Some scholars have speculated that van Eyck used this small portrait as a calling card or advertisement of his skills, so that customers could compare it with the face of the living artist standing before them. Perhaps to ensure that the painted van Eyck would match the real one, even on a bad day, the subject is shown with bloodshot eyes (see second image above), a bit of beard stubble, and some sagging of the flesh around the cheeks. This is clearly no idealized portrait.
1425-1434: Jacopo della Quercia: Porta Magna, San Petronio Church
[Early Renaissance; Bologna, Italy]
In the first quarter of the 15th Century, Sienese sculptor Jacopo della Quercia received a commission to provide bas relief panels for the central portal of the basilica of San Petronio in Bologna, Italy. The program included: (1) 10 panels with stories from the Book of Genesis, in low relief; (2) portrait busts of 18 Prophets; (3) the Madonna and Child with Sts. Ambrose and Petronius in the bezel; and (5) 5 scenes from the New Testament on the lintel. Jacopo della Quercia began the work in 1425 and continued until 1434, when he left it incomplete. The work was finished by Domenico da Varignana (St. Petronius), Antonio Minello (prophets), Anthony Ostiglia (prophets) and Amico Aspertini (Moses). Michelangelo relied heavily on the Porta Magna to design his Sistine Chapel ceiling. The images shown above are: (1) a full view of the Porta Magna; (2) the Creation of Adam; (3) Original Sin, showing Adam, Eve, the serpent and the apple; and (4) on the bezel, Madonna and Child, St. Ambrose and St. Petronio, with five New Testament scenes on the lintel below.
1432-1434 or 1437-1440: Fra Angelico: Deposition of Christ (Deposition from the Cross; Santa Trinità Altarpiece) [Early Renaissance; Florence, Italy]
Originally, Lorenzo Monaco had been commissioned by the Strozzi family to paint an altarpiece for the Strozzi Chapel in the Santa Trinità church in Florence, but Monaco died after finishing only the three scenes above the arches and the commission went to Fra Angelico. The man known as Fra Angelico (“Angelic Brother”) was born Guido di Pietro in Tuscany in about 1400. He became a painter and a Dominican monk early in his life. At first Fra Angelico worried that the three Gothic arches would hinder his work, but he worked within the constraints by organizing the figures into three groups. In the center, the wood of the cross, the ladders, and the blue sky behind them provide a neutral background for focusing on the dead body of Jesus. The cross bar of the cross disappears behind the arch, creating the illusion of space. Nicodemus, Joseph of Arimathea and St. John help to lower Jesus from the cross. Mary Magdalene kisses his feet, a sign of repentance. An unidentified man shows doubters the nails and the horns from the crown of thorns. The background landscape shows the Holy City and Calvary. On the sides of the frame are twelve full-length portraits of saints standing on columns and eight medallions with portrait busts. Fra Angelico used tempera on wood panel to paint the Deposition of Christ, which measures 5.75 ft. high by 6.1 ft. wide. It is now in the National Museum of San Marco in Florence.
c. 1433-1434: Fra Angelico: The Annunciation of Cortona [Early Renaissance; Cortona, Italy]
The Annunciation is the central panel of an altarpiece that Fra Angelico painted for the Church of St. Dominic in Cortona, although at some point it was transferred to the Church of Gesù and now hangs alongside several Fra Angelico frescoes in the San Marco Museum in Florence. In addition to the Annunciation, which was made with tempera on wood panels measuring 5.7 ft. tall by 5.9 ft. wide, the altarpiece includes several scenes from the life of the Virgin Mary on the predella (see first image above). One of these scenes, the Visitation, depicts what art historians believe is the first painted landscape in Italian art, a view of Lake Trasimeno (see third image above). The Annunciation takes place in a loggia with elaborate columns (atop one of which is a roundel with the image of the prophet Isaiah, who predicted the birth of Jesus). Mary is dressed elegantly and sits on an ornately decorated seat; the Angel Gabriel, too, is highly ornamented. Fra Angelico has chosen to paint the words of the conversation (taken from the Gospel of Luke) in rippling gold streams between the mouths of Mary and the angel (see second image above). As the Holy Spirit (in the form of a dove) hovers over Mary in a halo of golden light, Gabriel says, “The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee, and the power of the highest shall overshadow thee” and Mary responds, “Behold the handmaid of the Lord; be it unto me according to thy word.” Outside, we see the walled garden, symbol of Mary’s virginity, but we also see Adam and Eve being expelled from the Garden of Eden. The message is that the birth of Jesus will finally take away the sin that they committed.
1434: Jan van Eyck: The Arnolfini Portrait (Portrait of Giovanni Arnolfini and his Wife)
[Early Netherlandish; Flanders]
The Arnolfini Portrait (painted on three vertical oak panels measuring 2.8 ft. high by by 2 ft. wide) is one of the earliest masterpieces made with oil paint. Van Eyck applied layer after layer of thin translucent glazes to create intense tones and colors. The painting is designed to emphasize the wealth of its subjects – Giovanni di Nicolao Arnolfini (if in fact he is the man in the picture) was a well-to-do Italian merchant living in Bruges, Flanders (see first image, above). It was assumed since the 19th Century that this was a portrait of Arnolfini and his wife, but in 1997, art historians discovered that Arnolfini married six years after the death of Jan van Eyck, so unless there was an earlier marriage, the subjects may have been misidentified. Some of the objects in the room have symbolic value. The dog, for example, is a symbol of marital fidelity. In a tour de force of technique, van Eyck creates an image in the mirror on the rear wall showing the two portrait subjects as well as two other figures standing in the doorway, one of whom may be a self-portrait of the artist (see second image, above). The Arnolfini Portrait (also known as Portrait of Giovanni Arnolfini and his Wife) is now in the National Gallery in London.
1434-1435: Jan van Eyck: Madonna of Chancellor Rolin
[Early Netherlandish; Flanders]
The Madonna of Chancellor Rolin, also known as Virgin and Child with Chancellor Rolin, was commissioned by Nicolas Rolin, the chancellor of the Duchy of Burgundy, for his parish church in Autun, France (see first image, above). It was common practice to paint the donor into the painting, but before the Renaissance, such figures were painted on a much smaller scale than the saints and religious icons. Here, Rolin and the Madonna are equal size, a reflection of the humanism that characterized the Renaissance. Jan van Eyck, a master of the Early Netherlandish school, is known for his attention to detail. Here, note the intricacies of the floor tiles, the crown that the angel is holding, the carvings on the columns, and the landscape outside, with churches, a garden and additional figures (see second image, above). The Madonna of Chancellor Rolin, made with oils on a wood panel measuring 2.2 ft. high by 2 ft. wide, is now in the Louvre in Paris.
c. 1435: Rogier van der Weyden: Descent from the Cross (Deposition of Christ)
[Early Netherlandish; Flanders]
Flemish artist Rogier van der Weyden was commissioned by the Leuven guild of archers to make this large panel painting (7 ft. tall by 8.5 ft. wide) of Christ being lowered from the cross into the arms of Joseph of Arimathea and Nicodemus, which originally hung in the guild’s chapel (see first image). In honor of the donor guild, Christ’s body approximates the shape of a crossbow. This is an early depiction of the swooning Mary figure, which soon became standard iconography, although it has no basis in Scripture. The painting is considered one of the most unique and influential of the 15th Century and was copied many times. Scholars have pointed out the vividness of the colors and the realistic facial expressions, including a tearful St. John reaching down to help Mary (second image above). Mary Magdalene’s grief is expressed through her entire body (third image above). One art historian compared the “undulating lines, swaying poses and counterposes of figures” to counterpoint in polyphonic music. The Descent from the Cross is now in the Museo del Prado in Madrid.
1438: Robert Campin (?): Werl Altarpiece (The Werl Triptych) [Early Netherlandish; Flanders]
Originally a triptych, the Werl Altarpiece is missing its central panel, leaving us with the wings. Each wing is painted with oils on a wood panel measuring 3.3 ft. high by 1.5 ft. wide. The left wing shows the donor, Franciscan priest Heinrich von Werl, kneeling in prayer before the devotional scene in the missing central panel. Behind him is his intermediary, John the Baptist, with his attribute, the Lamb of God. In an homage to van Eyck’s Arnolfini Portrait, a mirror on the wall reflects the room and identifies a figure not otherwise visible (see second image above). The right panel shows St. Barbara sitting in a contemporary room with a book and a blazing fire; the viewer looks down from a high angle. The sumptuous green of her clothes contrasts with the rich red of the cushions. The tiled floor shows perspective, and the statue of the Holy Trinity on the mantle is a marvel in miniaturism. The figure is identified as St. Barbara by the tower outside the window, a reference to the story that her father locked her in a tower. Art historians have noted that while the artist excelled in rendering the furnishings of St. Barbara’s room and in showing the effects of two light sources (sun and fire) of different qualities, his work on St. Barbara’s figure lacks substance. Scholars have disputed the attribution of the work; while most agree that Robert Campin painted it, a minority believe it was executed by his workshop assistants as a pastiche. The work is now in the Museo del Prado in Madrid.
c. 1435-1440: Donatello: David [Early Renaissance; Florence, Italy]
Early Renaissance Italian artist Donatello made two statues of the Biblical David. The second sculpture, which is the more highly regarded of the two, shows the young hero, having slain Goliath, standing with his foot on the giant’s head (see second image, above), and carrying Goliath’s immense sword (see first image, above). Standing 6.2 ft. tall, Donatello’s David is the first unsupported bronze statue of the Renaissance and the first freestanding nude male sculpture in any medium since Greek and Roman times. David was considered a symbol of Florence, and the Medici family commissioned the statue for their palace courtyard as a political statement about their place in the Florentine power structure. While the statue’s beauty is undisputed, some have commented on its departures from traditional forms. Some find the boy’s nudity odd, given his hat and boots. Some find the figure too effeminate or androgynous. Others claim that the very aspects some find ‘odd’ are intended to demonstrate that David’s victory over Goliath was not a result of strength, but of God’s will. Some scholars believe Donatello’s loving attention to the nude male form indicates that he was homosexual. The David is now in the Museo Nazionale del Bargello in Florence.
