Best Literature of All Time – Ranked

I collected over 25 lists of the best books and best literature of all time and combined them into one list.  Every time a list cited a particular piece of literature, I gave it one point.  I have not imposed any artificial restrictions on the list: there are novels and non-fiction books, plays and books of poetry, books of short stories and books of essays, highbrow, middlebrow and lowbrow, and even some books for children.  Most of the items are books, which are in boldface type, but some are bodies of work, such as an author’s poems or short stories, which are italicized.  I have organized this list first by number of lists that the work is on, then chronologically by date of publication (or most recent date given).  There is another version of this list that is entirely chronological, if that suits you better, here.  If you want to see the list organized by author, click here (Part 1) and here (Part 2).  This version of the list contains books on three or more of the original source lists. [Most recent update: September 2014.]

Lists    Author                Title                                                 Year       Category       Country

21 Miguel de Cervantes Don Quixote 1605, 1615 Fiction Spain
20 Dante Alighieri The Divine Comedy c. 1308-1321 Poetry Italy
19 Homer The Odyssey c. 700 BCE Poetry Ancient Greece
19 Gabriel García Márquez One Hundred Years of Solitude  1967  Fiction  Colombia 
18 Homer The Iliad c. 750 BCE Poetry Ancient Greece
18 Leo Tolstoy War and Peace 1869 Fiction Russia
17 Gustave Flaubert Madame Bovary 1857 Fiction France
17 James Joyce Ulysses 1922 Fiction Ireland
17 Marcel Proust In Search of Lost Time 1913-1927 Fiction France
16 Herman Melville Moby-Dick 1851 Fiction US
15 Sophocles Oedipus Rex c. 450 BCE Drama Ancient Greece
15 William Shakespeare Hamlet 1600 Drama England
15 Fyodor Dostoevsky Crime and Punishment 1866 Fiction Russia
15 Leo Tolstoy Anna Karenina 1877 Fiction Russia
15 Franz Kafka Stories, incl. The Metamorphosis 1904-1924 Fiction Czechoslovakia
15 Albert Camus The Stranger 1942 Fiction France
15 George Orwell Nineteen Eighty-Four 1949 Fiction UK
15 Salman Rushdie Midnight’s Children 1981 Fiction India/UK
14 Virgil The Aeneid 29-19 BCE Poetry Ancient Rome
14 William Shakespeare King Lear 1605 Drama England
14 Franz Kafka The Trial 1914-1915, pub. 1925 Fiction Czechoslovakia
14 Chinua Achebe Things Fall Apart 1958 Fiction Nigeria
13 Euripides Medea c. 431 BCE Drama Ancient Greece
13 Chaucer The Canterbury Tales 1380-1400 Fiction England
13 Michel de Montaigne Essays 1580 Non-fiction France
13 William Shakespeare A Midsummer Night’s Dream 1594-1595 Drama England
13 William Shakespeare Othello 1604 Drama England
13 Jonathan Swift Gulliver’s Travels 1726 Fiction Ireland
13 Jane Austen Pride and Prejudice 1815 Fiction UK
13 Fyodor Dostoevsky The Brothers Karamazov 1880 Fiction Russia
13 Mark Twain The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn 1884 Fiction US
12  Various Authors  The Bible: Old Testament  c. 800-100 BCE  Religious Texts Palestine, Babylonia 
12 Various Authors The Bible: New Testament c. 50-150 CE Religious Texts Palestine, Ancient Rome
12 Anonymous A Thousand and One Nights c. 900-1300 Fiction Arabia
12 Niccolò Machiavelli The Prince 1513 Non-fiction Italy
12 François Rabelais Gargantua and Pantagruel 1532-1534 Fiction France
12 Stendhal The Red and the Black 1830 Fiction France
12 George Eliot Middlemarch 1871-1872 Fiction UK
12 Joseph Conrad Heart of Darkness 1902 Fiction Poland/UK
12 William Faulkner The Sound and the Fury 1929 Fiction US
12 John Steinbeck The Grapes of Wrath 1940 Fiction US
12 Ralph Ellison Invisible Man 1952 Fiction US
12 Vladimir Nabokov Lolita 1955 Fiction USSR/US
           
11 Valmiki Ramayana c. 1-100 CE Poetry India
11 Augustine of Hippo  The Confessions  c. 400 CE Non-Fiction  Ancient Rome/ Algeria 
11 Shikabu Murasaki The Tale of Genji c. 1021 Fiction Japan
11 William Shakespeare Richard III 1592-1593 Drama England
11 William Shakespeare Romeo and Juliet 1594 Drama England
11 William Shakespeare The Merchant of Venice 1596 Drama England
11 William Shakespeare Julius Caesar 1599 Drama England
11 William Shakespeare Macbeth 1605 Drama England
11 John Milton Paradise Lost 1667 Poetry England
11 Voltaire Candide 1759 Fiction France
11 Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Faust, Parts 1 and 2 1808, 1832 Drama Germany
11 Emily Brontë Wuthering Heights 1847 Fiction UK
11 Henrik Ibsen A Doll’s House 1879 Drama Norway
11 Anton Chekhov Tales 1880-1903 Fiction Russia
11 D.H. Lawrence Sons and Lovers 1913 Fiction UK
11 F. Scott Fitzgerald The Great Gatsby 1925 Fiction US
11 Jorge Luis Borges Ficciones 1944 Fiction Argentina
11 Samuel Beckett Waiting for Godot 1953 Drama Ireland/France
11 Jorge Luis Borges Labyrinths 1962 Fiction Argentina
           
10 Anonymous The Epic of Gilgamesh c. 2000 BCE Poetry Mesopotamia
10 Aeschylus The Oresteia Trilogy 458 BCE Drama Ancient Greece
10 Sophocles Antigone 442-441 BCE Drama Ancient Greece
10 Herodotus The Histories 441 BCE Non-fiction Ancient Greece
10 Vyasa Mahabharata c. 540-300 BCE Poetry India
10 Kālidāsa The Recognition of Sakuntala c. 350 CE Drama India
10 Anonymous The Qur’an 610-632 CE Religious Text Arabia
10 William Shakespeare Henry IV, Parts I and 2 1597 Drama England
10 William Shakespeare Twelfth Night 1599 Drama England
10 William Shakespeare As You Like It 1599 Drama England
10 William Shakespeare Measure for Measure 1604 Drama England
10 William Shakespeare Antony and Cleopatra 1606 Drama England
10 William Shakespeare The Tempest 1611 Drama England
10 Laurence Sterne Tristram Shandy 1759 Fiction Ireland/England
10 Edgar Allan Poe Tales 1832-1849 Fiction US
10 Anton Chekhov The Cherry Orchard 1904 Drama Russia
10 Thomas Mann The Magic Mountain 1924 Fiction Germany
10 Virginia Woolf To the Lighthouse 1927 Fiction UK
10 Louis-Ferdinand Céline Journey to the End of the Night 1932 Fiction France
10 J.D. Salinger The Catcher in the Rye 1951 Fiction US
10 Ernest Hemingway The Old Man and the Sea 1952 Fiction US
           
9 Plato Apology c. 399-387 BCE Non-fiction Ancient Greece
9 William Shakespeare A Comedy of Errors 1589 Drama England
9 William Shakespeare The Taming of the Shrew 1594 Drama England
9 William Shakespeare Two Gentlemen of Verona 1594 Drama England
9 William Shakespeare Richard II 1595 Drama England
9 William Shakespeare Much Ado About Nothing 1598 Drama England
9 William Shakespeare Henry V 1598 Drama England
9 William Shakespeare All’s Well that Ends Well 1602 Drama England
9 William Shakespeare The Winter’s Tale 1610 Drama England
9 Molière Tartuffe 1669 Drama France
9 Honoré de Balzac Le Père Goriot 1835 Fiction France
9 Nikolai Gogol Dead Souls 1842 Fiction Russia
9 Charlotte Brontë Jane Eyre 1847 Fiction UK
9 Karl Marx & Freidrich Engels The Communist Manifesto 1848 Non-fiction Germany/UK
9 Walt Whitman Leaves of Grass 1855 Poetry US
9 Charles Darwin The Origin of Species 1859 Non-fiction UK
9 Lewis Carroll Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland 1865 Fiction UK