1444: Konrad Witz: The Miraculous Draught of Fishes [Northern Renaissance; Switzerland]
According to the Gospel of John, after Jesus died and rose from the dead, seven of his disciples spent all night fishing without luck. In the morning, a man called from shore and asked if they had caught anything. When they said no, he told them to put the net on the right side of the boat; when they did, they caught 153 large fish. One of the disciples recognized the man as Jesus and called out, at which point Peter jumped in the water to meet him. A number of painters have depicted this story, including German-born Swiss painter Konrad Witz, who painted The Miraculous Draught of Fishes in 1444 as part of the altarpiece for St. Peter’s Cathedral in Geneva. Most of the altarpiece is lost, but The Miraculous Draught of Fishes is one of four surviving wings. Made with oils on a wood panel measuring 4.3 ft. tall by 5 ft. wide, the painting’s importance to art history is based not on its figures, but on the realistic landscape. Witz substituted Lake Geneva for the Sea of Galilee, and in doing so, was able to paint an accurate and realistic depiction of an actual landscape, not the imaginary, idealized landscape found in so much earlier art. Furthermore, the landscape has been promoted from a minor element seen through a window to a major component of the composition. In addition to his landscape painting prowess, Witz used the work to examine the properties of reflections on water. Note, however, that the resurrected Jesus casts no reflection. The Miraculous Draught of Fishes is now in the Musée d’Art et d’Histoire in Geneva.
c. 1441-1446: Fra Angelico: The Annunciation [Early Renaissance; Florence, Italy]
In 1439, Fra Angelico transferred to the priory of San Marco in Florence, which was sponsored by the Medici family. It was at San Marco that Fra Angelico painted some of his most important works, many of them frescoes painted on the walls for the benefit of the other monks. Standing at the bottom of the staircase to the second floor, a monk looking up would have seen a large fresco of The Annunciation, the story from the Gospel of Luke in which an angel visits Mary to inform her that, although she is a virgin, she will bear a child who will be the Son of God. Measuring 7.5 ft. tall by 10.5 ft. wide, the fresco’s unusual perspective lines are based on a viewer looking up from the bottom of the stairs. The work is remarkable for its spare quality – there is none of the clutter of objects and symbols common in other Annunciations, maybe because the monks already knew the story and did not need guidance. The left side of the painting is almost two-dimensional in its flatness. Even Angel Gabriel and the Madonna are less substantial than some figures from earlier Renaissance works. It is as if Fra Angelico is aware of the new styles but is not quite ready to adopt them. The lighting is also odd, with a strong light source at the upper left, but few shadows. Still, the moment at the center contains much for the monks to contemplate, including the way the angel and Madonna lean in toward each other, their mirrored hand gestures, the expressions in their eyes, and even the rainbow of color in the angel’s wings. The Annunciation remains in the Convent of San Marco in Florence where Fra Angelico painted it, now known as the Museum of San Marco.
c. 1448-1450: Piero della Francesca: The Baptism of Christ
[Early Renaissance; Sansepolcro, Italy]
The Baptism of Christ, by Italian artist Piero della Francesca, measures 5.4 ft. tall and 3.8 ft. wide and was painted with tempera on wood panel. It was commissioned by the Camaldolese Monastery, in Sansepolcro, Italy. Piero was fascinated by perspective and geometry and his paintings have a level of abstraction that is unusual for his time. Examples of Piero’s mathematical composition abound: (1) John the Baptist’s hand, the bowl, Christ’s hands and the dove (representing the Holy Spirit) form an axis that divides the painting into two symmetrical halves; (2) the large tree divides the painting according to the Golden Mean; (3) the angles made by John’s arm and leg are equivalent; and (4) a horizontal line runs from the man taking off his shirt on the right, through John’s belt and Christ’s waist to the belts of the angels. The painting may contain references to the Council of Florence, which sought to unite Western and Eastern rite churches and was supported by Camaldolese monk St. Ambrose Traversari. The Baptism of Christ is now in the National Gallery in London.
1425-1452: Lorenzo Ghiberti: The Gates of Paradise (East Doors of Florence Baptistery)
[Early Renaissance; Florence, Italy]
The Gates of Paradise is the name coined by Michelangelo for the gilded bronze relief sculptures carved by Italian artist Lorenzo Ghiberti for the east doors of the Florence Baptistery. This was the second set of door panels carved by Ghiberti for the building. In 1401, at the age of 23, he won a contest to create 28 panels with scenes from the New Testament for what are now the north doors, a project he finished in 1423. In 1425, Ghiberti received a commission to create 10 panels with scenes from the Old Testament for the east doors. This project, which involved a dangerous gilding process, took him 27 years to finish. The second set of doors incorporates the newly discovered rules of perspective and the scenes have a naturalism that is absent from the north door reliefs. The doors are 17 ft. tall, and each panel is 2.6 ft square. Between the panels, narrow borders contain 20 full-length portraits and 24 heads in roundels of prophets and evangelists, including a Ghiberti roundel self-portrait (see border in second image; roundel self-portrait in third image). Since 1990, the doors at the Baptistery have been reproductions, in order to protect the originals from weather damage. Serious conservation efforts began in 1966 after a flood dislodged six of the panels. The originals were brought to the Museo dell’Opera del Duomo, where they recently underwent a 27-year-long restoration and cleaning (see second image above, showing Solomon and the Queen Sheba). Three of the restored panels toured the U.S. in 2007-2008, including Adam and Eve (see first image above).
c. 1450-1452: Jean Fouquet: The Melun Diptych
[International Gothic/Northern Renaissance; France]
The Melun Diptych, which was made with tempera on two wood panels, each measuring 3 ft. high by 2.8 ft. wide, was created by French artist Jean Fouquet for Étienne Chevalier, treasurer to King Charles VII, to hang over the tomb of Chevalier’s wife. The name of the piece comes from the Collegiate Church of Notre-Dame in Melun, where it originally resided. The left wing contains a portrait of Chevalier beside his patron saint, St. Stephen, shown with a rock to remind us that he was stoned to death (to drive the point home, blood drips from a wound on the saint’s head). Fouquet adeptly uses the rules of linear perspective to create the illusion of space receding into the background. The left wing is in the Staatliche Museen in Berlin. The right wing is another matter entirely. Entitled Virgin and Child Surrounded by Angels (or Madonna and Child), the panel depicts the Virgin Mary ‘sitting’ on an ornate throne with the baby Jesus on her lap. Mary, who may be a posthumous portrait of the king’s mistress Agnès Sorel (called by some ‘the most beautiful woman in the world’) has ghostly marble skin, a fashionable shaved hairline and is wearing the equivalent of 15th Century haute couture. And there is the problem of the exposed breast; one commentator described it as “pneumatic”, another termed it “gravity-defying.” There is no indication that Jesus is breastfeeding, so the gratuitous partial nudity seems to serve no purpose but to titillate those paying their respects to the dear departed Mrs. Chevalier, while creating what Dutch historian Johan Huizinga described as an “air of decadent impiety.” To add to the extreme oddity of the scene, the background is full of red and blue angels who interlock, Escher-like, to create a two-dimensional surface. In an attempt to explain the unnatural color scheme, one scholar theorized that Fouquet meant to honor the red, white and blue of the French flag. To further disorient the viewer, in depicting the heavenly space in the right panel, Fouquet completely abandoned the rules of perspective he employed so well on the left. Ironically, the unnatural and otherworldly aspects of the painting make it seem much more modern than a typical 15th Century religious painting. Virgin and Child Surrounded by Angels is at the Royal Museum of Fine Arts, Antwerp. The two wings of the diptych have been seen together only once in the past 200 years, at a 1904 exhibition in France. A 2.4 in. medallion with Fouquet’s portrait was originally attached to the frame; it is now in the Louvre in Paris.
c. 1438-1455: Paolo Uccello: The Battle of San Romano [Early Renaissance; Florence, Italy]
Part I: c. 1438-1440
Part II: c. 1435-1455
Part III: c. 1455
Florentine painter Paolo Uccello’s The Battle of San Romano consists of three paintings depicting events from a 1432 battle between Florence and Siena. All three were painted on poplar wood panels using egg tempera with walnut and linseed oils and gold and silver leaf, the latter of which has oxidized to gray or black. Each panel measures approximately 6 ft. high and 10.5 ft. wide. The first panel shows Niccolò Mauruzi da Tolentino at the Battle of San Romano (first image above) and is at the National Gallery in London. The second panel is Niccolò Mauruzi da Tolentino unseats Bernardino della Ciarda at the Battle of San Romano, (second image above) and is in the Uffizi Gallery in Florence. The final painting is The Counterattack of Michelotto da Cotignola at the Battle of San Romano (third image above), which is in the Louvre in Paris. The paintings were designed to be hung high on three walls of a room, and Uccello’s use of perspective presumes that viewers are looking up, not straight ahead. All three paintings were commissioned by the Bartolini Salimbeni family, although once Lorenzo de’ Medici saw them, he decided he had to have them, so he bought one and stole the other two.
1456-1459: Andrea Mantegna: The Crucifixion (Calvary) [Early Renaissance; Verona, Italy]
Italian artist Andrea Mantegna painted The Crucifixion (first image above) to be the center panel of the predella of an altarpiece (second image above) commissioned by Gregorio Correr, the abbot of the Benedictine monastery of San Zeno in Verona, Italy. Mantegna made the painting with tempera and oil paints on wood panel measuring 2.2 ft. high by 3.1 ft. wide. In the late 18th Century, invading French troops took The Crucifixion and other paintings from the San Zeno altarpiece and brought them back to France. The Louvre bought The Crucifixion in 1798, and the other two predella paintings were purchased by another French museum. As the result of an 1815 treaty, some of the paintings taken from San Zeno were repatriated, but The Crucifixion stayed at the Louvre. The San Zeno now displays copies of the predella paintings in the altarpiece. Scholars admire Mantegna’s Crucifixion for its expert use of both atmospheric and linear perspective. In atmospheric perspective, the sky is shaded to use lighter blue to appear more distant. In linear perspective, figures are foreshortened to show distance, and lines converge to a vanishing point, here directly behind the center cross. To emphasize the diagonals, Mantegna has angled the crosses of the two criminals and even used the cracks in the flooring to lead our eyes back. To create a sense of monumentality, Mantegna has given the viewer a steep upward point of view, and also kept the horizon line low. The painting is filled with striking details, particularly the City on a Hill to the back left, which represents Jerusalem, but also functions as an Italian hill town. Unlike many Florentine painters, who settled for approximating historical accuracy, Mantegna had an almost scientific passion for recreating the look of the past, exemplified here by the clothing and equipment of the Roman soldiers of Jesus’s time.
1455-1460: Piero della Francesca: The Flagellation of Christ [Early Renaissance; Urbino, Italy]
Art critic Kenneth Clark called Piero della Francesca’s The Flagellation of Christ “the greatest small painting in the world.” Painted with oils and tempera on wood panel measuring 1.9 ft. tall by 2.7 ft. wide, The Flagellation of Christ is notable for the artist’s deft use of perspective in contrasting the three men in the right foreground with the scene in the open air building, left rear, which almost certainly depicts the whipping of Christ as described in the Gospels. As for the identities of the three men on the right, and some of the figures on the left, there are a plethora of theories. Many scholars believe that the figures on the right are contemporaries of Piero, or represent other men from the recent past. The theory that the right and left sides of the painting occur in different eras finds support in the unusual lighting: the flagellation scene is lit from one direction, while the three men are lit from another. The time warp theory might also explain why the men on the right are ignoring the violence going on behind them. One common explanation is that the young man in the middle is Oddantonio da Montefeltro, Duke of Urbino, with his two advisors, all three of whom had been murdered in 1444. Other scholars point to evidence contradicting that theory. As for the less controversial left side, most scholars agree that the sitting man is Pontius Pilate, and the man with his back turned is Herod, but this is not accepted by all. In fact, one art historian believes that the person being flogged is not Jesus but St. Jerome. The Flagellation of Christ is in the collection of the Galleria Nazionale delle Marche in Urbino, Italy.
c. 1459-1462: Benozzo Gozzoli: The Procession of the Magi (The Journey of the Magi to Bethlehem) [Early Renaissance; Florence, Italy]
After renowned architect Michelozzo di Bartolomeo designed and built a new Florentine home for the powerful Medici family, Palazzo Medici, the family commissioned Fra Angelico’s former student, Benozzo Gozzoli, to paint frescoes on the walls of the Palazzo’s chapel. Gozzoli painted The Procession of the Magi on three walls of the large hall, which is now known as the Magi Chapel. Each of the three kings and his retinue receives a wall, with Caspar, the youngest king, leading the procession on the east wall (shown in first image above), Balthasar following on the south wall (see second image, above) and Melchior, the oldest, bringing up the rear on the west wall (see third image, above). Among the kings’ entourages are portraits of the Medicis, their friends and business associates, political and religious leaders as well as at least one Gozzoli self-portrait (see fourth image above). The style is International Gothic, but in creating the sumptuous landscapes, Gozzoli may have been influenced by the Medicis’ large collection of Early Netherlandish tapestries. When the Riccardi family moved into what is now called the Palazzo Medici-Riccardi in the mid-17th Century, they made architectural changes that required cutting a hole in the south wall of the Magi Chapel to make a new door. The fresco was saved by removing part of the wall, cutting it in two pieces and building a new, jutting corner wall, but gone was the simple symmetry of Gozzoli’s original design. Random trivia: One of the reasons the 15th Century frescoes are so well preserved is that the walls are hollow – the Medicis had a maze of secret passageways built into the Palazzo to allow quick escapes. The unusual construction significantly reduced moisture, which is a fresco’s worst enemy.
1460-1462: Piero della Francesca: Misericordia Altarpiece (Polyptych of the Misericordia;
Madonna della Misericordia) [Early Renaissance; Sansepolcro, Italy]
In 1445, the Confraternity della Misericordia, a lay Christian group in Sansepolcro, Italy, commissioned Sansepolcro native Piero della Francesca to paint what is now known as the Misericordia Altarpiece, or the Polyptych of the Misericordia (see first image above). The commission specified certain subjects and styles, including the outdated Gothic trope of a solid gilded background for the figures. Although the commission required delivery of the finished altarpiece in three years, Piero did not complete it until 17 years later, in 1462. The altarpiece, which contains Piero’s earliest surviving work, shows his indebtedness to Donatello and Masaccio and his love of geometric forms. It also embodies a tension between the donors’ desire for the styles and forms of a previous generation, and Piero’s embrace of modern Renaissance principles. The earliest panels completed were those of St. Sebastian and St. John the Baptist. Next were the Crucifixion, St. Benedict, the Angel, the Madonna of the Annunciation, and St. Francis. Piero finished the figures of St. Andrew and St. Bernardino about 1450. Despite the commission’s edict that Piero perform all the work himself, Piero assigned the predella, with five scenes of the life of Jesus, to his assistants. The last panel Piero painted was the centerpiece, the Madonna della Misericordia (Virgin of Mercy), which measures 4.3 ft. tall by 2.9 ft. wide (second image above). While the practice of making the Virgin Mary much larger than her followers is Gothic, the piece contains many Renaissance attributes of the Renaissance. The Virgin stands with her hands outstretched, enfolding a group of eight kneeling townspeople in her mantle, including an anonymous member of the donor confraternity (with hood). The mantle echoes the arch above the Virgin’s head. Despite the limitations posed by the two-dimensional gilded backdrop, Piero manages to create a realistic three-dimensional space within the mantle that recalls the apse of a church. The Misericordia Altarpiece, which is painted with oils and tempera on wood panels measuring 10.8 ft. wide by 8.9 ft. tall overall, is located in the Pinacotea Comunale of Sansepolcro, Italy.
c. 1460-1463 (or 1485-1490): Niccolò dell’Arca: Lamentation over the Dead Christ
[Early Renaissance; Bologna, Italy]
Scholars cannot reach consensus on the date that Italian sculptor Niccolò dell’Arca created the seven-piece terracotta group Lamentation over the Dead Christ (Compianto sul Cristo morto) for the sanctuary of Santa Maria della Vita in Bologna, where it is still located. One group gives a date near 1460, probably 1463, while another faction asserts a much later date of 1485-1490. Whatever the date, all agree that the life-sized figures, especially the six who are gathered around the dead body of Jesus (the Virgin Mary, Mary Magdalene, Mary Clopas, Salome, John the Apostle, and Joseph of Arimathea), show extraordinary drama and pathos in their stances and facial expressions. This combination of realism and expressionism in the figures, which were originally painted, was very influential on other Early Renaissance artists. Art historians have noted some Burgundian influences in the carving, derived either from the influence of Catalan sculptor Guillem Sagrera, who worked on the Castel Nuovo in Naples in the 1450s or from a possible trip dell’Arca took to France in the 1460s. Random trivia: Sculptors in Bologna used terracotta because there was little quarried marble in the vicinity. Ironically, the less pliable marble would probably not have allowed Niccolò dell’Arca to carve the highly detailed facial expressions that make his figures so life-like.
1460-1464: Andrea Mantegna: Death of the Virgin (Dormition of the Virgin)
[Early Renaissance; Mantua, Italy]
The Virgin Mary lies on her deathbed, surrounded by 11 grieving Apostles, all rendered with great expression and individuality in their faces, gestures and postures. It is her final moment on earth. In his Death of the Virgin, Italian artist Andrea Mantegna draws our eyes to the Madonna using linear perspective, aided by the checkerboard floor tiles and the rows of pilasters (see first image above). The sight lines continue into the landscape outside, which is a realistic depiction of Mantua’s lake and Castle of St. George. This choice of landscape is not coincidental: the Death of the Virgin was one of several works Mantegna painted for his employer Ludovico Gonzaga to decorate the chapel of the Castle of St. George, the same castle the viewer sees through the window. In addition to his reliance on perspective to create the illusion of three-dimensionality, Mantegna draws from the Classical tradition to render the architecture and the draperies. Scholars believe that Death of the Virgin, which was made with gold and tempera on wood panel and now measures 21 in. tall by 17 in. wide, once included an upper portion with the figure of Jesus with angels receiving the soul of his mother, Mary. According to experts, approximately one-third of the painting’s height was removed and is now being displayed as a separate work of art under the name Christ Receiving the Virgin (also known as Christ with the Soul of the Virgin) (see second image above). Mantegna’s Death of the Virgin is now located at the Museo del Prado in Madrid. The missing piece, Christ Receiving the Virgin, is in the Pinacoteca Nazionale in Ferrara, Italy.
c. 1459-1465: Giovanni Bellini: The Agony in the Garden [Early Renaissance; Venice, Italy]
The Agony in the Garden refers to that moment when, just prior to his arrest, Jesus asked God to “take this cup away from me” while his disciples slept. Most painters depict The Agony in the Garden in the depths of night, to emphasize that this was a dark hour in the life of Jesus. Giovanni Bellini upends that tradition with his 1465 rendition of the Biblical theme. Consistent with iconographic tradition, Jesus prays while an angel presents him with the sacrificial cup, the foreshortened disciples sleep, and off in the distance, Judas leads a cadre of Roman soldiers to make their arrest, but the scene-stealer is dawn, its salmon-colored light bringing a glow of hope to the bleak, rocky ‘garden’, as well as to the houses in an Italian hill town that doubles as the City of Heaven. Instead of focusing on Jesus’s impending suffering and death, Bellini is already thinking ahead to the salvation that Christians believe his death and resurrection brought about. The composition (without the dawn light) owes much to the previous treatment of the same subject by Bellini’s older brother-in-law Andrea Mantegna, and both paintings appear to be derived from a drawing by Belllini’s father Jacopo. The Agony in the Garden was made with tempera on a wood panel measuring 2.7 ft. tall by 4.2 ft. wide and is now in the National Gallery in London.
c. 1463-1465: Piero della Francesca: The Resurrection of Christ (The Resurrection)
[Early Renaissance; Sansepolcro, Italy]
Piero della Francesca painted The Resurrection of Christ on the wall of a communal meeting hall in his home town of Sansepolcro, in Tuscany, Italy. Measuring approximately 7.5 ft. tall by 6.5 ft. wide, the fresco depicts Christ as he leaves the tomb, while four soldiers – one of whom is a self-portrait of the painter – sleep. The flag with a red cross on a white background was a common symbol of the Resurrection. The painting survived World War II due to the refusal of British artillery officer Tony Clarke to shell Sansepolcro after having read accounts of the painting’s importance to art history. In gratitude, Sansepolcrans named a street after Clarke. As it happened, the Germans had already retreated so the bombing would have been pointless. The meeting hall where Piero painted the Resurrection fresco (and where it remains) is now the Museo Civico of Sansepolcro.