9 Sigmund Freud The Interpretation of Dreams 1899 Non-fiction Austria
9 James Joyce Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man 1916 Fiction Ireland
9 Aldous Huxley Brave New World 1932 Fiction UK
9 Margaret Mitchell Gone with the Wind 1936 Fiction US
9 William Butler Yeats Poems 1865-1939 Poetry Ireland
9 Gabriel García Márquez Love in the Time of Cholera 1985 Fiction Colombia
           
8 Aristophanes Lysistrata 411 BCE Drama Ancient Greece
8 Thucydides The Peloponnesian War c. 400 BCE Non-fiction Ancient Greece
8 Plato The Republic c. 380 BCE Non-fiction Ancient Greece
8 Aristotle Poetics c. 330 BCE Non-fiction Ancient Greece
8 Anonymous The Bhagavad-Gita c. 400-300 BCE Religious Text India
8 Lucretius On the Nature of Things 50 BCE Poetry Ancient Rome
8 Ovid Metamorphoses 2-8 CE Poetry Ancient Rome
8 Giovanni Boccaccio The Decameron 1350-1353 Fiction Italy
8 William Shakespeare Coriolanus 1607 Drama England
8 Henry Fielding Tom Jones 1749 Fiction England
8 Cao Xueqin Dream of the Red Chamber/Story of the Stone 1763-1764 Fiction China
8 James Boswell The Life of Samuel Johnson 1791 Non-fiction England
8 William Blake Songs of Innocence and Experience 1789, 1794 Poetry England
8 Honoré de Balzac Cousin Bette 1846 Fiction France
8 William Makepeace Thackeray Vanity Fair 1848 Fiction UK
8 Charles Dickens David Copperfield 1849-1850 Fiction UK
8 Charles Dickens Great Expectations 1860-1861 Fiction UK
8 Victor Hugo Les Misérables 1862 Fiction France
8 Gustave Flaubert Sentimental Education 1869 Fiction France
8 Fyodor Dostoevsky The Idiot 1869 Fiction Russia
8 Henry James The Portrait of a Lady 1881 Fiction US/UK
8 Knut Hamsun Hunger 1890 Fiction Norway
8 Thomas Mann Buddenbrooks 1901 Fiction Germany
8 Joseph Conrad Nostromo 1904 Fiction Poland/UK
8 E.M. Forster A Passage to India 1924 Fiction UK
8 George Bernard Shaw Saint Joan 1924 Drama Ireland/UK
8 Virginia Woolf Mrs. Dalloway 1925 Fiction UK
8 Franz Kafka The Castle 1922-1924, pub. 1926 Fiction Czechoslovakia
8 Ernest Hemingway The Sun Also Rises 1926 Fiction US
8 Gertrude Stein The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas 1933 Non-fiction US
8 Lu Xun Stories 1909-1936 Fiction China
8 William Faulkner Absalom, Absalom! 1936 Fiction US
8 Isak Dinesen Out of Africa 1937 Non-fiction Denmark
8 Richard Wright Native Son 1940 Fiction US
8 Eugene O’Neill Long Day’s Journey into Night 1940 Drama US
8 Antoine de Saint-Exupéry The Little Prince 1943 Fiction France
8 George Orwell Animal Farm 1945 Fiction UK
8 Malcolm Lowry Under the Volcano 1947 Fiction UK
8 Simone de Beauvoir The Second Sex 1949 Non-fiction France
8 Boris Pasternak Doctor Zhivago 1957 Fiction USSR
8 Günter Grass The Tin Drum 1959 Fiction Germany
8 T.S. Eliot Poems 1888-1965 Poetry US
8 Flannery O’Connor The Complete Stories 1971 Fiction US
8 John Cheever The Stories of John Cheever 1978 Fiction US
           
7 Anonymous The Analects of Confucius c. 551-479 BCE Religious Text China
7 Euripides The Bacchae 405 BCE Drama Ancient Greece
7 Aristophanes The Birds c. 400 BCE Drama Ancient Greece
7 Horace Odes 65-8 BCE Poetry Ancient Rome
7 Erasmus The Praise of Folly 1511 Non-fiction The Netherlands
7 William Shakespeare Sonnets c. 1593-1609 Poetry England
7 John Bunyan The Pilgrim’s Progress 1679 Fiction England
7 Matsuo Basho The Narrow Road to the Interior 1694 Non-fiction Japan
7 Daniel Defoe Robinson Crusoe 1719 Fiction England
7 Jean-Jacques Rousseau Confessions 1781 Non-fiction Switzerland/France
7 Edward Gibbon The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire 1776-1788 Non-fiction England
7 Victor Hugo The Hunchback of Notre Dame 1831 Fiction France
7 Giacomo Leopardi Poems, incl. The Canti 1816-1837 Poetry Italy
7 Stendhal The Charterhouse of Parma 1839 Fiction France
7 Alexandre Dumas The Count of Monte-Cristo 1846 Fiction France
7 Henry David Thoreau Walden 1854 Non-fiction US
7 John Stuart Mill On Liberty 1859 Non-fiction UK
7 Emily Dickinson Poems 1830-1886 Poetry US
7 H.G. Wells The War of the Worlds 1898 Fiction UK
7 Joseph Conrad Lord Jim 1900 Fiction Poland/UK
7 Rudyard Kipling Kim 1901 Fiction UK
7 Edith Wharton The House of Mirth 1905 Fiction US
7 Henry James Short Novels and Tales, incl. The Turn of the Screw 1843-1916 Fiction US/UK
7 Edith Wharton The Age of Innocence 1920 Fiction US
7 Luigi Pirandello Six Characters in Search of an Author 1921 Drama Italy
7 Italo Svevo Zeno’s Conscience/The Confessions of Zeno 1923 Fiction Italy
7 Erich Maria Remarqué All Quiet on the Western Front 1929 Fiction Germany
7 Virginia Woolf A Room of One’s Own 1929 Non-fiction UK
7 William Faulkner As I Lay Dying 1930 Fiction US
7 Daphne du Maurier Rebecca 1938 Fiction UK
7 Ernest Hemingway For Whom The Bell Tolls 1940 Fiction US
7 Robert Musil The Man Without Qualities 1930-1943 Fiction Austria
7 Jorge Luis Borges The Aleph and Other Stories 1949 Fiction Argentina
7 Mikhail Bulgakov The Master and Margarita 1929-1939, pub. 1966 Fiction USSR
7 Truman Capote In Cold Blood 1966 Non-fiction US
7 Toni Morrison Song of Solomon 1977 Fiction US
7 Toni Morrison Beloved 1987 Fiction US
           
6 Aristophanes The Clouds 423 BCE Drama Ancient Greece
6 Sophocles Electra 418-414 BCE Drama Ancient Greece
6 Aristotle Nichomachean Ethics 350 BCE Non-fiction Ancient Greece
6 Plutarch Parallel Lives of the Noble Greeks and Romans 100-125 CE Non-fiction Ancient Rome
6 Marcus Aurelius Mediations c. 180 CE Non-fiction Ancient Rome
6 Ferdowsi The Book of Kings/Shahnameh 1010 Poetry Persia
6 Omar Khayyam The Rubaiyat c. 1100 Poetry Persia
6 Anonymous The Song of Roland c. 1140-1170 Poetry France
6 Thomas Malory Le Morte d’Arthur 1485 Fiction England
6 Thomas More Utopia 1516 Fiction England
6 William Shakespeare Love’s Labour’s Lost 1595 Drama England
6 William Shakespeare The Merry Wives of Windsor 1598 Drama England
6 John Donne Poems 1572-1631 Poetry England
6 Thomas Hobbes Leviathan 1651 Non-fiction England
6 Molière The Misanthrope 1666 Drama France
6 Molière The Miser 1668 Drama France
6 Blaise Pascal Pensées 1669 Non-fiction France
6 Jean Racine Phaedra 1677 Drama France
6 Oliver Goldsmith She Stoops to Conquer 1773 Drama Ireland
6 Denis Diderot Jacques the Fatalist 1771-1778 Fiction France
6 Pierre Choderlos de Laclos Dangerous Liaisons 1782 Fiction France
6 Jane Austen Emma 1815 Fiction UK
6 Mary Shelley Frankenstein 1818 Fiction UK
6 John Keats Poems 1795-1821 Poetry UK
6 Honoré de Balzac Eugénie Grandet 1833 Fiction France
6 Samuel Taylor Coleridge Poems 1772-1834 Poetry UK
6 Charles Dickens Oliver Twist 1838 Fiction UK
6 Charles Dickens A Christmas Carol 1843 Fiction UK
6 Nathaniel Hawthorne The Scarlet Letter 1850 Fiction US
6 Charles Dickens Bleak House 1852-1853 Fiction UK
6 Ivan Turgenev Fathers and Sons 1862 Fiction Russia
6 Louisa May Alcott Little Women 1868 Fiction US
6 Lewis Carroll Through The Looking Glass 1871 Fiction UK
6 Fyodor Dostoevsky The Possessed/The Devils 1872 Fiction Russia
6 Robert Louis Stevenson Treasure Island 1883 Fiction UK
6 Leo Tolstoy The Death of Ivan Ilych 1886 Fiction Russia
6 Thomas Hardy The Mayor of Casterbridge 1886 Fiction UK
6 Thomas Hardy Tess of the D’Urbervilles 1891 Fiction UK
6 Thomas Hardy Jude the Obscure 1895 Fiction UK
6 Oscar Wilde The Importance of Being Earnest 1899 Drama Ireland
6 Henry James The Ambassadors 1903 Fiction US/UK
6 Natsume Soseki Kokoro 1914 Fiction Japan
6 James Joyce Dubliners 1914 Fiction Ireland
6 D.H. Lawrence The Rainbow 1915 Fiction UK
6 Henry Adams The Education of Henry Adams 1918 Non-fiction US
6 Theodore Dreiser An American Tragedy 1925 Fiction US
6 Ernest Hemingway A Farewell to Arms 1929 Fiction US
6 William Faulkner Light in August 1932 Fiction US
6 F. Scott Fitzgerald Tender Is the Night 1934 Fiction US
6 Halldór Laxness Independent People 1935 Fiction Iceland
6 T.S. Eliot Murder in the Cathedral 1935 Drama US
6 John Dos Passos U.S.A. 1930-1936 Fiction US
6 Thornton Wilder Our Town 1938 Drama US
6 James Joyce Finnegan’s Wake 1939 Fiction Ireland
6 Robert Penn Warren All the King’s Men 1946 Fiction US
6 Albert Camus The Plague 1947 Fiction France
6 Tennessee Williams A Streetcar Named Desire 1947 Drama US
6 Anne Frank The Diary of a Young Girl 1947 Non-fiction The Netherlands
6 Arthur Miller Death of a Salesman 1949 Drama US
6 Saul Bellow The Adventures of Augie March 1953 Fiction US
6 Wallace Stevens Collected Poems  1954 Poetry US
6 J.R.R. Tolkien The Lord of the Rings 1956 Fiction UK
6 Jack Kerouac On the Road 1957 Fiction US
6 Giuseppe Tomasi di Lampedusa The Leopard 1958 Fiction Italy
6 John Updike Rabbit, Run 1960 Fiction US
6 Jorge Luis Borges Dreamtigers/The Maker 1960 Fiction Argentina
6 Harper Lee To Kill a Mockingbird 1960 Fiction US
6 Joseph Heller Catch-22 1961 Fiction US
6 Vladimir Nabokov Pale Fire 1962 Fiction USSR/US
6 Doris Lessing The Golden Notebook 1962 Fiction Zimbabwe/UK
6 Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich 1962 Fiction USSR
6 Lewis Thomas The Lives of a Cell 1974 Non-fiction US
6 John Irving The World According to Garp 1978 Fiction US
6 William Styron Sophie’s Choice 1979 Fiction US
6 John Updike Rabbit Is Rich 1981 Fiction US
6 Don DeLillo White Noise 1985 Fiction US
           
5 Lao Tzu Tao Te Ching c. 624-604 BCE Religious Text China
5 Anonymous Classic of Poetry/Book of Odes c. 600 BCE Poetry/ Religious Text China
5 Euripides Alcestis 438 BCE Drama Ancient Greece
5 Euripides Electra c. 420 BCE Drama Ancient Greece
5 Aeschylus (?) Prometheus Bound c. 460-415 BCE Drama Ancient Greece
5 Euripides Trojan Women 415 BCE Drama Ancient Greece
5 Aristophanes The Frogs 405 BCE Drama Ancient Greece
5 Sophocles Oedipus at Colonus 401 BCE Drama Ancient Greece
5 Anonymous Mukya Upanishads c. 800-400 BCE Religious Texts India
5 Aristotle Physics 350 BCE Non-fiction Ancient Greece
5 Aristotle Politics 350 BCE Non-fiction Ancient Greece
5 Mencius The Book of Mencius c. 309-289 BCE Religious Text China
5 Sima Qian Records of the Grand Historian 109-91 BCE Non-fiction China
5 Apuleius The Golden Ass c. 158-180 CE Fiction Ancient Rome
5 Various Authors Man’yōshū c. 760 CE Poetry Japan
5 Anonymous Beowulf c. 1000 Poetry England
5 Sei Shonagon The Pillow Book 1002 Non-fiction Japan
5 Jalalu’l-Din Rumi The Masnavi 1258-1273 Poetry Persia
5 Wu Cheng’en Journey to the West/Monkey c. 1540-1560 Fiction China
5 Christopher Marlowe Doctor Faustus 1588 Drama England
5 William Shakespeare Henry VI, Pts. 1, 2, 3 1591 Drama England
5 William Shakespeare Titus Andronicus 1592 Drama England
5 William Shakespeare King John 1596 Drama England
5 William Shakespeare Troilus and Cressida 1602 Drama England
5 William Shakespeare Timon of Athens 1606 Drama England
5 Ben Jonson Volpone 1606 Drama England
5 William Shakespeare Cymbeline 1611 Drama England
5 William Shakespeare Henry VIII 1613 Drama England
5 Lope de Vega Fuente Ovejuna/Lost in a Mirror 1619 Drama Spain
5 Molière The Would-Be Gentleman 1655 Drama France
5 Molière The School for Wives 1662 Drama France
5 John Milton Paradise Regained 1671 Poetry England
5 William Congreve The Way of the World 1700 Drama England
5 Oliver Goldsmith The Vicar of Wakefield 1766 Fiction Ireland
5 Johann Wolfgang von Goethe The Sorrows of Young Werther  1774 Fiction Germany
5 Richard Brinsley Sheridan The School for Scandal 1777 Drama Ireland/England
5 Heinrich von Kleist Stories 1810-1811 Fiction Germany
5 Alessandro Manzoni The Betrothed 1827 Fiction Italy
5 Charles Dickens The Pickwick Papers 1837 Fiction UK
5 Frederick Douglass Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglas, An American Slave 1845 Non-fiction US
5 William Wordsworth Poems 1770-1850 Poetry UK
5 Harriet Beecher Stowe Uncle Tom’s Cabin 1851 Fiction US
5 Charles Baudelaire Flowers of Evil  1857 Poetry France
5 Charles Dickens A Tale of Two Cities 1859 Fiction UK
5 Wilkie Collins The Woman in White 1860 Fiction UK
5 George Eliot The Mill on the Floss 1860 Fiction UK
5 George Eliot Silas Marner 1861 Fiction UK
5 Henrik Ibsen Peer Gynt 1867 Drama Norway
5 Arthur Rimbaud A Season in Hell 1873 Poetry France
5 Thomas Hardy Far from the Madding Crowd 1874 Fiction UK
5 August Strindberg Miss Julie 1888 Drama Sweden
5 Gerard Manley Hopkins Poems 1844-1889 Poetry UK
5 Henrik Ibsen Hedda Gabler 1890 Drama Norway
5 Oscar Wilde The Picture of Dorian Gray 1890 Fiction Ireland
5 Alfred, Lord Tennyson Poems 1809-1892 Poetry UK
5 Guy de Maupassant Stories 1850-1893 Fiction France
5 H.G. Wells The Time Machine 1895 Fiction UK
5 Bram Stoker Dracula 1897 Fiction Ireland
5 Edmond Rostand Cyrano de Bergerac 1897 Drama France
5 Anton Chekhov Uncle Vanya 1899-1900 Drama Russia
5 Theodore Dreiser Sister Carrie 1900 Fiction US
5 Arthur Conan Doyle The Hound of the Baskervilles 1902 Fiction UK
5 George Bernard Shaw Man and Superman 1902-1903 Drama Ireland/UK
5 Jack London The Call of the Wild 1903 Fiction US
5 George Bernard Shaw Major Barbara 1905 Drama Ireland/UK
5 Joseph Conrad The Secret Agent 1907 Fiction Poland/UK
5 Kenneth Grahame A Wind in the Willows 1908 Fiction UK
5 E.M. Forster Howards End 1910 Fiction UK
5 Thomas Mann Death in Venice 1912 Fiction Germany
5 Willa Cather My Ántonia 1918 Fiction US
5 Sherwood Anderson Winesburg, Ohio 1919 Fiction US
5 John Galsworthy The Forsyte Saga 1906-1921 Fiction UK
5 Herman Melville Billy Budd pub. 1924 Fiction US
5 Sean O’Casey Juno and the Paycock 1924 Drama Ireland
5 André Gide The Counterfeiters 1925 Fiction France
5 A.A. Milne Winnie-the-Pooh 1926 Fiction UK
5 Federico García Lorca Gypsy Ballads 1928 Poetry Spain
5 D.H. Lawrence Lady Chatterley’s Lover 1928 Fiction UK
 5 André Breton Nadja 1928 Fiction France
5 Mohandas Gandhi An Autobiography: The Story of My Experiments with Truth 1929 Non-fiction India
5 Dashiell Hammett The Maltese Falcon 1929 Fiction US
5 Pearl Buck The Good Earth 1931 Fiction US
5 André Malraux Man’s Fate 1933 Fiction France
5 Henry Miller Tropic of Cancer 1934 Fiction US
5 Pernando Pessoa The Book of Disquiet 1935 Fiction Portugal
5 John Maynard Keynes The General Theory of Employment, Interest & Money 1936 Non-fiction UK
5 John Steinbeck Of Mice and Men 1937 Fiction US
5 Jean-Paul Sartre Nausea 1938 Fiction France