1458-1466: Piero della Francesca: The Legend of the True Cross (The History of the True Cross) [Early Renaissance; Arezzo, Italy]
Between 1452 and 1466, Piero della Francesca painted a cycle of frescoes in the main choir chapel (Cappella Maggiore) of San Francesco Church in Arrezo, Italy on the theme of the Legend of the True Cross (also known as The History of the True Cross) (see first image, above). Taken from the popular 13th Century book The Golden Legend, these tales follow the cross that Jesus was crucified on from the time the tree was a seed until the recent past. The cycle is considered one of the masterpieces of Early Renaissance painting, with Piero della Francesca excelling in composition, perspective and use of color. Several of the chapel’s frescoes are shown in the above images:
(2) Constantine’s Dream, in which the Roman Emperor, on the eve of battle, dreams of a cross and hears the instructions, “By this sign you shall conquer.” Constantine converts to Christianity and leads his troops to victory. The fresco measures 10.8 ft. tall by 6.2 ft. wide.
(3) Exaltation of the Cross, measuring 12.8 ft. high by 24.5 ft. wide, shows Heraclius carrying the cross back to Jerusalem, when a group of passersby kneel down to worship it.
(4) Finding and Recognition of the True Cross, measuring 11.7 ft. tall by 24.5 ft. wide. This fresco shows Constantine’s mother and others who had been searching for the cross finally find it and recognize it as the true cross when a dead youth is miraculously resurrected.
(5) The Battle between Heraclius and Khosrau, measuring 10.8 ft. tall by 24.5 ft. wide. After Persian king Khosrau stole the true cross, Eastern Emperor Heraclius went to war against him to retrieve it. This fresco shows Heraclius’s victory.
The frescoes remain in the San Francesco Church in Arezzo, Italy.
1464-1467: Dieric Bouts: The Last Supper [Early Netherlandish; Leuven, Flanders]
Dieric Bouts was an Early Netherlandish painter who was influenced by Jan van Eyck and Rogier van der Weyden. Made with oil paints on wood panel measuring 5.9 ft. tall by 4.9 ft. wide, The Last Supper was the central panel of an altarpiece for St. Peter’s Church in Leuven and was commissioned by the Leuven Confraternity of the Holy Sacrament. There were four smaller panels on the wings of the altarpiece (called the Altarpiece of the Holy Sacrament or the Altarpiece of the Last Supper) with scenes from the Old Testament (see first image). Bouts’ Last Supper is one of the first northern European examples of the strict application of the rules of linear perspective developed in Italy; the main room has a single vanishing point on the mantle above Christ’s head; the small room and outside landscapes also have vanishing points. The composition and color scheme are highly unified. The apostles are not highly individualized or emotionally expressive; they seem frozen in space and time as Jesus consecrates the host. Meanwhile, four servants dressed in Flemish attire look on, including two who peek through a window from the kitchen (see second image). There are glimpses of outdoor landscapes through narrow windows (see second and third images). The altarpiece is located in St. Peter’s Church in Leuven, Belgium.
c. 1470: Paolo Uccello: The Hunt in the Forest [Early Renaissance; Florence, Italy]
The Hunt in the Forest (also known as The Hunt, or The Hunt by Night) was the last major work by Florentine painter Paolo Uccello before he died in 1475. We do not know who commissioned it, but it may have been designed for a spalliera (the back of a bench or the headboard or footboard of a bed) for a prosperous Florentine family. Painted with tempera, oil and gold leaf on a wood panel measuring 2.17 ft. tall by 5.42 ft. wide, The Hunt in the Forest is a fine example of the use of linear perspective (see first image above). The artist used a grid on the wood panels to ensure that objects diminished in size as they became more distant. The perspectival vanishing point also serves the painting’s subject matter, as the dogs chase the roebuck into the distance at the work’s dark center, while the brightly-colored hunters and their entourages hesitate amid the noise and disorganization (see detail in second image above). The scene is remarkable for its setting – a moonlit night in the forest – and its chaos. It is also a rare example of a contemporary secular subject painted for domestic use from this period. It is not clear is whether the scene is supposed to be real or imaginary, but the foliage of the trees was originally lined with gold leaf, giving it a magical sparkle, and there is at least one (probable) Classical reference: the crescents on the horses’ dressings may be crescent moons, symbol of Diana, goddess of the hunt. The Hunt in the Forest is now in the Ashmolean Museum, in Oxford, England.
c. 1470: Paolo Uccello: Saint George and the Dragon [Early Renaissance; Italy]
Italian artist Paolo Uccello painted two versions of the story of Saint George and the Dragon, which most European Christians knew from the 13th Century book of saints’ lives called The Golden Legend. The earlier version, from 1435-1440, showed a not very fearsome-looking green dragon rearing up on its hind (that is, only) legs, while the damsel watches Saint George drive the spear home (see second image). Thirty years later, Uccello returned to the subject (see first image). This time, he combined two aspects of the story, ignoring narrative flow in favor of pictorial balance. At the same time that St. George is spearing the loathsome dragon (which had been terrorizing the local people by bringing them the black plague), the damsel is taming him, using her belt as a leash. While it is difficult to see how both actions could occur simultaneously, the composition is now balanced nicely, with one human on each side, both interacting with the dragon. Uccello uses the spear to establish a sense of three-dimensional space; at the same time, by lining up the spear with the spiraling storm behind St. George, Uccello implies that heavenly power assisted the saint in accomplishing his heroic quest. Scholars have noted Uccello’s penchant for Gothic touches (such as the dragon’s wing emblems) as well as occasionally ignoring naturalism in favor of accurate perspective (as in the case of the oddly shaped patches of grass). Uccello’s 1470 version of Saint George and the Dragon is at the National Gallery in London.
1467-1471: Hans Memling: The Last Judgment [Early Netherlandish; Flanders]
It was not until the mid-19th Century that an art historian definitively attributed The Last Judgment to German-born Flemish painter Hans Memling, who had studied with Rogier van der Weyden. Memling painted the triptych using tempera and oil on wood panels measuring 7.9 ft. high by 5.9 ft. wide (center panel) and 7.9 ft. high by 2.9 ft. wide (wings). The painting shows Jesus in heaven, surrounded by the Virgin Mary, the apostles and angels, sitting atop a rainbow with his feet on a golden globe. His two hands indicate the two possible fates of the sinners below, a dichotomy emphasized by the symbolic lily of mercy and sword of justice hovering nearby. Below Jesus, St. Michael the Archangel weighs the souls of the sinners (one of whom is a portrait of a donor) to determine if they should go to heaven or hell. The right panel depicts the chaos of hell, where black monsters shove the damned into a fiery volcanic pit. The left panel shows the orderly procession of the saved up the steps to the gates of heaven, where they meet St. Peter and various clerics. As a perk of salvation, the saved receive clothing from dispensing angels. The sinners’ nude bodies form a spiral chain that links the three panels together. Memling was known for his ability to create coherent compositions with large numbers of figures, and this early work is no exception. The Last Judgment has a tumultuous history. It was commissioned by Angelo Toni, who was in Bruges as an agent of the Medici family, who wanted it for the Badia Fuesolana Church in Florence. The painting was placed on a ship in 1473 bound for Florence via London. Unfortunately English trade was then subject to a blockade by the Hanseatic League. A privateer ship from Gdańsk in the pay of the Hanseatic League boarded the ship and took the cargo, including the painting, which ended up in the Basilica of the Assumption in Gdańsk. Numerous attempts were made to bring the painting to Italy. During the Napoleonic Wars, the painting was removed by the French, who later returned it to Poland. The Last Judgment is now in the National Museum in Gdańsk, Poland.
1465-1472: Piero della Francesca: Portraits of the Duke and Duchess of Urbino, Federico da Montefeltro and Battista Sforza [Early Renaissance; Urbino, Italy]
Piero della Francesca painted the diptych entitled Portraits of the Duke and Duchess of Urbino, Federico da Montefeltro and Battista Sforza (known by various other names, including Portraits of the Duke and Duchess of Urbino, Diptych of the Duchess and Duke of Urbino, Portraits of Federico da Montefeltro and His Wife Battista Sforza, and Double Portrait of the Dukes of Urbino) between 1465 and 1472 using tempera on two wood panels, each measuring 1.5 ft. high by 1 ft. wide (first image). The painting may be a memorial tribute for the Duchess, who died in 1472 from complications after childbirth, in which case Piero may have used her death mask to create the image. (Other experts believe the painting may date to shortly after the couple’s marriage in 1465.) Over a plain black dress, the Duchess wears intricately decorated garments on her arms and neck, as well as an elaborate headpiece. Her hairline is shaved to create a great expanse of forehead, as was the fashion. The choice to pose in profile hearkens back to Roman coins or portrait medals and heraldic medallions, adding a formality to the depictions, but also placing the Duke and his lost partner in eternal conversation. The Duke was always painted on his left side, as he had lost his right eye and the bridge of his nose in a jousting tournament accident. The composition shows the two leaders towering over vast landscapes, which we view from an aerial perspective, a clear message about the power exerted by the two subjects over their territory. On the reverse of the portraits, Piero painted the subjects being carried in triumphal chariots with allegorical figures representing the Virtues, with Latin inscriptions below (second image). The Duke is carried on a chariot led by white horses with Justice, Wisdom, Valor and Moderation, while the Duchess is joined by Faith, Hope and Charity on a chariot led by unicorns, a symbol of chastity. The diptych is now in the Uffizi Gallery in Florence.
1465-1474: Andrea Mantegna: Frescoes, Camera degli Sposi
[Early Renaissance; Mantua, Italy]
In the mid-1400s, Ludovico III Gonzaga commissioned Andrea Mantegna to paint frescoes in the Camera degli Sposi, or bridal chamber, of the Ducal Palace in Mantua, Italy. The major frescoes include a court scene on the north wall, a meeting scene on the north wall, and an oculus on the ceiling (see first image above). Each fresco creates the trompe-d’oeil illusion of additional space beyond the wall or ceiling: the ceiling oculus, for example, appears to open into the sky above, with various characters peering over the edge down into the room (fourth image). It is one of the first di sotto in sù ceiling paintings. The court and meeting scenes show the patron with friends, family and dignitaries (see second and third images). The frescoes remain in the bridal chamber in the northeast tower of the Castle of San Giorgio in Mantua.
1472-1474: Piero della Francesca: The Brera Madonna (Madonna and Child with Saints; Montefeltro Altarpiece) [Early Renaissance; Italy]
The Brera Madonna (also known as Madonna and Child with Saints, Pala di Brera, Montefeltro Altarpiece and Brera Altarpiece) belongs to the genre of sacra conversazione, which shows saints and other religious figures gathered in a group without identifying any particular event or holy occasion. At the center of the composition is a seated Virgin Mary, with a contorted baby Jesus on her lap, three angels behind her and six saints, including St. John the Baptist (front left) and St. Francis (back right) standing beside her. The kneeling figure, wearing his armor, is the patron, the Duke of Urbino, Federico da Montefeltro. In his loving attention to the tiniest of objects, such as the angels’ jewelry (see second image, above), artist Piero della Francesca acknowledges the debt that he and other Italian Renaissance painters owe to the detail-obsessed Northern European painters of the Early Netherlandish school. The date of the piece is uncertain, although it must have been painted before the Duke received an important honor in 1475, which surely would have been depicted. Some have speculated that the occasion for the painting was the birth of the Duke’s son in 1472, or perhaps the death of his wife, the Duchess, six months later, and they speculate that the mother and son were the models for Mary and Jesus, or at least they represent them symbolically. The painting, possibly Piero della Francesca’s last, reminds us that he was a mathematician as well as an artist. The geometry and symmetry of the space approach perfection. The background is the apse of a church and experts have noted that the gathering around the seated Madonna is another apse, echoing the first. The egg hanging from the ceiling is also a symbol, but there is tremendous dispute about what it symbolizes. Most agree that its placement over the Madonna’s head, which is itself oval shaped, means that it refers to some aspect of her holiness, perhaps the virgin birth. In fact, hanging eggs (usually ostrich eggs) from church ceilings was a moderately common practice at the time. (Note that, in his one departure from strict perspective, Piero made the egg larger than that of any living bird. If he had used made it the size of an ostrich egg, it would have been much smaller.) Consistent with the spirit of Renaissance humanism, Piero gave the painting a vanishing point at the level of the figures’ hands, thus making it easier for the faithful to eavesdrop on this holy conversation without being intimidated, instead of setting the vanishing point high, making the figures monumental and imposing. The Brera Madonna was painted with oil and tempera on wood panels measuring 8.2 ft. tall by 4.9 ft. wide and is now in the Pinacoteca di Brera in Milan.
c. 1475: Hugo van der Goes: The Portinari Altarpiece [Early Netherlandish; Flanders]
A triptych, the Portinari Altarpiece (measuring 8.3 ft. tall by 10 ft. wide) was commissioned by Italian banker Tommaso Portinari for the church in Florence’s Santa Maria Nuova hospital (see first image, above). Flemish painter Hugo van der Goes, using oil paints on wood, depicted the Adoration of the Shepherds in the center panel (see second image above), with the Portinari family and their patron saints on the side panels (see first image above). In a break from traditional iconography, the infant Jesus is placed on the ground, on a ‘blanket’ made of golden rays, instead of lying on a crib or on his mother’s lap (second image). A separate narrative goes on in the background of each panel: (1) the left wing shows Joseph and Mary on their way to Bethlehem; (2) the center panel shows the angel appearing to the shepherds; and (3) the right panel shows the Three Magi on their way to see Jesus (third image). When the painting arrived in Florence in 1483, its naturalistic depiction of the figures influenced Domenico Ghirlandaio and other Italian painters. The Portinari Altarpiece is now in the Uffizi Gallery in Florence.
1475-1476: Antonello da Messina: Portrait of a Man [Early Renaissance; Venice, Italy]
Sicilian painter Antonello da Messina’s short sojourn in Venice in 1475-1476 had widespread impacts on the future of Venetian painting. Antonello was one of the first in Italy to completely absorb both the technique and the style of the Flemish oil painters from the Early Netherlandish school. Even on the small Portrait of a Man, made with oils on a poplar panel measuring 14 in. tall by 10 in. wide, Antonello shows how the magic of oil painting could astonish (see image above). What was remarkable about this three-quarter portrait of a middle class man, possibly a self-portrait, was the treatment of light. As one critic noted, light sinks into the subject’s flesh at some points, turning his cheek to red and brown, and it reflects off his eyes and nose, as if it were reflected in a lake. Antonello da Messina had also mastered the Northern European attention to detail, as seen by his handling of the subject’s beard stubble. Yet, for all its Early Netherlandish elements, this was a portrait of an Italian by an Italian, for other Italians to view. There is humor in the idea that, even though the man is having his portrait painted, he seems wary or skeptical of the artist’s intentions – oil glazes catch that expression perfectly. Portrait of a Man is now located in the National Gallery in London.
c. 1476: Antonello da Messina: Virgin Annunciate [Early Renaissance; Sicily, Italy]
With the Virgin Annunciate, made with oils on a wood panel 17.7 in. tall by 13.8 in. wide, Antonello da Messina has created a vision of the Annunciation that upends the traditional iconography. First, there is no Angel Gabriel. Instead, by depicting only the Virgin Mary, the viewer becomes the sole witness to the holy event, perhaps even cast in the angel’s role. Second, there is no background, no architectural space (except the desk), no symbolic objects or allegorical figures to distract the viewer. What remains is the psychological truth – we see a young girl, a virgin, who has just learned that she will bear a child who is divine. Mary’s book, hands and gaze tell the whole story: she was disturbed from her reading by the angel, she put up her right hand out of fear (or ‘to make time stand still’, as one critic remarked), then clutched her veil, pointing to herself so as to ask how it could be, and finally the knowing gaze of willing acceptance of God’s will for her. Despite the spare composition and featureless background, Antonello manages to create a sense of real space with the book stand, desk and particularly Mary’s foreshortened hands. The Virgin Annunciate was painted in Antonello da Messina’s home in Sicily, with a local girl as model. It may be the last picture he ever painted. It is now in the Palazzo Abatellis in Palermo.
1477-1478: Sandro Botticelli: Virgin and Child with Eight Angels (Madonna and Child with Eight Angels; Raczynski Tondo) [Early Renaissance; Florence, Italy]
Painted after The Adoration of the Magi, Sandro Botticelli’s first success, but before his greatest masterpieces, Madonna and Child with Eight Angels (also referred to as the Raczynski Tondo after one of its owners) portrays the Virgin Mary breastfeeding her son Jesus (a discreet nipple is visible, although Jesus faces the viewer), while eight wingless boy angels sing hymns and hold lilies, symbol of Mary’s purity. As one critic observed, the hymns are antiphonal, with one section singing while the other waits its turn. The round work (called a tondo) was made with muted tempera paints on wood panel measuring 4.4 ft. in diameter. There is strict symmetry to the composition. The goal of the piece is to engage the viewer in a devotional experience and to that end, Botticelli has three of the figures – Mary, Jesus and one of the angels – engage the viewer with direct or almost direct eye contact. The infant and the angel express a mix of curiosity and invitation, while the Madonna’s liquid eyes and tilted head communicate some deep sadness. The painting is in the Gemäldegalerie, part of the Staatliche Museen in Berlin.
1474-1479: Hans Memling: St. John’s Altarpiece (Altarpiece of St. John the Baptist and St. John the Evangelist) [Early Netherlandish; Bruges, Flanders]
The St. John Altarpiece is a triptych made by German-born Flemish painter Hans Memling with oils on oak panels (see first image above). The center panel measures 5.7 ft. tall by 5.7 ft. wide; each wing is 5.8 ft. tall by 2.6 ft. wide. It was made for the chapel of St. John’s Hospital in Bruges and is dedicated to the patron saints of the hospital, St. John the Baptist and St. John the Evangelist. The center panel takes the form of a sacra conversatione with saints gathered around the Virgin Mary and Jesus. John the Baptist stands at left, while events from his life shown in the outdoor space behind him; John the Evangelist stands on the right. St. Catherine sits at the left, while St. Barbara sits on the right. Mary sits on a throne with an Oriental carpet (known as a Memling carpet) beneath her, reaching almost to the picture plane, while above two blue angels hold her crown. The infant Jesus puts a ring on St. Catherine’s finger, symbolizing her spiritual commitment to God, leading some to refer to the center panel as the Mystic Marriage of St. Catherine. Scholars have noted that the composition of two standing and two sitting saints around the Virgin was very unusual. Also unusual was the breaking up of the architecture to allow almost continuous views of the background landscape, which allowed Memling to paint scenes from the saints’ lives there. (Even the carvings at the top of each capital represent aspects of the saints’ lives.) Each wing is dedicated to one of the St. Johns. The left wing shows the beheading of John the Baptist: the executioner, his back to us, places the head on Salome’s platter, while the headless body lies on the ground (second image). The right wing shows John the Evangelist writing the Apocalypse on the island of Patmos, with the key events of the Book of Revelation depicted. Experts believe this is the first time that the entire Apocalypse story was presented in a single painting. Two concentric rainbows show God enthroned, with four beasts and 24 elders, while the Lamb of God breaks the seven seals on God’s lap (third image). Elsewhere, Memling shows a giant angel emerging from the water, while a seven-headed dragon in seen in the background (fourth image). When the doors of the triptych are closed, it reveals portraits of the four donors (two priests and two nuns) kneeling before their patron saints (fifth image). The St. John’s Altarpiece is now in the Memling Museum at St. John’s Hospital in Bruges.
c. 1480: Giovanni Bellini: St. Francis in the Desert (St. Francis in Ecstasy)
[Early Renaissance; Venice, Italy]
By choosing to use oil paints – which were very new to Italy – to paint a portrait of St. Francis, Giovanni Bellini proved to his fellow Italian painters that the new medium could render light and the effects of light in ways that could not have been achieved with tempera. Painted on three joined poplar wood panels and measuring 4.1 ft. tall by 4.7 ft. wide, St. Francis in the Desert (or St. Francis in Ecstasy) uses natural lighting effects to create the sense of a heavenly visitation upon the founder of the Franciscans (see first image, above). Some believe the painting is meant to tell the story of St. Francis receiving the stigmata, or wounds of Christ, in his side and on his hands and feet, while on a solitary retreat near Mt. La Verna in the Apennines in 1224 and point to the marks on his hands and one foot. Others some argue that St. Francis, who is shown with his mouth open, is singing the Canticle of the Sun, a song he composed, in response to the presence of God. They note that in typical representations of saints receiving the stigmata, we usually see an angel shooting dart-like rays of light. The work is unusual in other ways: consistent with the Renaissance’s celebration of the natural world, St. Francis is almost dwarfed by the vast landscape around him such that if he were removed, the painting could stand on its own. Bellini has taken care to depict many of the plants and animals that share the world with St. Francis (see bird, donkey and hare in second and third images). In addition, many of the objects in the painting double as references to Christian stories or teachings. To choose just a few examples related to Moses, the dry tree at left may represent the burning bush that spoke to Moses; the water issuing from the rocks at right may remind us of Moses striking the rocks at Horeb to start water flowing; and St. Francis’ bare feet and nearby sandals recall God’s words to Moses to take off his sandals on holy ground. Followers of St. Francis would have made many other connections. St. Francis in the Desert is now at the Frick Collection in New York.