5 Bertolt Brecht Mother Courage and Her Children 1938-1939 Drama Germany
5 Raymond Chandler The Big Sleep 1939 Fiction US
5 Graham Greene The Power and the Glory 1940 Fiction UK
5 Rabindranath Tagore Poems 1861-1941 Poetry India
5 Bertolt Brecht The Caucasian Chalk Circle 1943-1945 Drama Germany
5 Henry Green Loving 1945 Fiction UK
5 Evelyn Waugh Brideshead Revisited 1945 Fiction UK
5 Primo Levi If This Is a Man/Survival in Auschwitz 1947 Non-fiction Italy
5 Yasunari Kawabata Snow Country 1948 Fiction Japan
5 Alan Paton Cry, the Beloved Country 1948 Fiction South Africa
5 Marguerite Yourcenar Memoirs of Hadrian 1951 Fiction France
5 Samuel Beckett Molloy; Molone Dies; The Unnameable 1951-1953 Fiction Ireland/France
5 William Golding Lord of the Flies 1954 Fiction UK
5 Friedrich Dürrenmatt The Visit 1956 Drama Germany
5 Samuel Beckett Endgame 1957 Drama Ireland/France
5 Walker Percy The Moviegoer 1961 Fiction US
5 William Faulkner Stories 1897-1962 Fiction US
5 Anthony Burgess A Clockwork Orange 1962 Fiction UK
5 Thomas Kuhn The Structure of Scientific Revolutions 1962 Non-fiction US
5 Saul Bellow Herzog 1964 Fiction US
5 Mao Zedong (Mao Tse-Tung) Quotations from Chairman Mao Tse-Tung 1964 Non-Fiction China
5 Kurt Vonnegut, Jr. Slaughterhouse-five 1969 Fiction US
5 Paul Celan Poems, incl. Death Fugue 1920-1970 Poetry France
5 Marianne Moore Poems 1887-1972 Poetry US
5 Italo Calvino Invisible Cities 1972 Fiction Italy
5 Thomas Pynchon Gravity’s Rainbow 1973 Fiction US
5 Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn The Gulag Archipelago 1918-1956 1973 Non-fiction USSR
5 Italo Calvino If on a Winter’s Night a Traveler 1979 Fiction Italy
5 Douglas Adams The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy 1979 Fiction UK
5 Thomas Keneally Schindler’s List 1982 Fiction Australia
5 Isabel Allende The House of the Spirits 1982 Fiction Chile
5 William Kennedy Ironweed 1983 Fiction US
5 Milan Kundera The Unbearable Lightness of Being 1984 Fiction Czechoslovakia
5 Margaret Atwood The Handmaid’s Tale 1985 Fiction Canada
5 A.S. Byatt Possession 1990 Fiction UK
5 Philip Roth American Pastoral 1997 Fiction US
5 Arundhati Roy The God of Small Things 1997 Fiction India
5 Barbara Kingsolver The Poisonwood Bible 1998 Fiction US
5 Ha Jin Waiting 1999 Fiction China/US
           
4 Sappho Poems c. 630-570 BCE Poetry Ancient Greece
4 Aesop Fables c. 600-560 BCE Fiction Ancient Greece
4 Euripides Hippolytus c. 428 BCE Drama Ancient Greece
4 Aristophanes The Knights 424 BCE Drama Ancient Greece
4 Plato The Symposium c. 380-360 BCE Non-fiction Ancient Greece
4 Zhuangzi The Book of Zhuangzi c. 306-286 BCE Non-fiction China
4 Vishnu Sharma The Panchatantra c. 300-200 BCE Fiction India
4 Plautus The Menaechmi c. 254-184 BCE Drama Ancient Rome
4 Petronius Satyricon 27-66 CE Fiction Ancient Rome
4 Tacitus Annals  109 CE Non-fiction Ancient Rome
4 Bhartrihari The Three Centuries/ Satakatraya c. 450-500 CE Poetry India
4 Attar of Nishapur The Conference of the Birds 1177 Poetry Persia
4 Anonymous The Poem of the Cid 1195-1207 Poetry Spain
4 Jayadeva Song of Govinda c. 1250 Poetry India
4 Anonymous Njal’s Saga c. 1280 Fiction Iceland
4 Shi Nai’an Water Margin/Outlaws of the Marsh c. 1296-1372 Fiction China
4 Petrarch Poems c. 1304-1374 Poetry Italy
4 Chaucer Troilus and Criseyde c. 1385 Poetry England
4 Hafez Poems c. 1326-1390 Poetry Persia
4 Anonymous Everyman c. 1490 Drama England
4 Baldassare Castiglione The Book of the Courtier 1528 Fiction Italy
4 Ludovico Ariosto Orlando Furioso 1532 Poetry Italy
4 Giorgio Vasari Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors and Architects 1550 Non-fiction Italy
4 Lanling Xiaoxiao Sheng The Plum in the Golden Vase c. 1600 Fiction China
4 Ben Jonson The Alchemist 1612 Drama England
4 Galileo Galilei Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems 1632  Non-fiction  Italy
4 Pedro Calderón de la Barca Life Is a Dream 1629-1635 Drama Spain
4 Pierre Corneille The Cid 1637 Drama France
4 René Descartes Discourse on Method 1637 Non-fiction France
4 René Descartes Meditations on First Philosophy 1641 Non-fiction France
4 John Milton Areopagitica 1644 Non-fiction England
4 Molière Don Juan 1665 Drama France
4 John Milton Samson Agonistes 1671 Drama England
4 Matsuo Basho The Seashell Game 1672 Poetry Japan
4 Molière The Imaginary Invalid 1673 Drama France
4 Benedict de Spinoza Ethics 1677 Non-fiction The Netherlands
 4 Madame de La Fayette The Princess of Cleves 1678 Fiction France
4 Matsuo Basho Shriveled Chestnuts 1683 Poetry Japan
4 Matsuo Basho Record of a Weather-Exposed Skeleton 1684 Non-fiction Japan
4 Matsuo Basho Winter Days 1684 Poetry Japan
4 Matsuo Basho Spring Days 1686 Poetry Japan
4 Matsuo Basho A Visit to Kashima Shrine 1687 Non-fiction Japan
4 Matsuo Basho Record of a Travel-Worn Satchel 1688 Non-fiction Japan
4 Matsuo Basho Wasteland 1689 Poetry Japan
4 Matsuo Basho The Gourd 1690 Poetry Japan
4 Matsuo Basho The Monkey’s Raincoat 1691 Poetry Japan
4 Matsuo Basho Saga Diary 1691 Non-fiction Japan
4 Matsuo Basho On Transplanting the Banana Tree 1691 Poetry Japan
4 Matsuo Basho On Seclusion 1692 Poetry Japan
4 Jean de La Fontaine Fables  1668-1694 Fiction France
4 Matsuo Basho A Sack of Charcoal 1694 Poetry Japan
4 Matsuo Basho The Detached Room 1694 Poetry Japan
4 Matsuo Basho The Monkey’s Raincoat, Continued 1698 Poetry Japan
4 Chikamatsu Monzaemon The Love Suicides at Sonezaki 1703 Drama Japan
4 Daniel Defoe Moll Flanders 1722 Fiction England
4 Samuel Richardson Pamela 1740 Fiction England
4 Henry Fielding Joseph Andrews 1742 Fiction England
4 Samuel Richardson Clarissa 1748 Fiction England
4 Samuel Johnson The History of Rasselas, Prince of Abissinia 1759 Fiction England
4 Jean-Jacques Rousseau The Social Contract 1762 Non-fiction Switzerland/France
4 Tobias Smollett The Expedition of Humphrey Clinker 1771 Fiction England
4 Denis Diderot Rameau’s Nephew 1761-1772 Non-fiction France
4 Immanuel Kant Critique of Pure Reason  1781 Non-fiction Germany
 4 Mary Wollstonecraft The Vindication of the Rights of Women 1792 Non-fiction England
4 Robert Burns Poems 1759-1796 Poetry Scotland
4 Jane Austen Sense and Sensibility 1811 Fiction UK
4 Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Poems 1749-1832 Poetry Germany
4 Samuel Taylor Coleridge Essays 1772-1834 Non-fiction UK
4 Alexander Pushkin Tales 1799-1837 Fiction Russia
4 Alexis de Tocqueville Democracy in America 1835-1840 Non-fiction France
4 Friedrich Hölderlin Poems 1770-1843 Poetry Germany
4 Ralph Waldo Emerson Essays, 1st and 2nd Series 1841, 1844 Non-fiction US
4 Alexandre Dumas The Three Musketeers 1844 Fiction France
4 Honoré de Balzac A Harlot High and Low 1847 Fiction France
4 Ralph Waldo Emerson Representative Men 1850 Non-fiction US
4 William Wordsworth The Prelude 1850 Poetry UK
4 Charles Dickens Hard Times 1854 Fiction UK
4 Charles Dickens Little Dorrit 1857 Fiction UK
4 Ivan Goncharov Oblomov 1859 Fiction Russia
4 Fyodor Dostoevsky Notes from the Underground 1864 Fiction Russia
4 Anthony Trollope The Last Chronicle of Barset 1867 Fiction UK