1471-1481: Michael Pacher: St. Wolfgang Altarpiece [Northern Renaissance; Austria]
Born and raised in the Tyrol section of Austria, painter and sculptor Michael Pacher took a trip to Padua, Italy at some point prior to 1471 that forever changed his style. From studying the frescoes of Andrea Mantegna, Pacher learned the rules of perspective, foreshortening and other Renaissance techniques and went on to fuse these principles with Northern Gothic realism to achieve a sublime hybrid style. In 1471, he received a commission from Abbott Benedict of the Mondsee Monastery to create an altarpiece for the monastery’s St. Wolfgang Church in Abersee. A decade later, Pacher delivered (and personally installed, according to records) the massive altarpiece, measuring nearly 40 ft. tall from tip to base, and more than 21 ft. wide. The St. Wolfgang Altarpiece, which remains in its original location, has two sets of moving hinges, permitting three separate views (first image). Monday through Saturday, both sets of doors are closed and viewers see four painted scenes from the life of St. Wolfgang, flanked by carved figures of St. George and St. Florian, in armor. On Sunday, the first set of doors is opened to see eight painted scenes from the life of Christ, including the Death and Resurrection of Lazarus (fourth image). On holy days, both sets of doors are opened to see a central sculpted scene of the Coronation of the Virgin, carved from lindenwood and painted (second image) flanked by four painted scenes: the Nativity, the Circumcision (third image), the Presentation of Jesus in the Temple, and the Death of the Virgin. The predella underneath is closed except on holy days. When closed, the predella shows paintings of four Fathers of the Church: Pope Gregory the Great, St. Ambrose, St. Augustine and St. Jerome. When the predella is open, the viewer sees a central panel with a carved scene of the Adoration of the Magi, flanked by two painted panels: the Visitation and the Flight from Egypt. Towering over all these sculptures and paintings is a carved Crucifixion scene, with Jesus, his mother and various saints and angels, that is visible at all times. Throughout the piece, whether in painting or sculpture, Pacher demonstrates his ability to depict substantial human figures who are moving in space and shown realistically from multiple angles, one of the achievements of Renaissance art.
c. 1477-1482: Sandro Botticelli: La Primavera [Early Renaissance; Florence, Italy]
La Primavera, also known as Spring or Allegory of Spring, was painted by Sandro Botticelli using tempera on wood panels measuring 10 ft. wide and 6.67 ft. tall. The work was commissioned by a member of the Medici family. The references to Spring and love (Venus and Cupid especially) have led some scholars to believe that the painting was made for the May 1482 wedding of Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco, a cousin of the Medicis. On the far right, Zephyr, the March wind, is kidnapping the nymph Chloris (second image). After Zephyr marries Chloris, she is transformed into Flora, the goddess of Spring, who is shown in a floral gown scattering flowers (see third image above). At the center, Venus presides, with her son Cupid flying above her. Next to Venus, the Three Graces are dancing dancing while Mercury provides protection. In addition to the mythological figures, Botticelli has accurately depicted 500 different plant species in La Primavera, including 190 different flowers (third image), and, of course, orange trees, the Medici family symbol. La Primavera is now at the Uffizi Gallery in Florence.
1481-1482: Sandro Botticelli: Punishment of the Rebels [Early Renaissance; Rome, Italy]
In 1481, Pope Sixtus IV invited Sandro Botticelli, Pietro Perugino and other Florentine painters to come to Rome to paint frescoes on the walls of the Sistine Chapel. It was a difficult period for the papacy, with many challenges to the Pope’s authority and power, and Sixtus sought to use illustrations of Biblical stories to reinforce his papal legitimacy. As part of this assignment, Botticelli painted a fresco measuring 11.4 ft. tall by 18.3 ft. wide that is known by many names, including The Punishment of Korah, The Punishment of the Rebels, The Punishment of Korah and the Stoning of Moses and Aaron, The Punishment of Korah, Dathan and Abiram, The Chastisement of Korah, Dathan and Abiram, and Conturbation of the Laws of Moses. In the underlying story from the Book of Exodus, Korah, Dathan and Abiram led about 250 Hebrews to rebel against the authority of their leaders Moses and Aaron. They tried to stone Moses, but Joshua intervened to protect him. Moses suggested that every one who doubted Aaron’s authority as high priest should burn incense with Aaron, and God would choose the legitimate priest by accepting one of the streams of incense smoke into heaven. God affirmed Aaron’s power, and flames engulfed the rebels, except for the leaders, who were swallowed up by a crack in the earth. The fresco (first image) shows three aspects of the story: (1) on the far right, Joshua protects Moses from an angry mob; (2) in the center, Aaron, dressed in the Pope’s mitre, burns incense while Moses calls down God’s wrath on the rebels, their incense burners falling around them (second image); and (3) on the left, Moses again calls down God’s wrath on two of the leaders of the rebellion, while the earth opens up below their feet. In a show of mercy, the sons of Korah are saved from their father’s fate by a floating cloud. The scene appears to take place in contemporary Rome, with the ruins of Classical architecture on the right and the Arch of Constantine in the center, inscribed, “Let no man take the honor to himself except he that is called by God, as Aaron was.” A reference to Constantine was apropos, as legend held that he gave worldly powers to the popes. Perugino painted the same triumphal arch twice in his fresco of Christ Handing the Keys to St. Peter, which faced Botticelli’s work on the opposite wall. The message to viewers was clear: the Pope’s authority is legitimate and can be traced all the way back to Aaron; to reject that authority or accept someone who does not have the same pedigree is to go against God himself. Botticelli’s Punishment of the Rebels is located on the southern wall of the Sistine Chapel at the Vatican.
1481-1482: Pietro Perugino: Delivery of the Keys (Christ Handing the Keys to St. Peter)
[Early Renaissance; Rome, Italy]
In the Gospel of Matthew, Jesus tells Peter that he will give him (and through him according to Catholic tradition, to the Roman Popes) the keys to the kingdom of heaven, that is, the authority to be his representative on earth. Taking the Bible passage literally, Pope Sixtus IV commissioned Florentine painter Piero Perugino to paint a fresco on the wall of the Sistine Chapel showing Jesus giving an actual set of keys to St. Peter. Perugino’s fresco, called Delivery of the Keys (known by many other titles, including Christ Handing the Keys to Peter, Jesus Handing the Keys to Peter, Christ Giving the Keys to Peter, Christ Giving the Keys of Heaven to St. Peter and The Giving of the Keys to St. Peter), and measuring 10.8 ft. tall by 18.3 ft. wide, presents a master class in linear one-point perspective (see first image above). The diagonal lines dividing up the foreshortened pavement tiles reach a vanishing point in the doorway of the central building, creating the illusion of depth and distance. The use of aerial perspective sustains the illusion of reality, leading the eye back to a distant horizon. The line (almost a frieze) of figures in the far foreground spreads out from the central pair of Jesus and the kneeling St. Peter; Perugino keeps them below the horizon line. The other apostles and various contemporary Roman figures are rendered with specificity and elegance, but with feet firmly planted on the ground (see second image, above). Some experts believe that Perugino included a self-portrait in the fifth figure from the right edge. Unusually, Judas is pictured with the other apostles (fifth figure to the left of Jesus). Somewhat incongruously, Perugino sets out two other New Testament stories in the middle distance: The Tribute Money on the left, and The Stoning of Jesus on the right. The central building is an imaginary octagonal Temple of Solomon, flanked by two triumphal arches that would have been familiar to Romans as the Arch of Constantine (echoed by Botticelli on the opposite wall). Scholars believe that Perugino relied heavily on the work of Andrea del Verrocchio in painting the figures, and one expert has pointed out that the poses of the foreground figures one one side of the painting seem to repeat on the other side, only in reverse. Over the years, a legend arose that during the conclave to select a new pope, the person who slept in the room beneath Perugino’s fresco would be elected. Scholars who set out to test the legend were able to identify three cardinals who slept in the room during the conclave who were selected as pope. Perugino’s Delivery of the Keys fresco is located on the northern wall of the Sistine Chapel in the Vatican.
1481-1482: Leonardo da Vinci: The Adoration of the Magi [Early Renaissance; Italy]
Leonardo da Vinci was in his late twenties in 1481 when he received a commission for an altarpiece depicting the Adoration of the Magi from the Augustinian monks of San Donato a Scopeto in Florence. He worked very hard on the preliminary drawings and completed an underdrawing for an oil painting on wood panels measuring 8.1 ft. tall by 8 ft. wide but he never finished the painting – the Duke of Milan made him an offer he couldn’t refuse and Leonardo left Florence. Someone, probably not Leonardo, according to the most recent research, added the groundwork layer of brown and yellow ocher paint to the underdrawing and in so doing altered some of the original design. What remains is an atypical Adoration of the Magi. The Virgin is the peak of a triangular composition that draws many features from Flemish painter Rogier van der Weyden’s Entombment of Christ, from 1460. In Christian lore, the date of the Adoration, also the Epiphany, signaled the triumph of Christianity over the pagan world. This may explain the Classical building in the left rear (possibly based on the 4th Century Basilica of Maxentius, which legend has it would stand until a virgin gave birth) , and the battle raging in the right rear (see detail in second image above). Nothing in prior depictions of the event prepares us for the grotesque and emaciated forms of some of the figures. Some art historians believe that the young man on the bottom right is a self-portrait of the artist, copied from an earlier bust. After Leonardo left for Milan, the monks reassigned the commission to Filippino Lippi, who provided his Adoration of the Magi altarpiece, based largely on Leonardo’s design (without the grotesque elements), to San Donato a Scopeto in 1496. Leonardo’s Adoration of the Magi is now at the Uffizi Gallery in Florence.