4 Jules Verne Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea 1870 Fiction France
4 Hans Christian Andersen Fairy Tales and Stories 1822-1872 Fiction Denmark
4 Thomas Hardy The Return of the Native 1878 Fiction UK
4 Ralph Waldo Emerson Poems 1803-1882 Poetry US
4 Friedrich Nietzsche Thus Spake Zarathustra 1883 Non-fiction Germany
4 Émile Zola Germinal 1885 Fiction France
4 Robert Louis Stevenson Kidnapped 1886 Fiction UK
4 August Strindberg The Father 1887 Drama Sweden
4 Samuel Butler The Way of All Flesh c. 1889 Fiction UK
4 Leo Tolstoy The Kreutzer Sonata 1889 Fiction Russia
4 Herman Melville Stories, incl. Bartleby the Scrivener 1819-1891 Fiction US
4 Henrik Ibsen The Master Builder 1892 Drama Norway
4 Christina Rossetti Poems 1830-1894 Poetry UK
4 Karl Marx Das Kapital 1867-1894 Non-fiction Germany/UK
4 Stephen Crane The Red Badge of Courage 1895 Fiction US
4 Theodor Fontane Effi Briest 1896 Fiction Germany
4 Kate Chopin The Awakening 1899 Fiction US
4 Anton Chekhov Three Sisters 1901 Drama Russia
4 Henry James The Wings of the Dove 1902 Fiction US/UK
4 William James The Varieties of Religious Experience 1902 Non-fiction US
4 Henry James The Golden Bowl 1904 Fiction US
4 Sigmund Freud Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality 1905 Non-fiction Austria
4 Upton Sinclair The Jungle 1906 Fiction US
4 August Strindberg The Ghost Sonata 1907 Drama Sweden
4 William James Pragmatism  1907 Non-fiction US
4 John Millington Synge The Playboy of the Western World 1907 Drama Ireland
4 Arnold Bennett The Old Wive’s Tale 1908 Fiction UK
4 E.M. Forster A Room with a View 1908 Fiction UK
4 Edith Wharton Ethan Frome 1911 Fiction US
4 George Bernard Shaw Pygmalion 1912-1913 Drama Ireland
4 Ford Madox Ford The Good Soldier 1915 Fiction UK
4 Somerset Maugham Of Human Bondage 1915 Fiction UK
4 Sean O’Casey The Plough and the Stars 1926 Drama Ireland
4 Jaroslav Hašek The Good Soldier Švejk 1926 Fiction Czechoslovakia
4 Willa Cather Death Comes for the Archbishop 1927 Fiction US
4 Thornton Wilder The Bridge of San Luis Rey 1927 Fiction US
4 Ford Madox Ford Parade’s End 1924-1928 Fiction UK
4 Virginia Woolf Orlando: A Biography 1928 Fiction UK
4 Alfred Döblin Berlin Alexanderplatz 1929 Fiction Germany
4 Jean Cocteau Les Enfants Terribles 1929 Fiction France
4 Thomas Wolfe Look Homeward, Angel 1929 Fiction US
4 Vladimir Mayakovsky Poems 1893-1930 Poetry USSR
4 Sigmund Freud Civilization and its Discontents 1930 Non-fiction Austria
4 Virginia Woolf The Waves 1931 Fiction UK
4 Federico García Lorca Blood Wedding 1932 Drama Spain
4 James M. Cain The Postman Always Rings Twice 1934 Fiction US
4 Evelyn Waugh A Handful of Dust 1934 Fiction UK
4 John O’Hara Appointment in Samarra 1934 Fiction US
 4 Federico García Lorca Selected Poems  1918-1936 Poetry Spain
4 Zora Neale Hurston Their Eyes Were Watching God 1937 Fiction US
 4 Graham Greene Brighton Rock 1938 Fiction UK
4 Eugene O’Neill The Iceman Cometh 1939 Drama US
4 Carson McCullers The Heart Is a Lonely Hunter 1940 Fiction US
4 Isaak Babel Stories 1894-1940 Fiction USSR
4 James Agee Let Us Now Praise Famous Men 1941 Non-fiction US
4 Thornton Wilder The Skin of Our Teeth 1942 Drama US
4 Bertolt Brecht The Good Woman of Setzuan 1939-1942 Drama Germany
4 Hermann Hesse The Glass Bead Game/Magister Ludi 1943 Fiction Germany/Switzerland
4 Jean-Paul Sartre No Exit 1944 Drama France
4 Tennessee Williams The Glass Menagerie 1944 Drama US
4 Jean Giraudoux The Madwoman of Chaillot 1945 Drama France
4 Nikos Kazantzakis Zorba the Greek 1946 Fiction Greece
4 Mervyn Peake Titus Groan 1946 Fiction UK
4 Amos Tutuola The Palm-Wine Drinkard 1946 Fiction Nigeria
4 Thomas Mann Doctor Faustus 1947 Fiction Germany
4 Graham Greene The Heart of the Matter 1948 Fiction UK
4 Norman Mailer The Naked and the Dead 1948 Fiction US
4 Eugène Ionesco The Bald Soprano 1950 Drama Romania/France
4 Mervyn Peake Gormenghast 1950 Fiction UK
4 Vladimir Nabokov Speak, Memory 1951 Non-fiction USSR/US
4 John Wyndham Day of the Triffids 1951 Fiction UK
4 James Baldwin Go Tell It on the Mountain 1953 Fiction US
4 Alejo Carpentier The Lost Steps 1953 Fiction Cuba
4 Max Frisch I’m Not Stiller 1954 Fiction Switzerland
4 Juan Rulfo Pedro Páramo 1955 Fiction Mexico
4 João Guimarães Rosa The Devil to Pay in the Backlands 1956 Fiction Brazil
4 Naguib Mahfouz Palace Walk 1956 Fiction Egypt
4 Patrick White Voss 1957 Fiction Australia
4 Alain Robbe-Grillet Jealousy 1957 Fiction France
4 Italo Calvino The Baron in the Trees 1957 Fiction Italy
4 Harold Pinter The Caretaker 1959 Drama UK
4 Saul Bellow Henderson the Rain King 1959 Fiction US
4 Lawrence Durrell The Alexandria Quartet 1957-1960 Fiction UK
4 Ernest Hemingway The Complete Short Stories 1923-1961 Fiction US
4 V.S. Naipaul A House for Mr. Biswas 1961 Fiction Trinidad/UK
4 Ken Kesey One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest 1962 Fiction US
4 Rachel Carson Silent Spring 1962 Non-fiction US
4 Octavio Paz The Labyrinth of Solitude 1963 Non-fiction Mexico
4 Betty Friedan The Feminine Mystique 1963 Non-fiction US
4 Katherine Anne Porter Collected Stories 1965 Fiction US
4 Malcolm X (with Alex Haley) The Autobiography of Malcolm X 1965 Non-fiction US
4 Anna Akhmatova Poems, incl. Requiem 1889-1966 Poetry USSR
4 Jean Rhys Wide Sargasso Sea 1966 Fiction Dominica/UK
4 Bernard Malamud The Fixer 1966 Fiction US
4 Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn The Cancer Ward 1967 Fiction USSR
4 Philip Roth Portnoy’s Complaint 1969 Fiction US
4 Joyce Carol Oates Them 1969 Fiction US
4 Wallace Stegner Angle of Repose 1971 Fiction US
4 Ezra Pound The Cantos 1885-1972 Poetry US
4 W.H. Auden Poems 1907-1973 Poetry US
4 Pablo Neruda Selected Poems  1923-1974 Poetry Chile
4 Paul Fussell The Great War and Modern Memory 1975 Non-fiction US
4 John Ashbery Self-Portrait in a Convex Mirror 1975 Poetry US
4 E.L. Doctorow Ragtime 1975 Fiction US
4 Michael Herr Dispatches 1977 Non-fiction US
4 V.S. Naipaul A Bend in the River 1979 Fiction Trinidad/UK
4 Douglas Hofstadter Gödel, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid  1979 Non-fiction US
4 John Kennedy Toole A Confederacy of Dunces 1980 Fiction US
4 J.M. Coetzee The Life and Times of Michael K. 1983 Fiction South Africa
4 Marguerite Duras The Lover 1984 Fiction France
4 Richard Rhodes The Making of the Atomic Bomb 1987 Non-fiction US
4 Raymond Carver Where I’m Calling From 1988 Fiction US
4 Peter Carey Oscar and Lucinda 1988 Fiction Australia
4 Paulo Coelho The Alchemist 1988 Fiction Brazil
4 E.L. Doctorow Billy Bathgate 1989 Fiction US
4 John Updike Rabbit at Rest 1990 Fiction US
4 Tim O’Brien The Things They Carried 1990 Fiction US
4 Don DeLillo Mao II 1991 Fiction US
4 Tony Kushner Angels in America 1992 Drama US
4 Philip Roth Operation Shylock 1993 Fiction US
4 Carol Shields The Stone Diaries 1993 Fiction Canada
4 E. Annie Proulx The Shipping News 1993 Fiction US
4 Don DeLillo Underworld 1997 Fiction US
4 Jonathan Franzen The Corrections 2001 Fiction US
4 Yann Martel Life of Pi 2001 Fiction Canada
           
3 Anonymous I Ching  c. 1000 BCE Non-fiction China
3 Hesiod Theogony 700 BCE Poetry Ancient Greece
3 Aeschylus The Persians 472 BCE Drama Ancient Greece
3 Aeschylus The Suppliant Women 463 BCE Drama Ancient Greece
3 Sophocles Women of Trachis c. 450 BCE Drama Ancient Greece
3 Sophocles Ajax c. 447 BCE Drama Ancient Greece
3 Pindar Victory Odes 498-444 BCE Poetry Ancient Greece
3 Euripides Andromache c. 425 BCE Drama Ancient Greece
3 Euripides Hecuba c. 424 BCE Drama Ancient Greece
3 Aristophanes The Wasps 422 BCE Drama Ancient Greece
3 Euripides Heracles c. 416 BCE Drama Ancient Greece
3 Euripides Iphigenia in Tauris 414 BCE Drama Ancient Greece
3 Euripides Ion 414 BCE Drama Ancient Greece
3 Euripides Helen 412 BCE Drama Ancient Greece
3 Sophocles Philoctetes 409 BCE Drama Ancient Greece
3 Euripides Orestes 408 BCE Drama Ancient Greece
3 Euripides Iphigenia at Aulis 405 BCE Drama Ancient Greece
3 Euripides Cyclops c. 400 BCE Drama Ancient Greece
3 Anonymous The Book of Job c. 400 BCE Religious Text Palestine
3 Aristophanes The Assemblywomen 392 BCE Drama Ancient Greece
3 Plato Crito c. 399-387 BCE Non-fiction Ancient Greece
3 Plato Meno c. 387-380 BCE Non-fiction Ancient Greece
3 Plato Phaedo c. 380-360 BCE Non-fiction Ancient Greece
3 Aristotle Rhetoric  350 BCE Non-Fiction Ancient Greece
3 Aristotle Metaphysics  350 BCE Non-Fiction Ancient Greece
3 Aristotle On the Soul  350 BCE Non-Fiction  Ancient Greece
3 Anonymous Avesta  559-330 BCE Religious Text Persia
3 Han Fei The Han Feizi c. 281-233 BCE Non-fiction China
3 Plautus Amphitryon c. 220-184 BCE Drama Ancient Rome
3 Plautus Pseudolus c. 220-184 BCE Drama Ancient Rome
3 Patanjali Yoga Sutras c. 322-130 BCE Religious Text India
3 Anonymous Dhammapada  200-100 BCE Non-Fiction: Sayings India
3 Catullus Poems, incl. Attis c. 65-54 BCE Poetry Ancient Rome
3 Virgil Eclogues  39-38 BCE Poetry Ancient Rome
3 Ovid The Art of Love  1 CE Poetry Ancient Rome
3 Anonymous Vimalakirti Sutra  100 CE Religious Text India
3 Juvenal The Satires  c. 98-138 CE Poetry Ancient Rome
3 Lucian Satires  c. 125-190 CE Fiction Ancient Rome/Syria
3 Anonymous Lotus Sutra  c. 200 CE Religious Text India
3 Plotinus The Enneads  270 CE Non-Fiction Greece
3 Augustine of Hippo The City of God 426 CE Non-fiction Ancient Rome/Algeria
3 Tao Yuanming (Tao Qian) The Return 365-427 CE Poetry China
3 Tao Yuanming (Tao Qian) Returning to the Farm to Dwell  365-427 CE Poetry China
3 Tao Yuanming (Tao Qian) Begging for Food  365-427 CE Poetry China
3 Tao Yuanming (Tao Qian) On Moving House 365-427 CE Poetry China
3 Tao Yuanming (Tao Qian) In the Sixth Month of 409, Fire  365-427 CE Poetry China
3 Tao Yuanming (Tao Qian) Twenty Poems After Drinking Wine 365-427 CE Poetry China
3 Tao Yuanming (Tao Qian) On Reading the Seas and Mountains 365-427 CE Poetry China
3 Anonymous The Hanging Poems/Mu’allaqat  c. 550-630 CE Poetry Arabia
3 Li Bai (Li Po) Poems  701-762 CE Poetry China
3 Du Fu (Tu Fu) Poems  712-770 CE Poetry China
3 Kukai The Ten Stages of the Development of the Mind  830 CE Non-fiction Japan
3 Somadeva The Ocean of Rivers of Story  c. 1050-1080 Fiction India
3 Al-Ghazali Deliverance from Error  c. 1100 Non-fiction Persia
3 Al-Hariri of Basra The Assemblies of al-Hariri c. 1100-1122 Poetry Iraq
3 Chrétien de Troyes Perceval, the Story of the Grail 1181-1190 Poetry France
3 Zhu Xi Commentary on the Four Books c. 1180-1200 Non-fiction China
3 Maimonides Guide for the Perplexed c. 1190-1204 Non-fiction Spain/Morocco
3 Gottfried von Strassburg Tristan 1150-1210 Fiction Germany
3 Wolfram von Eschenbach Parzifal 1200-1220 Poetry Germany
3 Thomas Aquinas Summa Theologica  1265-1274 Non-Fiction: Religion Italy
3 Guillaume de Lorris & Jean de Meun Romance of the Rose 1230, 1275 Poetry France
3 Anonymous The Platform Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch c. 1200-1280 Non-fiction China
3 Dante Alighieri The New Life 1295 Poetry Italy
3 Yoshida Kenko Essays in Idleness 1330-1332 Non-fiction Japan
3 Anonymous Sir Gawain and the Green Knight c. 1350 Poetry England
3 Ibn Khaldun Muqaddimah 1377 Non-fiction Tunisia
3 Zeami Motokiyo Atsumori 1363-1443 Drama Japan
3 Fernando de Rojas The Spanish Bawd/La Celestina 1499 Drama Spain
3 Fużūlī Epic of Layla and Majnun c. 1540-1556 Poetry Turkey
3 Marguerite de Navarre The Heptameron  1558 Fiction France
3 Michelangelo Buonarroti Poems  1475-1564 Poetry Italy
3 Luís Vaz de Camões The Lusiads  1572 Poetry Portugal
3 Philip Sydney Astrophel and Stella c. 1580 Poetry England
3 Torquato Tasso Jerusalem Delivered  1581 Poetry Italy
3 Christopher Marlowe Tamburlaine, Pts. 1 and 2 1587-1588 Drama England
3 Christopher Marlowe The Jew of Malta c. 1589 Drama England
3 Thomas Kyd The Spanish Tragedy 1582-1592 Drama England
3 Christopher Marlowe Edward II 1592 Drama England
3 Edmund Spenser The Faerie Queen 1590, 1596 Poetry England
3 Francis Bacon Essays 1597 Non-fiction England
3 Francis Bacon The Advancement of Learning 1605 Non-fiction England
3 John Webster The Duchess of Malfi  1614 Drama England
3 Francis Bacon Novum Organum  1620 Non-Fiction  England
3 Francis Bacon New Atlantis 1623 Fiction England
3 John Ford ‘Tis Pity She’s a Whore 1633 Drama England
3 Ben Jonson Poems 1572-1637 Poetry England
3 John Milton Lycidas 1637 Poetry England
3 Molière Ridiculous Precieuses  1659 Drama France
3 Molière School for Husbands 1661 Drama France
3 Molière The Physician in Spite of Himself 1666 Drama France
3 Jean Racine Andromache 1667 Drama France
3 Molière The Learned Ladies 1672 Drama France
3 Robert Herrick Poems 1591-1674 Poetry England
3 William Wycherley The Country Wife 1675 Drama England
3 William Wycherley The Plain Dealer 1676 Drama England
3 Andrew Marvell Poems 1621-1678 Poetry England
3 John Dryden All for Love 1678 Drama England
3 François de la Rochefoucauld Maxims 1680 Non-fiction France
3 Isaac Newton Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica 1687 Non-fiction England
3 John Locke Two Treatises of Government  1689 Non-fiction England
3 William Congreve Love for Love 1695 Drama England
3 John Gay The Beggar’s Opera 1728 Drama England
3 Abbé Prévost Manon Lescaut  1731 Fiction France
3 Alexander Pope Poems 1688-1744 Poetry England
3 Takeda Izumo II The Treasury of Loyal Retainers/Chushingura c. 1748 Drama Japan
3 Jean-Jacques Rousseau Émile, or On Education 1762 Non-fiction Switzerland/France
3 Richard Brinsley Sheridan The Rivals 1775 Drama UK
3 Thomas Jefferson The Declaration of Independence 1776 Non-fiction US
3 Adam Smith The Wealth of Nations 1776 Non-fiction England
3 Thomas Paine Common Sense 1776 Non-fiction England/US
3 Fanny Burney Evelina 1778 Fiction England
3 David Hume Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion 1779 Non-fiction Scotland
3 William Blake Poetical Sketches 1783 Poetry England
3 Pierre Beaumarchais The Marriage of Figaro 1784 Drama France
3 James Madison, Alexander Hamilton & John Jay The Federalist Papers 1787-1788 Non-fiction US
3 Benjamin Franklin The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin 1791 Non-fiction US
3 Thomas Paine The Rights of Man 1791 Non-fiction US/France