1484: Michael Pacher: Altarpiece of the Church Fathers [Northern Renaissance; Austria/Italy]
Austrian painter and sculptor Michael Pacher created the Altarpiece of the Church Fathers (also known as the Altarpiece of the Early Church Fathers, and the Church Fathers Altarpiece) for the Augustinian monks of the Neustift Monastery near Brixen in northern Italy in 1484. The altarpiece is a triptych, with a center panel measuring nearly 7 ft. tall and 6.5 ft. wide and two side panels each measuring 7 ft. tall and 3 ft. wide. When closed, the outer painted panels show St. Augustine liberating a prisoner (second image above), and St. Sigisbert having a vision (third image above), but the true masterpieces are the interior panels from which the piece draws its name. Pacher has set up the four fathers of the Early Christian church in separate rooms, with projecting canopies and foreshortened floor tiles, creating a trompe-l’oeil effect of true depth (first image above). Each church father is accompanied by a dove (the Holy Spirit) and a memento of one of his legends. From the far left: (1) St. Jerome, who was said to have taken a thorn from a lion’s paw, pets a lion; (2) St. Augustine sits with the boy from a story in which Augustine saw the boy on the beach trying to transfer the ocean into a small pool using only a clam shell; the boy told Augustine that it was as likely that he would move the ocean as it was that Augustine would understand the mystery of the Holy Trinity with his rational mind; (3) Pope Gregory I, who was so impressed by a story of Roman Emperor Trajan’s kindness that he prayed for Trajan to be released from purgatory to be baptized, here gets his opportunity as Trajan rises from the flames; and finally, (4) St. Ambrose, shown with a rocking baby who refers either to a story from St. Ambrose’s infancy, when a swarm of bees landed on his face, leaving a drop of honey, thus ensuring his sweet tongue for oratory, or to the child who told Ambrose that he must be made a bishop. Throughout the piece, Pacher’s painting shows many sculptural elements and combines elements of both Gothic and Early Renaissance styles. The Church Fathers Altarpiece is now at the Alte Pinakothek in Munich.
1483-1486: Leonardo da Vinci: Virgin of the Rocks (I) [Early Renaissance; Italy]
For reasons that are still unclear (although there are plenty of theories), Leonardo da Vinci painted two nearly identical versions of the Virgin of the Rocks. Virgin of the Rocks (I), which is now in the Louvre in Paris, was probably painted first and is considered the primary version. Painted with oils on wood panel, it was later transferred to a canvas measuring 6.5 ft. tall by 4 ft. wide. The painting shows the Madonna, the young Jesus, the young John the Baptist and an angel. The central event of the painting is John’s adoration of Jesus, who makes the sign of Benediction in return. Two paintings of angels playing musical instruments are associated with the work, although they are believed to be painted by Leonardo’s assistants; all three were commissioned for an altarpiece by the Confraternity of the Immaculate Conception in Milan. Virgin of the Rocks (I) is an excellent example of the sfumato painting technique, which Leonardo described as “without lines or borders, in the manner of smoke or beyond the focus plane.” It also has the triangular composition that Leonardo often used. Consistent with Leonardo’s polymath interests, scholars have determined that the geological and botanical details of the painting are scientifically accurate.
1486: Sandro Botticelli: The Birth of Venus [Early Renaissance; Florence, Italy]
Sandro Botticelli painted The Birth of Venus in 1486 for the Medici family of Florence, using tempera on a canvas measuring 5.7 ft. high by 9.1 ft wide. In Roman mythology, Venus was the goddess of love, beauty and sex. In one of her representations, Venus Anadyomene, she was said to have been born from the sea as an adult woman. This aspect of her myth was the basis for one of Hesiod’s odes, which was revised by Italian Renaissance poet Angelo Poliziano. Botticelli shows the wind gods Zephyr and Aura bringing a nude Venus to the shore, while she stands in a contrapposto pose on a seashell (symbol of female sexuality). She poses shyly in the famous Venus Pudicae stance, waiting for one of the Graces to cover up her nudity with a cape. Scholars have noted that Venus’s pose is impossible: she is putting too much weight on one leg to stay balanced, and her position on the seashell would cause it to tip forward. The Birth of Venus is now at the Uffizi Gallery in Florence.
1487: Giovanni Bellini: San Giobbe Altarpiece [Early Renaissance; Venice, Italy]
To satisfy his commission for an altarpiece for the San Giobbe (St. Job) Church in Venice, Venetian Renaissance painter Giovanni Bellini painted a sacra converzatione, that is, a portrait of Mary and Jesus surrounded by an informal grouping of saints (left: St. Francis, John the Baptist, Job; right: St. Sebastian, St. Louis, St. Dominic) (see first image above). To create the altarpiece, which is also known as Madonna with Child, Saints and Angels, and Enthroned Madonna of San Giobbe, Bellini used oil paints on wood panels measuring 15.4 ft. high by 8.5 ft. wide. There is some dispute about the date of the work. While many date it to c. 1487, others say it was painted in the early 1470s, based in part on a 1581 document stating that the San Giobbe Altarpiece was Belllini’s first use of oil paints. The work was almost immediately recognized as a masterpiece. Bellini creates an illusion of depth to the space and substantiality to the figures. To enhance the realism – the illusion that there is an actual niche in the wall – he painted the columns to match the real columns in the church, and chose a light source that appears to be coming from the actual windows of the church. Art historians marvel at Bellini’s ability to paint reflected light and to show modeling and shadows so they give form and substance to the figures and architecture. Although all the saints with their colorful garments occupy the lower half of the painting, the stunning gold half dome above them creates a sense of balance and draws the eye up to see how it catches the light. On a human level, St. Francis (with the stigmata wounds) gestures for us to join the conversation, as does the Madonna. Even the musical angels are positioned so they form a triangle pointing up at Jesus and Mary (see second image, above). The San Giobbe Altarpiece is now in the Gallerie dell’Accademia in Venice. Random trivia: Bellini painted another portrait of St. Job onto the church garment worn by St. Louis.
1487-1488: Kamal ud-Din Behzad: Illuminated Bustan of Saadi
[Timurid/Safavid Period; Persia]
Kamal ud-Din Behzad (also known as Kamal al-din Bihzad or Kamaleddin Behzad) was a Persian painter born in Pakistan who worked in Pakistan, Afghanistan and Iran during the late Timurid and early Safavid periods. A master of painting miniatures, Behzad directed royal workshops in Herat and later in Tabriz that produced illuminated manuscripts according to his style. In telling a story, he created compositions that emphasized geometric architectural backgrounds as the settings for the actions of the characters. In landscape compositions, he was adept at using negative space to direct the eye to the relevant details. He is also known for his natural, expressive and sometimes even playful figures. In 1487-1488, Behzad and his workshop produced an illuminated manuscript of Bustan (also known as Bostan), a book of poetry by 13th Century Persian poet Sa’di (also known as Saadi and Saadi Shirazi). The first image above shows part of the story of Yusef and Zuleykha, with Zulaykha attempting to seduce Yusef in her palace. The second image from the book depicts a scene in which a dervish begs to be admitted to a mosque. The Illuminated Bustan is now in the National Library in Cairo, Egypt.
1477-1489: Veit Stoss: St. Mary’s Altarpiece (Altarpiece of Veit Stoss)
[International Gothic/Northern Renaissance; Poland]
The gargantuan St. Mary’s Altarpiece in St. Mary’s Basilica in Kraków, commonly known as the Altar of Veit Stoss, after the Polish sculptor who created it, measures 42 ft. tall by 36 ft. wide when the doors of the triptych are fully open (first image). At the time of its completion in 1489, it was the largest altarpiece known; some of the sculpted figures in the centerpiece are nearly 9 ft. tall. The figures are carved out of linden wood, while the rest of the structure is made of oak and larch. The center panel, which is carved and painted, depicts the death of the Virgin Mary, surrounded by the 12 apostles, below, and the Assumption of Mary above (second image). The interior of the wings show six scenes of the Joys of Mary. On top of the structure is the Coronation of Mary in heaven, with Sts. Stanislaus and Adalbert (third image). When closed, the altarpiece shows 12 painted scenes of the life of Jesus and the life of Mary (fourth image). The style is primarily Gothic, but Veit Stoss, a transitional figure, had begun to adopt some of the naturalism associated with the Renaissance. The people of Poland attempted to hide the altarpiece from the Germans by distributing its sculptures in boxes, but soldiers discovered the valuable artwork and brought it to Nuremberg Castle in Germany, where it survived Allied bombing raids. In 1946, Germany returned the altarpiece and Poland conducted a 10-year restoration. The altarpiece was replaced in St. Mary’s Church in 1957, where it remains.
c. 1480-1490: Andrea Mantegna: Lamentation over the Dead Christ [Early Renaissance; Italy]
Do artists paint for themselves or for others? Andrea Mantegna’s Lamentation of Christ (also known as Lamentation over the Dead Christ), made with tempera on canvas measuring 2.2 ft. high by 2.7 ft. wide, raises this question. There was no known commission for the piece, which was found unsold in the artist’s studio after his death; it is not known if Mantegna ever showed the painting to anyone else. An atypical treatment of a commonplace religious subject, Mantegna’s Lamentation presents Christ’s body at a highly unusual angle that required a dramatic use of the technique of foreshortening, forcing the artist to bend the laws of perspective somewhat by, for example, reducing the size of Christ’s feet so they would not block our view of Christ’s body. Our eyes are drawn to Christ’s bare upper chest, his genitals (modestly covered by linens), and the holes in his hands and feet. The weeping Madonna and St. John barely make it into the frame, and unlike most lamentation scenes, none of the mourners is in physical contact with Christ’s body. Instead, Jesus’s body lies alone, untouched, on a cold marble slab, perhaps to remind Christians of the bleak reality of death. After Mantegna died and the painting was discovered, the artist’s son sold it to pay off some of his father’s debts. Mantegna’s Lamentation of Christ is now at the Pinacoteca di Brera in Milan.