3 William Blake The Marriage of Heaven and Hell 1790-1793 Poetry England
3 Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Wilhelm Meister’s Apprenticeship  1796 Fiction Germany
3 Maria Edgeworth Castle Rackrent 1800 Fiction England
3 Walter Scott Waverley 1814 Fiction UK
3 Jane Austen Mansfield Park 1814 Fiction UK
3 Jane Austen Persuasion 1818 Fiction UK
3 Walter Scott Ivanhoe 1820 Fiction UK
3 Charles Maturin Melmoth the Wanderer 1820 Fiction Ireland
3 Heinrich von Kleist The Prince of Homburg  1809-1810, pub. 1821 Drama Germany
3 Percy Bysshe Shelley Poems  1792-1822 Poetry UK
3 Lord Byron Poems 1788-1824 Poetry UK
3 Alexander Pushkin Boris Godunov 1825 Drama Russia
3 James Fenimore Cooper The Last of the Mohicans 1826 Fiction US
3 Honoré de Balzac The Wild Ass’s Skin  1831 Fiction France
3 Honoré de Balzac Louis Lambert  1832 Fiction France
3 Honoré de Balzac The Girl with the Golden Eyes 1833 Fiction France
3 Nikolai Gogol The Government Inspector/The Inspector General 1836 Drama Russia
3 James Fenimore Cooper The Deerslayer 1841 Fiction US
3 Honoré de Balzac Ursule Mirouet 1841 Fiction France
3 Nikolai Gogol Short Stories 1831-1842 Fiction Russia
3 Friedrich Hölderlin Hymns and Fragments 1770-1843 Poetry Germany
3 Elizabeth Gaskell Mary Barton 1848 Fiction UK
3 Ralph Waldo Emerson Nature 1849 Non-fiction US
3 Elizabeth Gaskell North and South 1854-1855 Fiction UK
3 Anthony Trollope The Warden  1855 Fiction UK
3 Jacob & Wilhelm Grimm Children’s and Household Tales/Grimm’s Fairy Tales  1812-1857 Fiction Germany
3 Anthony Trollope Barchester Towers  1857 Fiction UK
3 George Eliot Adam Bede 1859 Fiction UK
3 Ivan Turgenev First Love 1860 Fiction Russia
3 Alexander Ostrovsky The Storm  1860 Drama Russia
3 Nathaniel Hawthorne Tales and Sketches 1837-1864 Fiction US
3 Charles Dickens Our Mutual Friend 1864 Fiction UK
3 Henrik Ibsen Brand  1866 Drama Norway
3 Émile Zola Thérèse Raquin 1867 Fiction France
3 Wilkie Collins The Moonstone 1868 Fiction UK
3 Anthony Trollope Phineas Finn 1869 Fiction UK
3 Arthur Rimbaud The Drunken Boat 1871 Poetry France
3 Samuel Butler Erewhon 1872 Fiction UK
3 Jules Verne Around the World in Eighty Days 1873 Fiction France
3 Arthur Rimbaud Illuminations 1874 Poetry France
3 George Eliot Daniel Deronda 1876 Fiction UK
3 Émile Zola L’Assommoir  1877 Fiction France
3 Lew Wallace Ben-Hur 1880 Fiction US
3 Émile Zola Nana 1880 Fiction France
3 August Strindberg The Red Room 1880 Fiction Sweden
3 Henrik Ibsen Ghosts 1881 Drama Norway
3 Giovanni Verga Little Novels of Sicily 1883 Fiction Italy
3 Henrik Ibsen The Wild Duck 1885 Drama Norway
3 Henry James The Bostonians 1886 Fiction US/UK
3 Friedrich Nietzsche Beyond Good and Evil 1886 Non-fiction Germany
3 Robert Louis Stevenson Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde 1886 Fiction UK
3 Benito Pérez Galdós Fortunata and Jacinta 1886-1886 Fiction Spain
3 August Strindberg The People of Hemsö 1887 Fiction Sweden
3 Matthew Arnold Poems  1822-1888 Poetry UK
3 José Maria de Eça de Queiroz The Maias  1888 Fiction Portugal
3 Robert Browning Poems  1812-1889 Poetry UK
3 Robert Louis Stevenson The Master of Ballantrae  1889 Fiction UK
3 William Morris News from Nowhere 1890 Fiction UK
3 Giovanni Verga The House by the Medlar Tree 1890 Fiction Italy
3 James George Frazer The Golden Bough 1890 Non-fiction UK
3 George & Weedon Grossmith Diary of a Nobody 1892 Fiction UK
3 Arthur Conan Doyle The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes 1892 Fiction UK
3 George Bernard Shaw Arms and the Man 1894 Drama Ireland/England
3 Nikolai Leskov Tales 1862-1895 Fiction Russia
3 Anton Chekhov The Seagull  1896 Drama Russia
3 Benito Pérez Galdós Misericordia 1897 Fiction Spain
3 H.G. Wells The Invisible Man  1897 Fiction UK
3 August Strindberg A Dream Play  1901 Drama Sweden
3 August Strindberg The Dance of Death 1901 Drama Sweden
3 W.E.B. Du Bois The Souls of Black Folk 1903 Non-fiction US
3 Max Weber The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism 1904 Non-fiction Germany
3 John Millington Synge Riders to the Sea  1904 Drama Ireland
3 Robert Musil The Confusions of Young Törless 1906 Fiction Germany
3 Rainer Maria Rilke New Poems: First Part and Other Part 1907 Poetry Austria
3 Algernon Charles Swinburne Poems  1837-1909 Poetry UK
3 Joseph Conrad Under Western Eyes 1911 Fiction Poland/UK
3 Max Beerbohm Zuleika Dobson 1911 Fiction UK
3 Henry Alain-Fournier Le Grand Meaulnes  1913 Fiction France
3 Akutagawa Ryunosuke Rashomon and Other Stories 1915 Fiction Japan
3 Albert Einstein Relativity: The Special and the General Theory 1917 Non-fiction Germany
3 Wilfred Owen Poems 1893-1918 Poetry UK
3 William Strunk & E.B. White The Elements of Style 1918 Non-fiction US
3 Booth Tarkington The Magnificent Ambersons 1918 Fiction US
3 Lytton Strachey Eminent Victorians  1918 Non-fiction UK
3 George Bernard Shaw Heartbreak House  1919 Drama Ireland
3 Lu Xun (Lu Hsun) The True Story of Ah Q 1921-1922 Fiction China
3 Hermann Hesse Siddhartha 1922 Fiction Germany/Switzerland
3 Katherine Mansfield Short Stories 1912-1923 Fiction New Zealand
3 Willa Cather A Lost Lady 1923 Fiction US
3 Jean Cocteau Orpheus 1925 Drama France
3 Rainer Maria Rilke Selected Poetry 1894-1926 Poetry Austria
3 Agatha Christie The Murder of Roger Ackroyd 1926 Fiction UK
3 Arthur Conan Doyle The Casebook of Sherlock Holmes 1927 Fiction UK
3 Franz Kafka Amerika 1927 Fiction Czechoslovakia
3 Hermann Hesse Steppenwolf 1927 Fiction Germany/Switzerland
3 Aldous Huxley Point Counter Point 1928 Fiction UK
3 Bertolt Brecht The Threepenny Opera 1928 Drama Germany
3 Vladimir Mayakovsky The Bedbug 1929 Drama USSR
3 Robert Graves Goodbye to All That  1929 Non-fiction UK
3 Eugene O’Neill Mourning Becomes Electra  1931 Drama US
3 Joseph Roth The Radetzky March  1932 Fiction Austria
3 Erskine Caldwell Tobacco Road  1932 Fiction US
3 James T. Farrell Young Lonigan 1932 Fiction US
3 Nathanael West Miss Lonelyhearts 1933 Fiction US
3 Robert Graves I, Claudius 1934 Fiction UK
3 James T. Farrell The Young Manhood of Studs Lonigan 1934 Fiction US
3 Henry Roth Call It Sleep 1934 Fiction US
3 Pablo Neruda Residence on Earth 1933-1935 Poetry Chile
3 James T. Farrell Judgment Day 1935 Fiction US
3 Premchand Stories 1880-1936 Fiction India
3 Federico García Lorca The House of Bernarda Alba 1936 Drama Spain
3 J.R.R. Tolkien The Hobbit 1937 Fiction UK
3 David Jones In Parenthesis 1937 Poetry UK
3 Lao She Rickshaw Boy 1937 Fiction China
3 George Orwell Homage to Catalonia 1938 Non-fiction UK
3 Evelyn Waugh Scoop 1938 Fiction UK
3 Nathanael West The Day of the Locust 1939 Fiction US
3 Lillian Hellman The Little Foxes 1939 Drama US
3 William Saroyan The Time of Your Life 1939 Drama US
3 Flann O’Brien At Swim-Two-Birds 1939 Fiction Ireland
3 Flann O’Brien The Third Policeman 1939-1940 Fiction Ireland
3 Arthur Koestler Darkness at Noon 1940 Fiction Hungary/UK
3 Dino Buzzati The Tartar Steppe 1940 Fiction Italy
3 Rabindranath Tagore Stories 1861-1941 Fiction India
3 Edith Hamilton Mythology 1942 Non-fiction Germany/US
3 Jean Genet Our Lady of the Flowers 1942-1943 Fiction France