c. 1485-1490: Geertgen tot Sint Jans: John the Baptist in the Wilderness
[Early Netherlandish; Netherlands]
The John the Baptist described in the Gospels had little time to go somewhere quiet and think. He was occupied with baptizing his many followers and broadcasting the news that the Messiah was coming. But a popular book about the life of John the Baptist included an account of time he spent alone in the wilderness, which was probably the inspiration for Geertgen tot Sint Jans’s John the Baptist in the Wilderness, known by various names including St. John Meditating. Measuring 16.5 in. tall by 11 in. wide and painted in the Early Netherlandish style with oils on wood panel, the small painting was probably meant for private devotion, perhaps in a monk’s cell. Wearing a brown garment made of camel hair, St. John sits on a rock ledge, his attribute, the haloed Lamb of God, by his side, and leans his head in his right hand, looking pensive, even somber. A clue to the subject of his meditation is the position of his feet, which unconsciously imitate the position of Jesus’s feet on the cross. Although the ‘wilderness’ seems more like a well-managed park (within view of a city), the abundance of wildlife, particularly birds on the ground and in the air, gives a sense of hope, even salvation, to contrast with the doldrums into which St. John appears to have sunk. He even seems to have become a part of the landscape, as the folds of his blue cloak echo the curves of the topography. The painting is in the Gemäldegalerie, part of the Staatliche Museen in Berlin.
1490: Domenico Ghirlandaio: An Old Man and His Grandson
[High Renaissance; Florence, Italy]
An Old Man and His Grandson is a painting by Florentine artist Domenico Ghirlandaio made using tempera on wood panel measuring 2 ft. high by 1.5 ft. wide (first image). Despite the title, which is not original, there is no direct evidence about the identity of the man and boy in the double portrait. Their clothes indicate that they come from the aristocracy, and the entire composition indicates that they have strong feelings of love for each other. Their eyes meet on a diagonal line, while the boy’s left hand reaches out to touch the old man in a moving gesture of affection. This connection between the two is reinforced by the red garments worn by both. The old man’s deformed nose is probably afflicted with rhinophyma, a non-fatal skin disease, according to physicians who have examined the painting. Ghirlandaio made a drawing of the same man, possibly after his death. The painting had been seriously scratched and otherwise damaged until a major cleaning and retouching in 1996 restored much of its former condition (see pre-restoration painting in second image). It is now located in the Louvre in Paris.
c. 1490: Leonardo da Vinci: Lady with an Ermine [High Renaissance; Italy]
Leonardo da Vinci painted Lady with an Ermine, measuring 21 in. tall by 15 in. wide, using oil paints, which had only recently been introduced to Italy. The subject of the three-quarter portrait is Cecilia Galleriani, the 16-year-old mistress of Leonardo’s employer, Ludovico Sforza. Miss Galleriani’s simple clothes make it clear that she is not an aristocrat. The ermine symbolizes purity, for legend had it that it would rather die than dirty its white coat. As with many of da Vinci’s paintings, the painting follows a spiraling pyramid compositional structure. It is also notable for the detailed attention the painter paid to the subject’s hand, reflecting Leonardo’s interest in anatomy. Lady with an Ermine is located in the Czartoryski Museum in Kraków, Poland.
1495-1498: Leonardo da Vinci: The Last Supper [High Renaissance; Milan, Italy]
Just because a technique is new doesn’t necessarily mean it’s better. So when Leonardo da Vinci decided to forego the fresco technique, which limited his palette, and try something new when painting The Last Supper on the wall of the mausoleum of his patron Ludovico Sforza, the Duke of Milan, it turned out to be a big mistake. Instead of mixing pigment with wet plaster, as wall paintings had been done for centuries, Leonardo decided to prepare the wall with a mixture of gesso, pitch and mastic, add a layer of plaster and a brightening agent (white lead), wait for it to dry and then paint on the dry plaster using egg tempera paints. Unfortunately for Leonardo, the Duke and art history, the mixture never set properly and bits of the mural began flaking off almost immediately after Leonardo finished the work in 1498. Add humidity, Allied bombs in World War I, angry anti-clerical French troops, a doorway cut out of the painting in 1583, and numerous botched restorations, and it is amazing there is anything left of Leonardo’s masterpiece. A comprehensive but highly controversial restoration project that ended in 1999 revealed a somewhat more subdued Last Supper, although it is not clear how much of it is the original. Measuring 15.1 ft. tall by 28.8 ft. wide, the painting adorns the end wall of what is now the dining hall of the convent of the Santa Maria delle Grazie Church in Milan. It depicts the moment in the Gospel of John when Jesus tells his disciples that one of them will betray him. The reactions of the various disciples, painted in groups of threes, are shown with vivid facial expressions and gestures. Without looking at each other, both Jesus and Judas are reaching for the same piece of bread; when their hands meet a moment later, it will be a sign that Judas is the betrayer. The painting is a premier example of single-point perspective; all the perspective lines meet at a vanishing point on or just above Jesus’ head. The painting has been much imitated and parodied, including tableaux vivant in the films Viridiana (Luis Buñuel, 1961), MASH (Robert Altman, 1970) and Inherent Vice (Paul Thomas Anderson, 2014).
1498: Albrecht Dürer: Self-Portrait [Northern Renaissance; Germany]
German painter Albrecht Dürer painted his second of three adult self-portraits at age 26, after he had returned from a visit to Italy, where he felt that artists were treated with more respect than in his native land. Here, he presents himself in a haughty, self-confident pose, with the stylish clothing of an effeminate dandy, complete with silk gloves. The artist’s intent appears to be presenting himself to his home audience as a master artist worthy of their praise. The landscape outside the window has been analyzed in numerous ways – a reminiscence of Italian travels, a reflection of inner mental states, or a prediction of things to come. Dürer made the Self-Portrait with oil paints on wood panel measuring 20.5 in. tall by 16.1 in. wide. At various points in its existence, the work was owned by Charles I of England and Philip IV of Spain. The 1498 Self-Portrait is now located at the Museo del Prado in Madrid.
1498: Albrecht Dürer: The Apocalypse (Apocalypse with Pictures)
[Northern Renaissance; Germany]
In 1498, German artist Albrecht Dürer published a new edition of the Book of Revelation, called Apocalypse with Pictures, in both German and Latin. The book contained 15 woodcut prints by Dürer illustrating the terror and calamity of St. John’s apocalyptic visions so dramatically that his prints soon made him famous throughout Europe. The timing of the book couldn’t have been better. It was 1498 and many Christians believed that the year 1500 might bring the Apocalypse predicted in the Bible. Dürer’s woodcut technique was astonishing – he defied the limitations of the process and created highly detailed, realistic monochrome images. Each book, which measured 15.2 in. tall by 11 in. wide, emphasized the illustrations by placing them on the right (or recto) page, with the text on the left (verso) side. While the entire set of prints received acclaim, the most famous was The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse, in which Dürer effectively uses parallel lines and strong diagonal motion to depict Death, Famine, War and Plague wreaking havoc (see first image, above). Other prints shown above are: (2) St. John Devouring the Book; (3) Opening the Fifth and Sixth Seals; and (4) The Woman Clothed with the Sun and the Seven-Headed Dragon.
1450-1499: Unknown Artist(s): Zen Garden, Ryoan-ji Temple [Higashiyama Period; Japan]
The Ryoan-ji Temple (Temple of the Peaceful Dragon) in Kyoto, Japan, is home to what is probably the finest surviving example of kare-sansui, or dry landscape garden design (see first image above). The minimalist garden consists of 15 large rocks in groups of five, three or two, some surrounded by green moss, in a sea of smooth white pebbles that is raked every day by Buddhist monks into linear patterns (see second image above). A low clay wall with a shingle roof surrounds the garden on three sides. On the fourth side is the veranda of the abbott’s residence, from which the garden is designed to be contemplated and meditated upon. The designers have constructed the garden, which measures 78 ft. long by 30 ft. wide, so that someone sitting on the veranda cannot see every stone at once. Attempts to date the garden exactly have been unsuccessful. The temple was founded in 1450, destroyed between 1467 and 1477 and rebuilt in 1488, but even though tradition holds that the garden was established in the first half century of the temple’s existence, there is no hard evidence to support the theory. Another theory states that the garden was designed in the early 16th Century, but again there is no evidence. The first documentary evidence of a garden in the current location comes from 1680-1682, in an account that describes only nine stones instead of today’s 15. Then, after a fire in 1779 destroyed temple buildings, the rubble was dumped in the garden. Garden designer Akisato Rito rebuilt the garden on top of the rubble in the late 1700s, and an engraving from his 1799 book shows the garden as it is today. The most cautious estimate, then, would place the construction of the garden in its current form in the 1780s or 1790s. To expand our definition, there is evidence of a garden with the same basic architecture as far back as 1680-1682. If we enter the realm of the possible, and not just the probable, there is no definitive evidence that the garden was not created as early as the founding of the temple in 1450.
1497-1499: Michelangelo Buonarroti: Pietà [High Renaissance; Rome, Italy]
Pietà refers to the pose of Mary holding the body of Jesus after his Crucifixion – Michelangelo Buonarroti’s late 15th Century masterpiece was the first Italian sculpture on the subject. Michelangelo depicts Mary as younger, calmer and less sorrowful than in other versions of the scene. Made of Carrara marble and measuring 5.7 ft. tall by 6.4 ft. wide, the Pietà was commissioned by Cardinal Jean de Bilhères and was originally intended for his funeral monument. The sculpture was the only work that Michelangelo ever signed, reportedly after he overheard someone attributing the work to artist Cristoforo Solari. The Pietà is located in St. Peter’s Basilica in the Vatican.
To see Part IIB (1500-1599), click here.