3 Reinhold Niebuhr The Nature and Destiny of Man 1943 Non-fiction US
3 Pablo Neruda Canto General  1943 Poetry Chile
3 Ivo Andrić The Bridge on the Drina 1945 Fiction Yugoslavia
3 Christopher Isherwood The Berlin Stories 1945 Fiction UK
3 Hermann Broch The Death of Virgil 1945 Fiction Austria
3 Astrid Lindgren Pippi Longstocking 1945 Fiction Sweden
3 John Hersey Hiroshima 1946 Non-fiction US
3 Jun’ichirō Tanizaki The Makioka Sisters  1948 Fiction Japan
3 T.S. Eliot The Cocktail Party 1949 Drama US
3 Alejo Carpentier The Kingdom of This World 1949 Fiction Cuba
3 Nelson Algren The Man with the Golden Arm 1949 Fiction US
3 Paul Bowles The Sheltering Sky 1949 Fiction US
3 C.S. Lewis The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe 1950 Fiction UK
3 Nevil Shute A Town Like Alice 1950 Fiction UK
3 Isaac Bashevis Singer The Family Moskat 1950 Fiction US
3 Ernst Gombrich The Story of Art 1950 Non-fiction Austria
3 Julien Gracq The Opposing Shore 1951 Fiction France
3 Isaac Asimov Foundation 1951 Fiction US
3 James Jones From Here to Eternity 1951 Fiction US
3 Eugène Ionesco The Chairs  1952 Drama Romania/France
3 Dylan Thomas Collected Poems: 1934-1952 1952 Poetry Ireland
3 Arthur Miller The Crucible 1952 Drama US
3 Flannery O’Connor Wise Blood 1952 Fiction US
3 Kingsley Amis Lucky Jim 1953 Fiction UK
3 Iris Murdoch Under the Net 1954 Fiction UK
3 Françoise Sagan Bonjour Tristesse 1954 Fiction France
3 Graham Greene The Quiet American 1955 Fiction UK
3 Tennessee Williams Cat on a Hot Tin Roof 1955 Drama US
3 Patricia Highsmith The Talented Mr. Ripley 1955 Fiction UK
3 William Gaddis The Recognitions 1955 Fiction US
3 James Baldwin Notes of a Native Son 1955 Non-fiction US
3 Albert Camus The Fall 1956 Fiction France
3 Saul Bellow Seize the Day 1956 Fiction US
3 Richard Wilbur Things of This World 1956 Poetry US
3 Naguib Mahfouz Palace of Desire  1957 Fiction Egypt
3 Naguib Mahfouz Sugar Street 1957 Fiction Egypt
3 John Cheever The Wapshot Chronicle 1957 Fiction US
3 William Carlos Williams Paterson 1946-1958 Poetry US
3 T.H. White The Once and Future King 1958 Fiction UK
3 Samuel Beckett Krapp’s Last Tape 1958 Drama Ireland
3 Mervyn Peake Titus Alone 1959 Fiction UK
3 William Burroughs Naked Lunch 1959 Fiction US
3 Muriel Spark The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie 1961 Fiction UK
3 Franz Fanon The Wretched of the Earth 1961 Non-fiction France
3 Kobo Abe The Woman in the Dunes 1962 Fiction Japan
3 Edward Albee Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf? 1962 Drama US
3 William Carlos Williams Poems 1883-1963 Poetry US
3 Kurt Vonnegut, Jr. Cat’s Cradle 1963 Fiction US
3 John Le Carré The Spy Who Came In From the Cold 1963 Fiction US
3 Sylvia Plath The Bell Jar 1963 Fiction US
3 Thomas Pynchon V. 1963 Fiction US
3 John Fowles The Magus 1966 Fiction UK
3 Thomas Pynchon The Crying of Lot 49 1966 Fiction US
3 Langston Hughes Poems 1902-1967 Poetry US
3 Tom Stoppard Rosencranz and Guildenstern Are Dead 1967 Drama UK
3 Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn The First Circle 1968 Fiction USSR
3 Norman Mailer Armies of the Night 1968 Non-fiction US
3 Gore Vidal Myra Breckenridge 1968 Fiction US
3 James Watson The Double Helix 1968 Non-fiction US
3 Tom Wolfe The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test 1968 Non-fiction US
3 Mario Puzo The Godfather 1969 Fiction US
3 John Fowles The French Lieutenant’s Woman 1969 Fiction UK
3 John O’Hara Stories, incl. The Doctor’s Son 1905-1970 Fiction US
3 Yukio Mishima The Sea of Fertility 1965-1970 Fiction Japan
3 James Dickey Deliverance 1970 Fiction US
3 Michel Tournier The Ogre 1970 Fiction France
3 John Updike Rabbit Redux 1971 Fiction US
3 V.S. Naipaul In a Free State 1971 Fiction Trinidad/UK
3 Leon Edel Henry James: A Life 1953-1972 Non-fiction US
3 J.G. Farrell The Siege of Krishnapur 1973 Fiction UK
3 Nadine Gordimer The Conservationist 1974 Fiction South Africa
3 Robert Pirsig Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance 1974 Non-fiction US
3 Robert Stone Dog Soldiers 1974 Fiction US
3 Anthony Powell A Dance to the Music of Time 1951-1975 Fiction UK
3 Saul Bellow Humboldt’s Gift 1975 Fiction US
3 Primo Levi The Periodic Table 1975 Fiction Italy
3 Bruno Bettelheim The Uses of Enchantment 1976 Non-fiction US
3 Robert Lowell Poems 1917-1977 Poetry US
3 Walter Jackson Bates Samuel Johnson 1977 Non-fiction US
3 Iris Murdoch The Sea, the Sea 1978 Fiction UK
3 Edward Said Orientalism 1978 Non-fiction Palestine
3 Georges Perec Life: A User’s Manual 1978 Fiction France
3 Sam Shepard Buried Child  1978 Drama US
3 Tom Wolfe The Right Stuff 1979 Non-fiction US
3 Philip Roth The Ghost Writer 1979 Fiction US
3 Edmund Morris The Rise of Theodore Roosevelt 1979 Non-fiction US
3 William Maxwell So Long, See You Tomorrow 1980 Fiction US
3 Norman Mailer The Executioner’s Song 1980 Fiction US
3 Umberto Eco The Name of the Rose 1980 Fiction Italy
3 Sam Shepard True West 1980 Drama US
3 Joy Kogawa Obasan 1981 Fiction Canada
3 James Merrill The Changing Light at Sandover 1982 Poetry US
3 Galway Kinnell Selected Poems 1982 Poetry US
3 Athol Fugard ‘Master Harold’ … and the Boys 1982 Drama South Africa
3 Alice Walker The Color Purple 1982 Fiction US
3 Elizabeth Bishop The Complete Poems: 1927-1979 1983 Poetry US
3 David Mamet Glengarry Glen Ross 1984 Drama US
3 William Gibson Neuromancer 1984 Fiction US
3 J. Anthony Lukas Common Ground: A Turbulent Decade in the Lives of Three American Families 1985 Non-fiction US
3 Anne Tyler The Accidental Tourist 1985 Fiction US
3 Tom Wolfe The Bonfire of the Vanities 1987 Fiction US
3 August Wilson Fences 1987 Drama US
3 James M. McPherson Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era 1988 Non-fiction US
3 Neil Sheehan A Bright Shining Lie: John Paul Vann and American in Vietnam  1988 Non-fiction US
3 Salman Rushdie The Satanic Verses 1988 Fiction India/UK
3 Tsitsi Dangaremba Nervous Conditions 1988 Fiction Zimbabwe
3 John Irving A Prayer for Owen Meany 1989 Fiction US
3 Elaine Pagels The Gnostic Gospels 1989 Non-fiction US
3 Kazuo Ishiguro The Remains of the Day 1989 Fiction UK
3 Bryce Courtenay The Power of One 1989 Fiction South Africa/Australia
3 Laura Esquivel Like Water for Chocolate 1989 Fiction Mexico
3 Amy Tan The Joy Luck Club 1989 Fiction US
3 Seamus Heaney New Selected Poems: 1966-1987 1990 Poetry Ireland
3 Michael Ondaatje The English Patient 1992 Fiction Canada
3 Haruki Murakami The Wind-Up Bird Chronicles 1994 Fiction Japan
3 Louis De Bernières Captain Corelli’s Mandolin  1994 Fiction UK
3 W.G. Sebald The Rings of Saturn 1995 Non-fiction Germany
3 Rohinton Mistry A Fine Balance 1995 Fiction Canada
3 Allen Ginsberg Poems, incl. Howl 1926-1997 Poetry US
3 Philip Roth The Human Stain 2000 Fiction US
3 Margaret Atwood The Blind Assassin 2000 Fiction Canada
3 W.G. Sebald Austerlitz 2001 Fiction Germany
3 Edward P. Jones The Known World 2003 Fiction US
3 J.K. Rowling The Harry Potter series 1997-2007 Fiction UK
3 Siddhartha Mukherjee The Emperor of All Maladies 2010 Non-fiction India/US

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